The Human Truth Foundation

Tunisia (Tunisian Republic)

By Vexen Crabtree 2013

#tunisia

Tunisia
Tunisian Republic
StatusIndependent State
Social and Moral Index65th best
CapitalTunis
Land Area 155 360km21
LocationAfrica, The Mediterranean
Population11.6m2
Life Expectancy74.98yrs (2017)3
GNI$10 249 (2017)4
ISO3166-1 CodesTN, TUN, 7885
Internet Domain.tn6
CurrencyDinar (TND)7
Telephone+2168

1. Overview

Rivalry between French and Italian interests in Tunisia culminated in a French invasion in 1881 and the creation of a protectorate. Agitation for independence in the decades following World War I was finally successful in getting the French to recognize Tunisia as an independent state in 1956. The country's first president, Habib BOURGUIBA, established a strict one-party state. He dominated the country for 31 years, repressing Islamic fundamentalism and establishing rights for women unmatched by any other Arab nation. In November 1987, BOURGUIBA was removed from office and replaced by Zine el Abidine BEN ALI in a bloodless coup. Street protests that began in Tunis in December 2010 over high unemployment, corruption, widespread poverty, and high food prices escalated in January 2011, culminating in rioting that led to hundreds of deaths. On 14 January 2011, the same day BEN ALI dismissed the government, he fled the country, and by late January 2011, a "national unity government" was formed. Elections for the new Constituent Assembly were held in late October 2011, and in December, it elected human rights activist Moncef MARZOUKI as interim president. The Assembly began drafting a new constitution in February 2012, and released a second working draft in December 2012. The interim government has proposed presidential and parliamentary elections be held in 2013.

CIA's The World Factbook (2013)9

Book CoverFrom the sands of the Sahara to golden-hued beaches, tangled Tunis alleys to scattered Roman ruins, Tunisia is a country that intrigues and charms at every turn. It´s but a slim wedge of North Africa´s vast expanse, but Tunisia has enough history, cultural diversity and extremes of landscape to fill a country many times its size. With a sand-fringed, jasmine-scented coast, it´s a destination usually equated with Mediterranean sun holidays. But get beyond the beaches and you´ll find stunning Roman sites, forested hinterland, Saharan dunes and mountain oases, all of which can be experienced in a few days.

The country´s tourist sector has struggled mightily since the historic Jasmine Revolution of 2011. Isolated incidents of instability grab international headlines, but it´s essentially business as usual. Tunis, the capital, continues to offer an enthralling mix of tradition and modernity, Islamic serenity and seaside hedonism. Surprisingly, while much of the tourist industry founders, there´s a number of new guesthouses and small hotels popping up throughout the country. Now, more than ever, Tunisians will welcome you with open arms.

"The World" by Lonely Planet (2014)10

2. Tunisia National and Social Development

#economics #human_development

UN HDI (2016)11
Pos.Lower is better
Rank11
1Norway1
2Australia2
3Switzerland2
...
95Colombia95
96Dominica96
97Suriname97
98Tunisia97
99Dominican Rep.99
100St Vincent & Grenadines99
101Tonga101
102Libya102
World Avg94.3
q=188.
Gross National Income Per-Capita (2011)12
Pos.Higher is better
PPP $12
1Qatar$129 916
2Singapore$78 162
3Kuwait$76 075
...
97Maldives$10 383
98St Vincent & Grenadines$10 372
99Albania$10 252
100Tunisia$10 249
101Jordan$10 111
102Dominica$10 096
103Bosnia & Herzegovina$10 091
104Egypt$10 064
World Avg$17 240
q=193.
Social & Moral
Development Index
13,14
Pos.Lower is better
Avg Rank13,14
1Taiwan30.2
2Denmark30.5
3Norway30.9
...
62Cuba76.2
63Macedonia76.4
64Trinidad & Tobago76.4
65Tunisia76.9
66Panama76.9
67Turkey77.4
68Ecuador77.4
69Montenegro77.4
World Avg86.4
q=195.

The United Nations produces an annual Human Development Report which includes the Human Development Index. The factors taken into account include life expectancy, education and schooling and Gross National Income (GNI) amongst many others..

The Social and Moral Development Index concentrates on moral issues and human rights, violence, public health, equality, tolerance, freedom and effectiveness in climate change mitigation and environmentalism, and on some technological issues. A country scores higher for achieving well in those areas, and for sustaining that achievement in the long term. Those countries towards the top of this index can truly said to be setting good examples and leading humankind onwards into a bright, humane, and free future. See: Which are the Best Countries in the World? The Social and Moral Development Index.

3. Tunisia's Demographics

#birth_control #demographics #health #immigration #life_expectancy #longevity #migration #overpopulation #population

Population:

Tunisia's population is predicted to rise to 12.21 million by 2030. This rise is despite a low fertility rate, meaning, that this country is helping to alleviate problems with growing population in neighbouring countries by accepting immigrants, very likely as a requirement of maintaining an active workforce. This country has a fertility rate of 1.93. The fertility rate is, in simple terms, the average amount of children that each woman has. The higher the figure, the quicker the population is growing, although, to calculate the rate you also need to take into account morbidity, i.e., the rate at which people die. If people live healthy and long lives and morbidity is low, then, 2.0 approximates to the replacement rate, which would keep the population stable. If all countries had such a fertility rate, population growth would end. The actual replacement rate in most developed countries is around 2.1.

Population (2018)2
Pos.
Population2
1China1.4b
2India1.4b
3USA327.1m
...
73Zimbabwe14.4m
74Guinea12.4m
75Rwanda12.3m
76Tunisia11.6m
77Benin11.5m
78Belgium11.5m
79Bolivia11.4m
80Cuba11.3m
World Avg39.0m
q=195.
Life Expectancy (2015)12
Pos.Higher is better
Years12
1Hong Kong84.16
2Japan83.68
3Italy83.34
...
70Sri Lanka75.05
71Algeria75.03
72Georgia75.02
73Tunisia74.98
74Malaysia74.90
75Armenia74.89
76Romania74.84
77Peru74.81
World Avg71.27
q=190.
Fertility Rate (2013)15
Pos.2.0 is best15
1N. Korea2.00
2Brunei1.99
3St Vincent & Grenadines2.01
...
9Myanmar (Burma)1.95
10Indonesia2.07
11Sweden1.93
12Tunisia1.93
13St Lucia1.93
14USA2.08
15Ireland2.10
16Iceland2.10
World Avg2.81
q=180.
Old-Age Dependency Ratio (2016)16
Pos.Lower is better
Per 10016
1Uganda04.3
2Mali04.5
3Chad04.7
...
110N. Korea17.8
111Turkey18.0
112Vietnam18.3
113Tunisia18.6
114Azerbaijan18.7
115Colombia18.8
116Antigua & Barbuda19.0
117St Vincent & Grenadines19.7
World Avg18.3
q=185.

Migration:

Immigrants (2017)17
Pos.
%17
1UAE88.4%
2Kuwait75.5%
3Qatar65.2%
...
167Nigeria0.6%
168Algeria0.6%
169Mongolia0.6%
170Tunisia0.5%
171Egypt0.5%
172Guatemala0.5%
173Cambodia0.5%
174Honduras0.4%
World Avg9.4%
q=195.
Emigrants (2010)18
Pos.
%18
1Dominica104.8%
2Palestine68.4%
3Samoa67.3%
...
90Slovenia6.5%
91Kiribati6.5%
92Bhutan6.3%
93Tunisia6.3%
94Finland6.2%
95Singapore6.1%
96Guatemala6.1%
97Brunei6.0%
World Avg11.5%
q=192.

4. Human Rights, Equality & Tolerance

#equality #freedom #human_rights #politics #tolerance #tunisia

Tunisia is generally poor at ensuring human rights and freedom compared to the rest of the world. Tunisia comes in the best 20 for speed of uptake of HR treaties19 (the best in Africa). It does better than average in terms of commentary in Human Rights Watch reports20 (one of the best in Africa), opposing gender inequality21 (one of the best in Africa) and in its nominal commitment to Human Rights22. Since finally removing the authoritarian Zine el-Abidine Ben Ali, Tunisia has made some progress in supporting women's rights and improving detainee procedures23. From 2016, the Truth and Dignity Commission began hearing and airing complaints against human rights abuses23, helping to foster new era of dignity and responsibility towards fellow humans, although it has so far avoided the most serious kinds of complaints (for example, torture and high-level corruption). The 2014 constitution upholds many "key civil, political, social, economic, and cultural rights"23. Tunisia does not succeed in everything, however. It does worse than average in terms of supporting personal, civil & economic freedoms24 and in supporting press freedom25. And finally, it sits amongst the bottom 20 in its success in fighting anti-semitic prejudice26 (one of the highest in Africa) and in LGBT equality27. Some recent changes are worrying; granting amnesty for state officials previously accused of corruption23 can only ever cause further corruption in the future, leading to degradation of national life. The needless discriminatory law that criminalizes sodomy continues to result in prison spaces being filled by people who have done nothing other than conduct private and consensual sexual relations23.

For tables, charts and commentary, see:

5. Tunisia's Health

#alcohol #birth_control #demographics #health #life_expectancy #longevity #obesity #overpopulation #parenting #population #smoking #Tunisia #vaccines

Health (2020)28,29
Pos.Lower is better
Avg Rank28,29
1Hong Kong18.0
2Singapore41.5
3Maldives43.3
...
45India79.1
46Cyprus79.3
47Slovenia79.8
48Tunisia80.0
49Slovakia80.1
50Israel80.8
51UK80.9
52Hungary81.0
53Brazil81.0
World Avg92.3
q=187.

The countries with the best overall approach to public health, in terms of both public policy and individual lifestyle choices, are Hong Kong, Singapore and The Maldives28. These countries are worth emulating. And, although often through no fault of the average citizen, the worst countries are S. Sudan, Nigeria and Equatorial Guinea28.

The data sets used to calculate points for each country are its average life expectancy, its alcohol consumption rate, its fertility rate, its smoking rate, its suicide rate, its food aid and health contributions and WHO compliance, the prevalence of overweight adults, its adolescent birth rate and its immunizations take-up. The regions with the best average results per country are Scandinavia, Asia and Europe28, whereas the worst are Africa, Micronesia and Polynesia28.

Health:

Tunisia does relatively well in encouraging good health, compared to many other countries. Tunisia does better than average in its adolescent birth rate21 (amongst the lowest in Africa), its alcohol consumption rate30, its immunizations take-up31, its fertility rate15 (one of the lowest in Africa) and in its average life expectancy12 (one of the best in Africa). Tunisia does not succeed in everything, however. It does worse than average in terms of its food aid and health contributions and WHO compliance32 (still good for Africa) and in its smoking rate33 (the worst in Africa). The prevalence of overweight adults has increased by 14% during the past 40 years.
Life Expectancy (2015)12
Pos.Higher is better
Years12
1Hong Kong84.16
2Japan83.68
3Italy83.34
...
70Sri Lanka75.05
71Algeria75.03
72Georgia75.02
73Tunisia74.98
74Malaysia74.90
75Armenia74.89
76Romania74.84
77Peru74.81
World Avg71.27
q=190.
Alcohol Consumption (2016)30
Pos.Lower is better
Per Capita30
1Bangladesh0.0
2Kuwait0.0
3Libya0.0
...
37Chad1.6
38Tuvalu1.7
39Madagascar1.9
40Tunisia1.9
41Bahrain1.9
42Qatar2.0
43Nepal2.0
44Singapore2.0
World Avg6.2
q=189.
Fertility Rate (2013)15
Pos.2.0 is best15
1N. Korea2.00
2Brunei1.99
3St Vincent & Grenadines2.01
...
9Myanmar (Burma)1.95
10Indonesia2.07
11Sweden1.93
12Tunisia1.93
13St Lucia1.93
14USA2.08
15Ireland2.10
16Iceland2.10
World Avg2.81
q=180.
Smoking Rates (2014)33
Pos.Higher is worse33
182Montenegro4 125
181Belarus3 831
180Lebanon3 023
...
160Cyprus1 688
159Serbia1 644
158Switzerland1 634
157Tunisia1 628
156Romania1 620
155Slovakia1 618
154Turkey1 581
153Armenia1 545
World Avg 819
q=182.
Food Aid, Health Contributions & WHO Compliance (2017)32
Pos.Lower is better
Rank32
1Sweden1
2Ireland2
3Denmark3
...
89Azerbaijan89
90Uganda90
91Chile91
92Tunisia92
93Bahrain93
94Philippines94
95Bosnia & Herzegovina95
96Namibia96
World Avg82.0
q=163.
Overweight Adults (2016)34
Pos.Lower is better
%34
1Vietnam18.3
2India19.7
3Bangladesh20.0
...
146Spain61.6
147Hungary61.6
148Costa Rica61.6
149Tunisia61.6
150Iran61.6
151Bulgaria61.7
152Algeria62.0
153Greece62.3
World Avg49.0
q=191.

Children's Health:

Adolescent Birth Rate (2015)21
Pos.Lower is better
Per 100021
1N. Korea0.5
2S. Korea1.6
3Switzerland2.9
...
17Finland6.5
18Germany6.7
19Maldives6.7
20Tunisia6.8
21Austria7.1
22China7.3
23Greece7.5
24Oman8.1
World Avg47.9
q=185.
Infant Immunizations 2011-2015 (2015)31
Pos.Higher is better
Avg %31
1Hungary99.0
2China99.0
3Uzbekistan98.9
...
50Malaysia96.0
51Croatia95.9
52Nicaragua95.9
53Tunisia95.7
54Japan95.7
55Portugal95.7
56Qatar95.6
57Armenia95.6
World Avg88.3
q=194.

6. Tunisia's Modernity and Learning

#education #english #intelligence #maths #modernity #politics #religion #research #science #technology #the_internet

Modernity and Learning (2020)35
Pos.Lower is better
Avg Rank35
1Finland8.0
2Belgium9.1
3Denmark10.0
...
66Iran60.9
67China61.4
68Kazakhstan61.4
69Tunisia62.3
70Peru62.3
71Colombia62.4
72Georgia62.8
73Trinidad & Tobago62.9
74Albania64.1
World Avg69.0
q=180.

Modernity and Education:

Research and Development (2016)
Pos.Higher is better
% RDP PPP
1S. Korea4.2936
2Israel4.1136
3Japan3.5836
...
45S. Africa0.7337
46Serbia0.7338
47Hong Kong0.7337
48Tunisia0.6837
49Egypt0.6838
50Belarus0.6738
51Mali0.6639
52Bulgaria0.6538
World Avg0.84
q=126.
Secondary Education (2018)40
Pos.Higher is better40
1Luxembourg100.0%
2Estonia100.0%
3Austria100.0%
...
105Costa Rica52.9%
106Colombia52.0%
107Ecuador51.9%
108Tunisia51.8%
109India51.6%
110Kuwait51.5%
111Congo, DR50.7%
112Macedonia49.8%
World Avg63.0%
q=169.
Length of Schooling (2018)41
Pos.Higher is better
Years41
1Australia22.1
2Belgium19.7
3Finland19.3
...
50Barbados15.2
51Hungary15.1
52San Marino15.1
53Tunisia15.1
54Ukraine15.1
55Montenegro15.0
56Mauritius15.0
57Croatia15.0
World Avg13.2
q=193.
Intellectual Endeavours (2017)32
Pos.Lower is better
Rank32
1Ukraine1
2Czechia2
3Hungary3
...
69Senegal69
70China70
71Burundi71
72Tunisia72
73Timor-Leste (E. Timor)73
74Chile74
75Argentina75
76Costa Rica76
World Avg82.0
q=163.
Maths, Science & Reading (2015)42
Pos.Higher is better
Score42
1Singapore1655
2Hong Kong1598
3Japan1586
...
63Brazil1185
64Peru1182
65Lebanon1129
66Tunisia1114
67Macedonia1107
68Kosovo1087
69Algeria1086
70Dominican Rep.1018
World Avg1389
q=70.
Religiosity (2009)43
Pos.Lower is better
%43
1Estonia16
2Sweden17
3Denmark19
...
77Paraguay92
78Saudi Arabia93
79Sudan93
80Tunisia93
81Uganda93
82Palestine93
83Nepal93
84Bahrain94
World Avg75.1
q=114.
IQ (2006)44
Pos.Higher is better44
1Hong Kong108
2Singapore108
3S. Korea106
...
86Saudi Arabia84
87Algeria83
88Libya83
89Tunisia83
90Oman83
91Syria83
92India82
93Bangladesh82
World Avg85.6
q=138.

Technology and Information:

Internet Users (2016)45
Pos.Higher is better45
1Iceland100%
2Faroe Islands99%
3Norway98%
...
98Uzbekistan51%
99Armenia50%
100Iran49%
101Tunisia48%
102Moldova48%
103Paraguay47%
104Fiji47%
105Tonga47%
World Avg48.1%
q=201.
Freedom On The Internet (2012)46
Pos.Lower is better46
1Estonia10
2USA12
3Germany15
...
23Malaysia43
24Jordan45
25Turkey46
26Tunisia46
27Venezuela48
28Azerbaijan50
29Rwanda51
30Russia52
World Avg46.7
q=47.
IPv6 Uptake (2017)47
Pos.Higher is better
Ratio47
1Belgium55.4
2Germany41.8
3Switzerland35.1
...
115Kazakhstan0.0
116New Caledonia0.0
117Maldives0.0
118Tunisia0.0
119Tuvalu0.0
120Marshall Islands0.0
121Georgia0.0
122Swaziland0.0
World Avg3.82
q=176.

7. National Culture

#charity #corruption #happiness #morals #politics

Personal Charitability
(World Position, 2013-2016)
48
Pos.Lower is better48
1Myanmar (Burma)1.25
2USA1.5
3New Zealand3.5
...
139Georgia117.75
140Togo118
141Morocco119
142Tunisia121
143Montenegro121.75
144Bulgaria122
145Rwanda122.75
146Serbia125
World Avg68.1185897435897
q=156.
Corruption (2012-2016)49
Pos.Higher is better
Avg Score49
1Denmark90.8
2New Zealand90.6
3Finland89.4
...
76Bulgaria41.4
77Brazil41.2
78Serbia40.8
79Tunisia40.2
80Bosnia & Herzegovina40.0
81Jamaica38.8
82Burkina Faso38.8
83China38.4
World Avg43.05
q=176.
Happiness (2018)50
Pos.Higher is better50
1Finland7.6
2Norway7.6
3Denmark7.6
...
108Ghana4.7
109Senegal4.6
110Laos4.6
111Tunisia4.6
112Albania4.6
113Sierra Leone4.6
114Congo, (Brazzaville)4.6
115Bangladesh4.5
World Avg5.38
q=156.
Creativity and Culture (2017)32
Pos.Lower is better
Rank32
1Belgium1
2Netherlands2
3Estonia3
...
90Peru90
91Jordan91
92Haiti92
93Tunisia93
94Papua New Guinea94
95Belarus95
96Mongolia96
97Madagascar97
World Avg82.0
q=163.
Open Trading, Aid and Development (2017)32
Pos.Lower is better
Rank32
1Ireland1
2Denmark2
3Sweden3
...
67Lesotho67
68Panama68
69New Zealand69
70Tunisia70
71Montenegro71
72Ukraine72
73Chile73
74Macedonia74
World Avg82.0
q=163.

8. Peace Versus Instability

#extremism #human_development #peace #politics #religious_violence #terrorism

Global Peace Index (2012)51
Pos.Lower is better51
1Iceland1.11
2New Zealand1.24
3Denmark1.24
...
69Guyana1.94
70Cuba1.95
71Ukraine1.95
72Tunisia1.96
73Cyprus1.96
74Gambia1.96
75Gabon1.97
76Paraguay1.97
World Avg2.02
q=157.
Peacekeeping and Security (2017)32
Pos.Lower is better
Rank32
1Samoa1
2S. Africa2
3Tunisia3
4Egypt4
5Nigeria5
6Uruguay6
7Indonesia7
8Brunei8
9Moldova9
10Morocco10
11Oman11
12Tanzania12
World Avg82.0
q=163.
Refugees and UN Treaties (2017)32
Pos.Lower is better
Rank32
1Austria1
2Germany2
3Netherlands3
...
104Armenia104
105Suriname105
106Namibia106
107Tunisia107
108Cape Verde108
109China109
110Kazakhstan110
111Jordan111
World Avg82.0
q=163.
Impact of Terrorism (2019)52
Pos.Lower is better
Score52
1Togo0.00
2Mongolia0.00
3Swaziland0.00
...
97Canada3.59
98Belgium3.64
99Angola3.78
100Tunisia3.94
101Tajikistan3.95
102Uganda3.96
103Mexico4.08
104Venezuela4.10
World Avg2.78
q=150.

9. The Natural Environment

#biodiversity #climate_change #over-exploitation #the_environment

Forest Area Change 1990-2015 (2015)53
Pos.Higher is better
%53
1Iceland205.6
2Bahrain144.4
3Uruguay131.3
4Kuwait81.2
5Dominican Rep.79.5
6Egypt65.9
7Vietnam65.6
8Ireland62.2
9Tunisia61.9
10Cuba56.9
11Cape Verde55.7
12Rwanda50.9
World Avg02.8
q=184.
Environmental Performance (2018)54
Pos.Higher is better54
1Switzerland87.4
2France84.0
3Denmark81.6
...
55Cuba63.4
56Panama62.7
57Tonga62.5
58Tunisia62.4
59Azerbaijan62.3
60S. Korea62.3
61Kuwait62.3
62Jordan62.2
World Avg56.4
q=180.
Energy to GDP Efficiency (2014)55
Pos.Higher is better55
1Hong Kong26.32
2Sri Lanka20.00
3Panama17.86
...
32Austria11.24
33Germany11.24
34Greece11.24
35Tunisia11.24
36Indonesia11.11
37Israel11.11
38Turkey11.11
39Azerbaijan10.87
World Avg09.29
q=119.
Convention on Biological Diversity
Pos.Earlier is better
Signed
1China1993 Dec 29
2Guinea1993 Dec 29
3Cook Islands1993 Dec 29
...
23Burkina Faso1993 Dec 29
24Bahamas1993 Dec 29
25St Lucia1993 Dec 29
26Tunisia1993 Dec 29
27Norway1993 Dec 29
28Zambia1993 Dec 29
29Australia1993 Dec 29
30Peru1993 Dec 29
World Avg1899 Dec 30
q=197.
Rational Beliefs on the Environment (2011)56
Pos.Higher is better
%56
1Argentina78.3%
2Greece77.6%
3Brazil77.1%
...
131Kuwait19.6%
132Zimbabwe19.6%
133Latvia19.5%
134Tunisia19.3%
135Czechia16.0%
136Estonia15.9%
137China15.1%
138Denmark14.9%
World Avg39.9%
q=145.

10. Economic Inequality and Poverty

#capitalism #economics #health #inequality #life_expectancy #poverty #social_development

Inequality in Life Expectancy (2019)57
Pos.Higher is worse57
184Chad40.90
183Central African Rep.40.10
182Sierra Leone39.00
...
76Mauritius9.40
75Iran9.20
74Libya9.10
73Tunisia9.00
72Turkey9.00
71Armenia8.70
70Barbados8.70
69Argentina8.60
World Avg14.59
q=184.
Income Inequality (Gini Coefficient) (2017)58
Pos.Lower is better
%58
1Ukraine25.0
2Belarus25.4
3Slovenia25.4
...
38France32.7
39Estonia32.7
40Nepal32.8
41Tunisia32.8
42Mali33.0
43Bosnia & Herzegovina33.0
44UK33.2
45Pakistan33.5
World Avg38.1
q=152.
Multidimensional Poverty (2018)59
Pos.Lower is better
Severity59
1Armenia.001
2Ukraine.001
3Serbia.001
...
11Thailand.003
12Moldova.004
13Palestine.004
14Tunisia.005
15St Lucia.007
16Libya.007
17Algeria.008
18Kyrgyzstan.008
World Avg.154
q=101.

11. Religion and Beliefs

#belief #buddhism #christianity #god #hinduism #islam #judaism #religion #tunisia

Religiosity (2009)43
Pos.Lower is better
%43
1Estonia16
2Sweden17
3Denmark19
...
77Paraguay92
78Saudi Arabia93
79Sudan93
80Tunisia93
81Uganda93
82Palestine93
83Nepal93
84Bahrain94
World Avg75.1
q=114.
Disbelief In God (2007)60
Pos.Higher is better
%60
1Vietnam81
2Japan65
3Sweden64
...
95Thailand0
96Togo0
97Benin0
98Tunisia0
99Uganda0
100Bangladesh0
101UAE0
102Azerbaijan0
World Avg9.9
q=137.

Data from the Pew Forum, a professional polling outfit, states that in 2010 the religious makeup of this country was as follows in the table below61:

Christian0.2%
Muslim99%
Hindu0.1%
Buddhist0.1%
Folk Religion0.1%
Jew0.1%
Unaffiliated0.2%

The CIA World Factbook has slightly different data, and states: Muslim (Islam - official) 98%, Christian 1%, Jewish and other 1%62.

Freedom of Religion and Belief:

Links: