The Human Truth Foundation

Myanmar (Burma) (Union of Myanmar)

By Vexen Crabtree 2013


Comments:
FB, LJ

#myanmar_(burma)

Myanmar (Burma)
Union of Myanmar
StatusIndependent State
Social and Moral Index160th best
CapitalNaypyidaw
Land Area 653 290km21
LocationAsia
Population48.7m (2011)2
Life Expectancy66.12yrs (2017)3
GNI$4 943 (2017)4
ISO3166-1 CodesMM, MMR, 1045
Internet Domain.mm6
CurrencyKyat (MMK)7
Telephone+958

1. Overview

Various ethnic Burmese and ethnic minority city-states or kingdoms occupied the present borders through the 19th century. Over a period of 62 years (1824-1886), Britain conquered Burma and incorporated the country into its Indian Empire. Burma was administered as a province of India until 1937 when it became a separate, self-governing colony; in 1948, Burma attained independence from the Commonwealth. Gen. NE WIN dominated the government from 1962 to 1988, first as military ruler, then as self-appointed president, and later as political kingpin. In response to widespread civil unrest, NE WIN resigned in 1988, but within months the military crushed student-led protests and took power. Multiparty legislative elections in 1990 resulted in the main opposition party - the National League for Democracy (NLD) - winning a landslide victory. Instead of handing over power, the junta placed NLD leader (and Nobel Peace Prize recipient) AUNG SAN SUU KYI (ASSK) under house arrest from 1989 to 1995, 2000 to 2002, and from May 2003 to November 2010. In late September 2007, the ruling junta brutally suppressed protests over increased fuel prices led by prodemocracy activists and Buddhist monks, killing at least 13 people and arresting thousands for participating in the demonstrations. In early May 2008, Burma was struck by Cyclone Nargis, which left over 138,000 dead and tens of thousands injured and homeless. Despite this tragedy, the junta proceeded with its May constitutional referendum, the first vote in Burma since 1990. Parliamentary elections held in November 2010, considered flawed by many in the international community, saw the ruling Union Solidarity and Development Party garner over 75% of the seats. Parliament convened in January 2011 and selected former Prime Minister THEIN SEIN as president. Although the vast majority of national-level appointees named by THEIN SEIN are former or current military officers, the government has initiated a series of political and economic reforms leading to a substantial opening of the long-isolated country. These reforms have included allowing ASSK to contest parliamentary by-elections on 1 April 2012, releasing hundreds of political prisoners, reaching preliminary peace agreements with 10 of the 11 major armed ethnic groups, enacting laws that provide better protections for basic human rights, and gradually reducing restrictions on freedom of the press, association, and civil society. At least due in part to these reforms, ASSK now serves as an elected Member of Parliament and chair of the Committee for Rule of Law and Tranquility. Most political parties have begun building their institutions in preparation for the next round of general elections in 2015. The country is preparing to chair the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) in 2014.

CIA's The World Factbook (2013)9

Book CoverNow is the moment to visit this extraordinary land, scattered with gilded pagodas, where the traditional ways of Asia endure and areas that were previously off-limits are opening up. Turn back the clock in this time-warped country that´s a world apart from the rest of Southeast Asia. Travelling in Myanmar is a chance to swap the hubbub and electronic demands of modern life for the calm of gilded temples and ancient monasteries.Enjoy slowly unfolding journeys through serene landscapes including meandering rivers, lush jungles, ethnic minority villages and pristine palm-fringed beaches.

Democracy champion Aung San Suu Kyi is free from house arrest and the tourism boycott has been lifted.

Myanmar remains a troubled land and it´s up to you to decide whether to visit or not. Keep in mind that the long-suffering people are gentle, humorous, engaging, considerate, inquisitive and passionate; they want to play a part in the world and to know what you make of their world. Come with your mind open and you´ll leave with your heart full.

"The World" by Lonely Planet (2014)10

2. Myanmar (Burma) National and Social Development

#economics #human_development

UN HDI (2016)11
Pos.Lower is better
Rank11
1Norway1
2Australia2
3Switzerland2
...
142Sao Tome & Principe142
143Cambodia143
144Nepal144
145Myanmar (Burma)145
146Kenya146
147Pakistan147
148Swaziland148
149Syria149
World Avg94.3
q=188.
Gross National Income Per-Capita (2011)12
Pos.Higher is better
PPP $12
1Qatar$129 916
2Singapore$78 162
3Kuwait$76 075
...
136Laos$5 049
137Pakistan$5 031
138Moldova$5 026
139Myanmar (Burma)$4 943
140Nicaragua$4 747
141Honduras$4 466
142Marshall Islands$4 412
143Sudan$3 846
World Avg$17 240
q=193.
Social & Moral
Development Index
13,14
Pos.Lower is better
Avg Rank13,14
1Denmark28.3
2Norway29.1
3Finland29.7
...
155Nigeria113.0
156Pakistan113.2
157Gambia113.4
158Myanmar (Burma)113.5
159Ivory Coast113.8
160N. Korea113.9
161Sao Tome & Principe114.4
162Gabon114.6
World Avg86.9
q=195.

The United Nations produces an annual Human Development Report which includes the Human Development Index. The factors taken into account include life expectancy, education and schooling and Gross National Income (GNI) amongst many others..

The Social and Moral Development Index concentrates on moral issues and human rights, violence, public health, equality, tolerance, freedom and effectiveness in climate change mitigation and environmentalism, and on some technological issues. A country scores higher for achieving well in those areas, and for sustaining that achievement in the long term. Those countries towards the top of this index can truly said to be setting good examples and leading humankind onwards into a bright, humane, and free future. See: Which are the Best Countries in the World? The Social and Moral Development Index.

3. Myanmar (Burma)'s Demographics

#birth_control #demographics #health #immigration #life_expectancy #longevity #overpopulation #population

Population:

Myanmar (Burma)'s population is predicted to rise to 54.33 million by 2030. This rise is despite a low fertility rate, meaning, that this country is helping to alleviate problems with growing population in neighbouring countries by accepting immigrants, very likely as a requirement of maintaining an active workforce. This country has a fertility rate of 1.95. The fertility rate is, in simple terms, the average amount of children that each woman has. The higher the figure, the quicker the population is growing, although, to calculate the rate you also need to take into account morbidity, i.e., the rate at which people die. If people live healthy and long lives and morbidity is low, then, 2.0 approximates to the replacement rate, which would keep the population stable. If all countries had such a fertility rate, population growth would end. The actual replacement rate in most developed countries is around 2.1.

Population (2012)15
Pos.
Population15
1China1.4b
2India1.3b
3USA315.8m
...
22UK62.8m
23Italy61.0m
24S. Africa50.7m
25Myanmar (Burma)48.7m
26S. Korea48.6m
27Tanzania47.7m
28Colombia47.6m
29Spain46.8m
World Avg36.0m
q=195.
Life Expectancy (2015)12
Pos.Higher is better
Years12
1Hong Kong84.16
2Japan83.68
3Italy83.34
...
138Guyana66.50
139Pakistan66.37
140Kiribati66.23
141Myanmar (Burma)66.12
142Turkmenistan65.73
143Madagascar65.52
144Tanzania65.51
145Namibia65.06
World Avg71.27
q=190.
Fertility Rate (2013)16
Pos.2.0 is best16
1N. Korea2.00
2Brunei1.99
3St Vincent & Grenadines2.01
4France1.99
5Turkey2.04
6Australia1.96
7Uruguay2.05
8Norway1.95
9Myanmar (Burma)1.95
10Indonesia2.07
11Sweden1.93
12Tunisia1.93
World Avg2.81
q=180.
Old-Age Dependency Ratio (2016)17
Pos.Lower is better
Per 10017
1Uganda04.3
2Mali04.5
3Chad04.7
...
84Tonga11.9
85Kyrgyzstan12.1
86Indonesia12.4
87Myanmar (Burma)12.5
88India12.5
89Bolivia12.7
90Nicaragua13.1
91Paraguay13.2
World Avg18.3
q=185.

Migration:

Immigrants (2010)18
Pos.
%18
1Qatar86.5%
2Monaco71.6%
3UAE70.0%
...
182Somalia0.2%
183Colombia0.2%
184Madagascar0.2%
185Myanmar (Burma)0.2%
186N. Korea0.2%
187Morocco0.2%
188Cuba0.1%
189Peru0.1%
World Avg9.2%
q=192.
Emigrants (2010)18
Pos.
%18
1Dominica104.8%
2Palestine68.4%
3Samoa67.3%
...
172Mongolia1.2%
173Kenya1.1%
174Indonesia1.1%
175Myanmar (Burma)1.0%
176Solomon Islands1.0%
177India0.9%
178Papua New Guinea0.9%
179USA0.8%
World Avg11.5%
q=192.

4. Human Rights, Equality & Tolerance

#china #equality #freedom #human_rights #islam #myanmar #Myanmar_(Burma) #politics #tolerance

Myanmar (Burma) is amongst the worst places in the world at ensuring human rights and freedom, and it has severe cultural issues when it comes to tolerance and equality. Myanmar (Burma) does better than average in the year from which women could participate in democracy. However Myanmar (Burma) performs less well in most areas. It does worse than average in terms of opposing gender inequality19 and in supporting press freedom20. And finally, it sits amongst the bottom 20 in commentary in Human Rights Watch reports21, eliminating modern slavery22, supporting personal, civil & economic freedoms23 (amongst the highest in Asia) and in its nominal commitment to Human Rights24 (one of the lowest in Asia). After attacks on security force outposts by Arakan Rohingya Salvation Army (ARSA) militants, in 2017, the Burmese military "launched a large-scale ethnic cleansing campaign against the Rohingya Muslim population" and engaged in widespread crimes against humanity25. Human rights are poorly defended because of Burma's "weak rule of law, corrupt judiciary, and unwillingness to prosecute members of the security forces"25. Despite all this, China continued to strengthen economic ties to Burma and actively shielded its government from international action25.

For tables, charts and commentary, see:

5. Myanmar (Burma)'s Health

#alcohol #birth_control #demographics #health #life_expectancy #longevity #Myanmar_(Burma) #obesity #overpopulation #parenting #population #smoking #vaccines

Health (2020)26,27
Pos.Lower is better
Avg Rank26,27
1Hong Kong18.0
2Singapore41.5
3Maldives43.3
...
37Cuba76.4
38UAE76.6
39Antigua & Barbuda77.7
40Myanmar (Burma)78.3
41Belgium78.4
42Eritrea78.4
43Nepal78.6
44Bahrain79.0
45India79.1
World Avg92.3
q=187.

The countries with the best overall approach to public health, in terms of both public policy and individual lifestyle choices, are Hong Kong, Singapore and The Maldives26. These countries are worth emulating. And, although often through no fault of the average citizen, the worst countries are S. Sudan, Nigeria and Equatorial Guinea26.

The data sets used to calculate points for each country are its average life expectancy, its alcohol consumption rate, its fertility rate, its smoking rate, its suicide rate, its food aid and health contributions and WHO compliance, the prevalence of overweight adults, its adolescent birth rate and its immunizations take-up. The regions with the best average results per country are Scandinavia, Asia and Europe, whereas the worst are Africa, Micronesia and Polynesia.

Health:

Myanmar (Burma) does relatively well in encouraging good health, compared to many other countries. Myanmar (Burma) does better than average in its smoking rate28, its adolescent birth rate19, its fertility rate16 and in its alcohol consumption rate29 (but bad for Asia). Myanmar (Burma) does not succeed in everything, however. It does worse than average in terms of its average life expectancy12 (one of the lowest in Asia) and in its immunizations take-up30. The number of overweight adults has increased by 14% during the last 40 years.
Life Expectancy (2015)12
Pos.Higher is better
Years12
1Hong Kong84.16
2Japan83.68
3Italy83.34
...
138Guyana66.50
139Pakistan66.37
140Kiribati66.23
141Myanmar (Burma)66.12
142Turkmenistan65.73
143Madagascar65.52
144Tanzania65.51
145Namibia65.06
World Avg71.27
q=190.
Alcohol Consumption (2016)29
Pos.Lower is better
Per Capita29
1Bangladesh0.0
2Kuwait0.0
3Libya0.0
...
74Bolivia4.8
75Costa Rica4.8
76Guinea-Bissau4.8
77Myanmar (Burma)4.8
78Zambia4.8
79Zimbabwe4.8
80Lesotho5.0
81Suriname5.1
World Avg6.2
q=189.
Fertility Rate (2013)16
Pos.2.0 is best16
1N. Korea2.00
2Brunei1.99
3St Vincent & Grenadines2.01
4France1.99
5Turkey2.04
6Australia1.96
7Uruguay2.05
8Norway1.95
9Myanmar (Burma)1.95
10Indonesia2.07
11Sweden1.93
12Tunisia1.93
World Avg2.81
q=180.
Smoking Rates (2014)28
Pos.Higher is worse28
182Montenegro4 125
181Belarus3 831
180Lebanon3 023
...
47Maldives 215
46Burkina Faso 213
45Madagascar 206
44Myanmar (Burma) 206
43Ecuador 191
42Guatemala 190
41Cameroon 184
40Central African Rep. 178
World Avg 819
q=182.
Overweight Adults (2016)31
Pos.Lower is better
%31
1Vietnam18.3
2India19.7
3Bangladesh20.0
...
15Sri Lanka23.3
16Malawi23.4
17Madagascar23.9
18Myanmar (Burma)24.8
19Rwanda25.1
20Congo, DR25.3
21Laos25.4
22Kenya25.5
World Avg49.0
q=191.

Children's Health:

Adolescent Birth Rate (2015)19
Pos.Lower is better
Per 100019
1N. Korea0.5
2S. Korea1.6
3Switzerland2.9
...
51Tonga15.2
52Mongolia15.7
53Turkmenistan16.4
54Myanmar (Burma)16.5
55Malta16.6
56Kiribati17.2
57Macedonia17.6
58Uzbekistan17.7
World Avg47.9
q=185.
Infant Immunizations 2011-2015 (2015)30
Pos.Higher is better
Avg %30
1Hungary99.0
2China99.0
3Uzbekistan98.9
...
152Marshall Islands81.8
153Mozambique81.4
154Venezuela80.6
155Myanmar (Burma)80.3
156Benin80.1
157Guinea-Bissau80.1
158Tonga80.0
159Mauritania79.9
World Avg88.3
q=194.

6. Myanmar (Burma)'s Modernity and Learning

#education #modernity #politics #research #science #technology #the_internet

Modernity and Learning (2020)32
Pos.Lower is better
Avg Rank32
1Finland8.0
2Belgium9.1
3Denmark10.0
...
148Gabon100.2
149Swaziland100.4
150Angola101.3
151Myanmar (Burma)103.8
152Burundi104.2
153Turkmenistan104.4
154Bangladesh104.4
155Tanzania105.3
156Honduras105.3
World Avg69.0
q=180.

Modernity and Education:

Research and Development (2016)
Pos.Higher is better
% RDP PPP
1S. Korea4.2933
2Israel4.1133
3Japan3.5833
...
106Burundi0.1234
107Madagascar0.1134
108Philippines0.1135
109Myanmar (Burma)0.1136
110Peru0.1037
111Paraguay0.0938
112Congo, DR0.0839
113Indonesia0.0840
World Avg0.84
q=126.
Secondary Education (2018)41
Pos.Higher is better41
1Luxembourg100.0%
2Estonia100.0%
3Austria100.0%
...
148Sierra Leone26.3%
149Ivory Coast26.1%
150Afghanistan26.1%
151Myanmar (Burma)25.8%
152Central African Rep.22.1%
153Malawi21.8%
154Cambodia21.3%
155Mozambique19.3%
World Avg63.0%
q=169.
Length of Schooling (2018)42
Pos.Higher is better
Years42
1Australia22.1
2Belgium19.7
3Finland19.3
...
160Guinea-Bissau10.5
161Zimbabwe10.5
162Madagascar10.4
163Myanmar (Burma)10.3
164Solomon Islands10.2
165Honduras10.2
166Sierra Leone10.2
167Afghanistan10.1
World Avg13.2
q=193.

Technology and Information:

Internet Users (2016)43
Pos.Higher is better43
1Iceland100%
2Faroe Islands99%
3Norway98%
...
191Congo, DR4%
192Guinea-Bissau4%
193Chad3%
194Myanmar (Burma)3%
195Sierra Leone2%
196Niger2%
197Guinea2%
198Somalia2%
World Avg48.1%
q=201.
Freedom On The Internet (2012)44
Pos.Lower is better44
1Estonia10
2USA12
3Germany15
...
39Saudi Arabia71
40Vietnam73
41Ethiopia75
42Myanmar (Burma)75
43Uzbekistan77
44Syria83
45China85
46Cuba86
World Avg46.7
q=47.
IPv6 Uptake (2017)45
Pos.Higher is better
Ratio45
1Belgium55.4
2Germany41.8
3Switzerland35.1
...
129Guyana0.0
130Namibia0.0
131Tonga0.0
132Myanmar (Burma)0.0
133Morocco0.0
134Timor-Leste (E. Timor)0.0
135Honduras0.0
136Syria0.0
World Avg3.82
q=176.

7. National Culture

#charity #corruption #happiness #morals #politics

Personal Charitability
(World Position, 2013-2016)
46
Pos.Lower is better46
1Myanmar (Burma)1.25
2USA1.5
3New Zealand3.5
4Canada3.75
5Australia5.25
6UK6.75
7Ireland6.75
8Sri Lanka8
9Qatar9
10Trinidad & Tobago10
11Netherlands10
12UAE12
World Avg68.1185897435897
q=156.
Corruption (2012-2016)47
Pos.Higher is better
Avg Score47
1Denmark90.8
2New Zealand90.6
3Finland89.4
...
153Tajikistan23.6
154Congo, (Brazzaville)22.8
155Congo, DR21.6
156Myanmar (Burma)21.4
157Zimbabwe21.0
158Cambodia21.0
159Chad20.4
160Burundi20.2
World Avg43.05
q=176.
Happiness (2018)48
Pos.Higher is better48
1Finland7.6
2Norway7.6
3Denmark7.6
...
127Ethiopia4.4
128Georgia4.3
129Armenia4.3
130Myanmar (Burma)4.3
131Chad4.3
132Congo, DR4.2
133India4.2
134Niger4.2
World Avg5.38
q=156.

8. Peace Versus Instability

#extremism #human_development #peace #politics #religious_violence #terrorism

Global Peace Index (2012)49
Pos.Lower is better49
1Iceland1.11
2New Zealand1.24
3Denmark1.24
...
135Lebanon2.46
136Ethiopia2.50
137Burundi2.52
138Myanmar (Burma)2.53
139Zimbabwe2.54
140Georgia2.54
141India2.55
142Yemen2.60
World Avg2.02
q=157.
Impact of Terrorism (2019)50
Pos.Lower is better
Score50
1Togo0.00
2Mongolia0.00
3Swaziland0.00
...
122Ethiopia5.35
123UK5.41
124Burkina Faso5.42
125Myanmar (Burma)5.51
126Mozambique5.54
127Ukraine5.55
128Niger5.60
129USA5.69
World Avg2.78
q=150.

9. The Natural Environment

#biodiversity #climate_change #over-exploitation #the_environment

Forest Area Change 1990-2015 (2015)51
Pos.Higher is better
%51
1Iceland205.6
2Bahrain144.4
3Uruguay131.3
...
164Nepal-24.7
165Benin-25.2
166Guatemala-25.4
167Myanmar (Burma)-25.9
168Cambodia-26.9
169Chad-27.3
170Paraguay-27.6
171Timor-Leste (E. Timor)-29.0
World Avg02.8
q=184.
Environmental Performance (2018)52
Pos.Higher is better52
1Switzerland87.4
2France84.0
3Denmark81.6
...
135Mozambique46.4
136Uzbekistan45.9
137Chad45.3
138Myanmar (Burma)45.3
139Ivory Coast45.3
140Gabon45.1
141Ethiopia44.8
142S. Africa44.7
World Avg56.4
q=180.
Convention on Biological Diversity
Pos.Earlier is better
Signed
1China1993 Dec 29
2Guinea1993 Dec 29
3Cook Islands1993 Dec 29
...
99Vietnam1995 Feb 14
100Switzerland1995 Feb 19
101Argentina1995 Feb 20
102Myanmar (Burma)1995 Feb 23
103Colombia1995 Feb 26
104Ivory Coast1995 Feb 27
105Congo, DR1995 Mar 03
106Equatorial Guinea1995 Mar 06
World Avg1899 Dec 30
q=197.

10. Religion and Beliefs

#buddhism #christianity #hinduism #islam #judaism #religion_in_south_africa #south_africa

Data from the Pew Forum, a professional polling outfit, states that in 2010 the religious makeup of this country was as follows in the table below53:

Christian7.8%
Muslim4%
Hindu1.7%
Buddhist80.1%
Folk Religion5.8%
Jew0.1%
Unaffiliated0.5%

The CIA World Factbook has slightly different data, and states: Buddhist 89%, Christian 4% (Baptist 3%, Roman Catholic 1%), Muslim 4%, animist 1%, other 2%54.

When it comes to religious freedom and persecution, sociologists Grim & Finke place Myanmar into the worst category, along with just 13 other countries. In this category, severe restrictions on religious freedom and freedom of belief stem simultaneously from top-down pressure from government and institutionalized religion, and from bottom-up grassroots movements that often go even further than the government in harrassing those who do not believe the right things (2011)55.

"Religious minorities, including Hindus, Christians, and Muslims, continue to face threats and persecution in a country that is approximately 88 percent Buddhist [and in] Sagaing Region, a Buddhist mob attacked Christian worshippers, destroying homes and personal property" although the government has taken some steps to stop extremists.56

Freedom of Religion and Belief: In this 88% Buddhist country, minorities such as Hindus, Christians and Muslims face "threats and persecution", and their religious activities are "tightly regulated", even in their own homes25.

Links: