The Human Truth Foundation

Tunisia (Tunisian Republic)

By Vexen Crabtree 2013


Comments:
FB, LJ

#charity #climate_change #economics #happiness #intelligence #morals #research #science #the_environment #tunisia

Tunisia
Tunisian Republic
StatusIndependent State
CapitalTunis
Land Area 155 360km21
LocationAfrica, Mediterranean
Population10.7m (2011)2
Life Expectancy74.98yrs (2017)3
GNI$10 249 (2017)4
ISO3166-1 CodesTN, TUN, 7885
Internet Domain.tn6
CurrencyDinar (TND)7
Telephone+2168

1. Overview

Rivalry between French and Italian interests in Tunisia culminated in a French invasion in 1881 and the creation of a protectorate. Agitation for independence in the decades following World War I was finally successful in getting the French to recognize Tunisia as an independent state in 1956. The country's first president, Habib BOURGUIBA, established a strict one-party state. He dominated the country for 31 years, repressing Islamic fundamentalism and establishing rights for women unmatched by any other Arab nation. In November 1987, BOURGUIBA was removed from office and replaced by Zine el Abidine BEN ALI in a bloodless coup. Street protests that began in Tunis in December 2010 over high unemployment, corruption, widespread poverty, and high food prices escalated in January 2011, culminating in rioting that led to hundreds of deaths. On 14 January 2011, the same day BEN ALI dismissed the government, he fled the country, and by late January 2011, a "national unity government" was formed. Elections for the new Constituent Assembly were held in late October 2011, and in December, it elected human rights activist Moncef MARZOUKI as interim president. The Assembly began drafting a new constitution in February 2012, and released a second working draft in December 2012. The interim government has proposed presidential and parliamentary elections be held in 2013.

CIA's The World Factbook (2013)9

Book CoverFrom the sands of the Sahara to golden-hued beaches, tangled Tunis alleys to scattered Roman ruins, Tunisia is a country that intrigues and charms at every turn. It´s but a slim wedge of North Africa´s vast expanse, but Tunisia has enough history, cultural diversity and extremes of landscape to fill a country many times its size. With a sand-fringed, jasmine-scented coast, it´s a destination usually equated with Mediterranean sun holidays. But get beyond the beaches and you´ll find stunning Roman sites, forested hinterland, Saharan dunes and mountain oases, all of which can be experienced in a few days.

The country´s tourist sector has struggled mightily since the historic Jasmine Revolution of 2011. Isolated incidents of instability grab international headlines, but it´s essentially business as usual. Tunis, the capital, continues to offer an enthralling mix of tradition and modernity, Islamic serenity and seaside hedonism. Surprisingly, while much of the tourist industry founders, there´s a number of new guesthouses and small hotels popping up throughout the country. Now, more than ever, Tunisians will welcome you with open arms.

"The World" by Lonely Planet (2014)10

2. Tunisia National and Social Development

#human_development

UN HDI (2016)11
Pos.Lower is better
Rank11
1Norway1
2Australia2
3Switzerland2
...
95Colombia95
96Dominica96
97Suriname97
98Tunisia97
99Dominican Rep.99
100St Vincent & Grenadines99
101Tonga101
102Libya102
World Avg94.3
q=188.
Social & Moral
Development Index
12
Pos.Higher is better
Points12
1Denmark83.6
2Finland83.1
3Sweden82.6
...
106Suriname52.8
107Turkmenistan52.7
108St Lucia52.7
109Tunisia52.2
110Belize52.0
111Cape Verde51.7
112St Vincent & Grenadines51.7
113India51.7
World Avg55.4
q=198.

The United Nations produces an annual Human Development Report which includes the Human Development Index. The factors taken into account include life expectancy, education and schooling and Gross National Income (GNI) amongst many others..

The Social and Moral Development Index concentrates on moral issues and human rights, violence, public health, equality, tolerance, freedom and effectiveness in climate change mitigation and environmentalism, and on some technological issues. A country scores higher for achieving well in those areas, and for sustaining that achievement in the long term. Those countries towards the top of this index can truly said to be setting good examples and leading humankind onwards into a bright, humane, and free future. See: What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life.

3. Population and Demographics

#birth_control #demographics #health #immigration #life_expectancy #longevity #overpopulation #population #Tunisia

Old-Age Dependency Ratio (2016)13
Pos.Lower is better
Per 10013
1Uganda04.3
2Mali04.5
3Chad04.7
...
110N. Korea17.8
111Turkey18.0
112Vietnam18.3
113Tunisia18.6
114Azerbaijan18.7
115Colombia18.8
116Antigua & Barbuda19.0
117St Vincent & Grenadines19.7
World Avg18.3
q=185.
Emigrants (2010)14
Pos.
%14
1Dominica104.8%
2Palestine68.4%
3Samoa67.3%
...
90Slovenia6.5%
91Kiribati6.5%
92Bhutan6.3%
93Tunisia6.3%
94Finland6.2%
95Singapore6.1%
96Guatemala6.1%
97Brunei6.0%
World Avg11.5%
q=192.

Fertility Rate (2013)15
Pos.2.0 is best15
1N. Korea2.00
2Brunei1.99
3St Vincent & Grenadines2.01
...
9Myanmar (Burma)1.95
10Indonesia2.07
11Sweden1.93
12Tunisia1.93
13St Lucia1.93
14USA2.08
15Ireland2.10
16Iceland2.10
World Avg2.81
q=180.

The fertility rate is, in simple terms, the average amount of children that each woman has. The higher the figure, the quicker the population is growing, although, to calculate the rate you also need to take into account morbidity, i.e., the rate at which people die. If people live healthy and long lives and morbidity is low, then, 2.0 approximates to the replacement rate, which would keep the population stable. If all countries had such a fertility rate, population growth would end. The actual replacement rate in most developed countries is around 2.1.

Immigrants (2010)14
Pos.
%14
1Qatar86.5%
2Monaco71.6%
3UAE70.0%
...
171Angola0.3%
172Haiti0.3%
173Vanuatu0.3%
174Tunisia0.3%
175Honduras0.3%
176Eritrea0.3%
177Afghanistan0.3%
178Lesotho0.3%
World Avg9.2%
q=192.
Life Expectancy (2015)16
Pos.Higher is better
Years16
1Hong Kong84.16
2Japan83.68
3Italy83.34
...
70Sri Lanka75.05
71Algeria75.03
72Georgia75.02
73Tunisia74.98
74Malaysia74.90
75Armenia74.89
76Romania74.84
77Peru74.81
World Avg71.27
q=190.
Population (2012)17
Pos.
Population17
1China1.4b
2India1.3b
3USA315.8m
...
74Rwanda11.3m
75Cuba11.2m
76Belgium10.8m
77Tunisia10.7m
78Portugal10.7m
79S. Sudan10.7m
80Czechia10.6m
81Guinea10.5m
World Avg36.0m
q=195.

Tunisia's population is predicted to rise to 12.21 million by 2030. This rise is despite a low fertility rate, meaning, that this country is helping to alleviate problems with growing population in neighbouring countries by accepting immigrants, very likely as a requirement of maintaining an active workforce. This country has a fertility rate of 1.93. The fertility rate is, in simple terms, the average amount of children that each woman has. The higher the figure, the quicker the population is growing, although, to calculate the rate you also need to take into account morbidity, i.e., the rate at which people die. If people live healthy and long lives and morbidity is low, then, 2.0 approximates to the replacement rate, which would keep the population stable. If all countries had such a fertility rate, population growth would end. The actual replacement rate in most developed countries is around 2.1.

4. Human Rights, Equality and Freedom

#equality #freedom #human_rights #politics #tolerance #tunisia

Tunisia is generally poor at ensuring human rights and freedom compared to the rest of the world. Tunisia does better than average for eliminating modern slavery18 (one of the lowest in Africa), commentary in Human Rights Watch reports19 (amongst the highest in Africa), opposing gender inequality20 (amongst the best in Africa), its nominal commitment to Human Rights21, its Global Peace Index rating22 and in fighting corruption23. Since finally removing the authoritarian Zine el-Abidine Ben Ali, Tunisia has made some progress in supporting women's rights and improving detainee procedures24. From 2016, the Truth and Dignity Commission began hearing and airing complaints against human rights abuses24, helping to foster new era of dignity and responsibility towards fellow humans, although it has so far avoided the most serious kinds of complaints (for example, torture and high-level corruption). The 2014 constitution upholds many "key civil, political, social, economic, and cultural rights"24. Tunisia does not succeed in everything, however. It does worse than average in supporting personal, civil & economic freedoms25, the year from which women could participate in democracy26 and in supporting press freedom27. And finally, it falls into the worst 20 in fighting anti-semitic opinions28 (one of the highest in Africa) and in LGBT equality29. Some recent changes are worrying; granting amnesty for state officials previously accused of corruption24 can only ever cause further corruption in the future, leading to degradation of national life. The needless discriminatory law that criminalizes sodomy continues to result in prison spaces being filled by people who have done nothing other than conduct private and consensual sexual relations24.

For tables, charts and commentary, see:

5. Peace Versus Instability

#extremism #human_development #peace #politics #religious_violence #terrorism #Tunisia

Peacekeeping and Security (2017)30
Pos.Lower is better
Rank30
1Samoa1
2S. Africa2
3Tunisia3
4Egypt4
5Nigeria5
6Uruguay6
7Indonesia7
8Brunei8
9Moldova9
10Morocco10
11Oman11
12Tanzania12
World Avg82.0
q=163.
Refugees and UN Treaties (2017)30
Pos.Lower is better
Rank30
1Austria1
2Germany2
3Netherlands3
...
104Armenia104
105Suriname105
106Namibia106
107Tunisia107
108Cape Verde108
109China109
110Kazakhstan110
111Jordan111
World Avg82.0
q=163.

Global Peace Index (2012)22
Pos.Lower is better22
1Iceland1.11
2New Zealand1.24
3Denmark1.24
...
69Guyana1.94
70Cuba1.95
71Ukraine1.95
72Tunisia1.96
73Cyprus1.96
74Gambia1.96
75Gabon1.97
76Paraguay1.97
World Avg2.02
q=157.

"The 2012 Global Peace Index is the sixth edition of the world's leading study on global levels of peacefulness. The GPI ranks 158 nations using 23 qualitative and quantitative indicators from highly respected sources, which gauge three broad themes: the level of safety and security in society; the extent of domestic or international conflict; and the degree of militarisation. By generating new information on the state of peace at the national and global level, the Institute for Economics and Peace hopes to make a valuable contribution to better understanding how civil society, researchers, policymakers, and government can create a more peaceful society"22. The most peaceable countries in the world are Iceland, New Zealand and Denmark22 and the worst are Somalia, Afghanistan and Sudan22.

Impact of Terrorism (2019)31
Pos.Lower is better
Score31
1Togo0.00
2Mongolia0.00
3Swaziland0.00
...
97Canada3.59
98Belgium3.64
99Angola3.78
100Tunisia3.94
101Tajikistan3.95
102Uganda3.96
103Mexico4.08
104Venezuela4.10
World Avg2.78
q=150.

6. Religion and Beliefs

#belief #buddhism #christianity #god #hinduism #islam #judaism #religion #tunisia

Religiosity (2009)32
Pos.Lower is better
%32
1Estonia16
2Sweden17
3Denmark19
...
77Paraguay92
78Saudi Arabia93
79Sudan93
80Tunisia93
81Uganda93
82Palestine93
83Nepal93
84Bahrain94
World Avg75.1
q=114.
Disbelief In God (2007)33
Pos.Higher is better
%33
1Vietnam81
2Japan65
3Sweden64
...
95Thailand0
96Togo0
97Benin0
98Tunisia0
99Uganda0
100Bangladesh0
101UAE0
102Azerbaijan0
World Avg9.9
q=137.

Data from the Pew Forum, a professional polling outfit, states that in 2010 the religious makeup of this country was as follows in the table below34:

Christian0.2%
Muslim99%
Hindu0.1%
Buddhist0.1%
Folk Religion0.1%
Jew0.1%
Unaffiliated0.2%

The CIA World Factbook has slightly different data, and states: Muslim (Islam - official) 98%, Christian 1%, Jewish and other 1%35.

Freedom of Religion and Belief:

Links:

7. The Internet

#internet #politics #the_internet #Tunisia

Freedom On The Internet (2012)36
Pos.Lower is better36
1Estonia10
2USA12
3Germany15
...
23Malaysia43
24Jordan45
25Turkey46
26Tunisia46
27Venezuela48
28Azerbaijan50
29Rwanda51
30Russia52
World Avg46.7
q=47.
Internet Users (2016)37
Pos.Higher is better37
1Iceland100%
2Faroe Islands99%
3Norway98%
...
98Uzbekistan51%
99Armenia50%
100Iran49%
101Tunisia48%
102Moldova48%
103Paraguay47%
104Fiji47%
105Tonga47%
World Avg48.1%
q=201.
IPv6 Uptake (2017)38
Pos.Higher is better
Ratio38
1Belgium55.4
2Germany41.8
3Switzerland35.1
...
115Kazakhstan0.0
116New Caledonia0.0
117Maldives0.0
118Tunisia0.0
119Tuvalu0.0
120Marshall Islands0.0
121Georgia0.0
122Swaziland0.0
World Avg3.82
q=176.

Internet access has become an essential research tool. It facilitates an endless list of life improvements, from the ability to network and socialize without constraint, to access to a seemingly infinite repository of technical and procedural information on pretty much any task. The universal availability of data has sped up industrial development and personal learning at the national and personal level. Individuals can read any topic they wish regardless of the locality of expert teachers, and, entire nations can develop their technology and understanding of the world simply because they are now exposed to advanced societies and moral discourses online. Like every communications medium, the Internet has issues and causes a small range of problems, but these are insignificant compared to the advantages of having an online populace.

8. Public Health Issues

#alcohol #genetics #health #obesity #public_health #smoking #sociology #Tunisia #UK

Tunisia does relatively well in encouraging good health, compared to many other countries. Tunisia does better than average when it comes to its adolescent birth rate20 (amongst the lowest in Africa), its alcohol consumption rate39 and in its immunizations take-up40. Tunisia does not succeed in everything, however. It does worse than average in its food aid and health contributions and WHO compliance30 (still low for Africa), the prevalence of overweight adults41 (one of the worst in Africa) and in its smoking rate42 (the worst in Africa). The prevalence of overweight adults has increased by 14% during the last 40 years.

Alcohol Consumption (2016)39
Pos.Lower is better
Per Capita39
1Bangladesh0.0
2Kuwait0.0
3Libya0.0
...
37Chad1.6
38Tuvalu1.7
39Madagascar1.9
40Tunisia1.9
41Bahrain1.9
42Qatar2.0
43Nepal2.0
44Singapore2.0
World Avg6.2
q=189.

There is nothing wrong with drinking modest and sensible amounts of alcohol but fitness, physical health, mental health and long-term health all suffer as a result of medium- or heavy- drinking43 and the health risks to the baby when pregnant mothers drink44 are well-known. Aside from the effects on the individual, alcohol misuse impacts on entire economies45 via increased health service costs, policing costs and lost days' work. Worldwide, alcohol misuse is "among the top five risk factors for disease, disability and death" and is a "cause of more than 200 disease and injury conditions in individuals, most notably alcohol dependence, liver cirrhosis, cancers and injuries"46. "In 2012... 5.9% of all global deaths, were attributable to alcohol consumption"47. Deaths from chronic alcohol misuse have been rising for decades, and so has violence, abuse, vandalism and crime all associated with alcohol over-use. The aggression and crime associated with alcohol in some Western countries infringes on the human rights of those who want nothing to do with such behaviour. Many of the social effects of alcohol are psychological and cultural; i.e., people don't have to behave criminally or destructively whilst drunk - it is a culturally learned behaviour. Experiments have shown that behaviour can be controlled: Those who do not wish to behave badly whilst drunk, will not do so.

Food Aid, Health Contributions & WHO Compliance (2017)30
Pos.Lower is better
Rank30
1Sweden1
2Ireland2
3Denmark3
...
89Azerbaijan89
90Uganda90
91Chile91
92Tunisia92
93Bahrain93
94Philippines94
95Bosnia & Herzegovina95
96Namibia96
World Avg82.0
q=163.

Overweight Adults (2016)41
Pos.Lower is better
%41
1Vietnam18.3
2India19.7
3Bangladesh20.0
...
146Spain61.6
147Hungary61.6
148Costa Rica61.6
149Tunisia61.6
150Iran61.6
151Bulgaria61.7
152Algeria62.0
153Greece62.3
World Avg49.0
q=191.

About one third of the global population is overweight or obese48. Most Western countries are facing an obesity epidemic. Our cultures are having to change to compensate for widespread ill-health. It is costing our health systems a massive amount of money, and is having negative effects on national economies. The situation has persisted for a suitable length of time for our very perceptions to change; opinions on "normal weights" for people and "average sizes" for clothes has shot up49. Over 2 in 3 adults in the UK are overweight49 and this costs the NHS £5.1 billion per year50 and "costs Britain's economy £47bn a year; more than war, terrorism or armed violence"51. We are forgetting how to be healthy.

The causes are not genetic. Most people who say obesity "runs in their family" are wrong. The rate of increase in obesity is many, many times too fast to be accounted for by a change in inherited genes52. Our culture and lifestyle choices are to blame. The causes of the modern obesity epidemic are processed foods, low levels of physical exercise, over-indulgence, poor choices in food products, poor knowledge of nutrition. Most of this is made much worse by well-funded advertising campaigns by food manufacturers selling cheaper mass-produced food. Even some so-called "health foods" contain well over recommended limits of fat, salt and sugar53.

Smoking Rates (2014)42
Pos.Lower is better42
1Guinea 15
2Solomon Islands 26
3Kiribati 28
...
154Turkey1 581
155Slovakia1 618
156Romania1 620
157Tunisia1 628
158Switzerland1 634
159Serbia1 644
160Cyprus1 688
161Croatia1 709
World Avg 819
q=182.

9. Children's Health

#health #parenting #population #Tunisia #vaccines

Adolescent Birth Rate (2015)20
Pos.Lower is better
Per 100020
1N. Korea0.5
2S. Korea1.6
3Switzerland2.9
...
17Finland6.5
18Germany6.7
19Maldives6.7
20Tunisia6.8
21Austria7.1
22China7.3
23Greece7.5
24Oman8.1
World Avg47.9
q=185.
Infant Immunizations 2011-2015 (2015)40
Pos.Higher is better
Avg %40
1Hungary99.0
2China99.0
3Uzbekistan98.9
...
50Malaysia96.0
51Croatia95.9
52Nicaragua95.9
53Tunisia95.7
54Japan95.7
55Portugal95.7
56Qatar95.6
57Armenia95.6
World Avg88.3
q=194.

10. More Charts and Comparisons to Other Countries

Personal Charitability
(World Position, 2013-2016)
54
Pos.Lower is better54
1Myanmar (Burma)1.25
2USA1.5
3New Zealand3.5
...
139Georgia117.75
140Togo118
141Morocco119
142Tunisia121
143Montenegro121.75
144Bulgaria122
145Rwanda122.75
q=156.
Intellectual Endeavours (2017)30
Pos.Lower is better
Rank30
1Ukraine1
2Czechia2
3Hungary3
...
69Senegal69
70China70
71Burundi71
72Tunisia72
73Timor-Leste (E. Timor)73
74Chile74
75Argentina75
q=163.
Creativity and Culture (2017)30
Pos.Lower is better
Rank30
1Belgium1
2Netherlands2
3Estonia3
...
90Peru90
91Jordan91
92Haiti92
93Tunisia93
94Papua New Guinea94
95Belarus95
96Mongolia96
q=163.
Peacekeeping and Security (2017)30
Pos.Lower is better
Rank30
1Samoa1
2S. Africa2
3Tunisia3
4Egypt4
5Nigeria5
6Uruguay6
7Indonesia7
8Brunei8
9Moldova9
10Morocco10
11Oman11
q=163.
Refugees and UN Treaties (2017)30
Pos.Lower is better
Rank30
1Austria1
2Germany2
3Netherlands3
...
104Armenia104
105Suriname105
106Namibia106
107Tunisia107
108Cape Verde108
109China109
110Kazakhstan110
q=163.
Open Trading, Aid and Development (2017)30
Pos.Lower is better
Rank30
1Ireland1
2Denmark2
3Sweden3
...
67Lesotho67
68Panama68
69New Zealand69
70Tunisia70
71Montenegro71
72Ukraine72
73Chile73
q=163.
Research and Development (2016)
Pos.Higher is better
% RDP PPP
1S. Korea4.2955
2Israel4.1155
3Japan3.5855
...
45S. Africa0.7356
46Serbia0.7357
47Hong Kong0.7356
48Tunisia0.6856
49Egypt0.6857
50Belarus0.6757
51Mali0.6658
52Bulgaria0.6557
q=126.
Life Satisfaction (2011)59
Pos.Higher is better59
1Denmark7.8
2Norway7.6
3Netherlands7.6
...
101Iran4.8
102Nigeria4.8
103Dominican Rep.4.7
104Tunisia4.7
105Azerbaijan4.7
106Bosnia & Herzegovina4.7
107S. Africa4.7
108India4.6
q=150.
Gross National Income Per-Capita (2011)16
Pos.Higher is better
PPP $16
1Qatar$129 916
2Singapore$78 162
3Kuwait$76 075
...
97Maldives$10 383
98St Vincent & Grenadines$10 372
99Albania$10 252
100Tunisia$10 249
101Jordan$10 111
102Dominica$10 096
103Bosnia & Herzegovina$10 091
104Egypt$10 064
q=193.
Environmental Performance (2018)60
Pos.Higher is better60
1Switzerland87.4
2France84.0
3Denmark81.6
...
55Cuba63.4
56Panama62.7
57Tonga62.5
58Tunisia62.4
59Azerbaijan62.3
60S. Korea62.3
61Kuwait62.3
62Jordan62.2
q=180.
IQ (2006)61
Pos.Higher is better61
1Hong Kong108
2Singapore108
3S. Korea106
...
86Saudi Arabia84
87Algeria83
88Libya83
89Tunisia83
90Oman83
91Syria83
92India82
93Bangladesh82
q=138.