The Human Truth Foundation

Cuba (Republic of Cuba)

https://www.humantruth.info/cuba.html

By Vexen Crabtree 2013

#burundi #cuba

Cuba
Republic of Cuba
StatusIndependent State
Social and Moral Index65th best
CapitalHavana
Land Area 106 440km21
LocationNorth America, The Americas, The Caribbean
Population11.3m2
Life Expectancy73.68yrs (2017)3
GNI$7 879 (2017)4
ISO3166-1 CodesCU, CUB, 1925
Internet Domain.cu6
CurrencyPeso (CUP)7
Telephone+538

1. Overview

The native Amerindian population of Cuba began to decline after the European discovery of the island by Christopher COLUMBUS in 1492 and following its development as a Spanish colony during the next several centuries. Large numbers of African slaves were imported to work the coffee and sugar plantations, and Havana became the launching point for the annual treasure fleets bound for Spain from Mexico and Peru. Spanish rule eventually provoked an independence movement and occasional rebellions that were harshly suppressed. US intervention during the Spanish-American War in 1898 assisted the Cubans in overthrowing Spanish rule. The Treaty of Paris established Cuban independence from the US in 1902 after which the island experienced a string of governments mostly dominated by the military and corrupt politicians. Fidel CASTRO led a rebel army to victory in 1959; his iron rule held the subsequent regime together for nearly five decades. He stepped down as president in February 2008 in favor of his younger brother Raul CASTRO. Cuba's Communist revolution, with Soviet support, was exported throughout Latin America and Africa during the 1960s, 1970s, and 1980s. The country faced a severe economic downturn in 1990 following the withdrawal of former Soviet subsidies worth $4 billion to $6 billion annually. Cuba at times portrays the US embargo, in place since 1961, as the source if its difficulties. Illicit migration to the US - using homemade rafts, alien smugglers, air flights, or via the US's southwest border - is a continuing problem. The US Coast Guard interdicted 1,275 Cuban nationals attempting to cross the Straits of Florida in 2012.

CIA's The World Factbook (2013)9

Book CoverTrapped in a time-warp, Cuba is like a prince in a poor man´s coat. Behind the sometimes shabby facades of communist but culturally rich Cuba, gold dust lingers. Cuba is a country with no historical precedents: economically poor, but culturally rich; visibly mildewed, but architecturally magnificent; infuriating, yet at the same time, strangely uplifting.

Halfway between the US in the north and Latin America in the south, Cuba has long struggled to work out where it fits in. Yet, as a former Spanish colony liberally colored with French, African, American, Jamaican, and indigenous Taíno influences, there´s no denying the breadth of its historical heritage. When Castro pressed the pause button on economic development in the 1960s, he inadvertently saved many endangered traditions and important historical heirlooms.

It is the Cubans themselves who have kept the country alive as the infrastructure crumbled: survivors and improvisers, poets and dreamers, cynics and sages. It is also they who have ensured that Cuba continues to be the fascinating, perplexing, paradoxical nation it is.

"The World" by Lonely Planet (2014)10

2. Cuba National and Social Development

#economics #human_development #wealth

UN HDI (2021)11
Pos.Higher is better
Value11
1Switzerland0.962
2Norway0.961
3Iceland0.959
...
80=Moldova0.767
80=Dominican Rep.0.767
80=Palau0.767
83Cuba0.764
84Peru0.762
85Armenia0.759
86Mexico0.758
87Brazil0.754
The Americas Avg0.75
World Avg0.72
q=191.
Gross National Income Per-Capita (2021)11
Pos.Higher is better
PPP $11
1Liechtenstein$146 830
2Singapore$90 919
3Qatar$87 134
...
118El Salvador$8 296
119Bolivia$8 111
120Uzbekistan$7 917
121Cuba$7 879
122Vietnam$7 867
123Laos$7 700
124Swaziland$7 679
125Morocco$7 303
The Americas Avg$16 628
World Avg$20 136
q=193.
Social & Moral
Development Index
12
Pos.Lower is better
Avg Rank12
1Norway28.6
2Denmark30.0
3Sweden30.7
...
62Bosnia & Herzegovina76.7
63Qatar77.5
64Trinidad & Tobago77.9
65Cuba78.3
66Montenegro78.4
67Ukraine78.5
68Georgia78.6
69Panama78.8
The Americas Avg81.6
World Avg86.8
q=195.

The United Nations produces an annual Human Development Report which includes the Human Development Index. The factors taken into account include life expectancy, education and schooling and Gross National Income (GNI) amongst many others..

The Social and Moral Development Index concentrates on moral issues and human rights, violence, public health, equality, tolerance, freedom and effectiveness in climate change mitigation and environmentalism, and on some technological issues. A country scores higher for achieving well in those areas, and for sustaining that achievement in the long term. Those countries towards the top of this index can truly said to be setting good examples and leading humankind onwards into a bright, humane, and free future. See: Which are the Best Countries in the World? The Social and Moral Development Index.

3. Cuba's Demographics and Migration

#birth_control #demographics #health #immigration #life_expectancy #longevity #migration #overpopulation #population

Population:

Cuba's population is predicted to fall to 10 983 000 by 2030. This country has a fertility rate of 1.45. The fertility rate is, in simple terms, the average amount of children that each woman has. The higher the figure, the quicker the population is growing, although, to calculate the rate you also need to take into account morbidity, i.e., the rate at which people die. If people live healthy and long lives and morbidity is low, then, 2.0 approximates to the replacement rate, which would keep the population stable. If all countries had such a fertility rate, population growth would end. The actual replacement rate in most developed countries is around 2.1.

Population2
Pos.2018
Population2
1China1.4b
2India1.4b
3USA327.1m
...
77Benin11.5m
78Belgium11.5m
79Bolivia11.4m
80Cuba11.3m
81Burundi11.2m
82Haiti11.1m
83S. Sudan11.0m
84Czechia10.7m
World Avg39.0m
q=195.
Life Expectancy
Higher is better
11
Pos.2021
Years11
1Monaco85.9
2Hong Kong85.5
3Japan84.8
...
73Nicaragua73.8
74Tunisia73.8
75Lithuania73.7
76Cuba73.7
77Ecuador73.7
78Vietnam73.6
79Latvia73.6
80Mauritius73.6
World Avg71.28
q=195.
Fertility Rate
2.0 is best
13
Pos.201313
1N. Korea2.00
2Brunei1.99
3St Vincent & Grenadines2.01
...
89Italy1.47
90Cyprus1.46
91Moldova1.46
92Cuba1.45
93India2.55
94Germany1.44
95Laos2.58
96Malaysia2.58
World Avg2.81
q=180.
Old-Age Dependency Ratio
Lower is better
14
Pos.2016
Per 10014
1Uganda04.3
2Mali04.5
3=Chad04.7
...
156Barbados35.6
157Lithuania36.0
158Czechia36.1
159Cuba36.2
160Poland36.3
161Singapore36.5
162Latvia36.7
163=Sweden37.0
World Avg18.3
q=185.

Migration:

Immigrants15
Pos.2017
%15
1UAE88.4%
2Kuwait75.5%
3Qatar65.2%
...
188N. Korea0.2%
189Sri Lanka0.2%
190Myanmar (Burma)0.1%
191Madagascar0.1%
192Indonesia0.1%
193Cuba0.1%
194Vietnam0.1%
195China0.1%
World Avg9.4%
q=195.
Emigrants16
Pos.2010
%16
1Dominica104.8%
2Palestine68.4%
3Samoa67.3%
...
57Jordan11.3%
58Kyrgyzstan11.2%
59Tajikistan11.2%
60Cuba10.9%
61Mauritius10.9%
62Greece10.8%
63Mexico10.7%
64Andorra10.7%
World Avg11.5%
q=192.

4. Human Rights, Equality & Tolerance

#cuba #equality #gender_equality #human_rights #morals #politics #prejudice #press_freedom #tolerance

Human Rights, Equality & Tolerance (2020)17
Pos.Lower is better
Avg Rank17
1Sweden9.0
2Norway14.5
3Denmark14.5
...
111Benin95.7
112Tanzania95.7
113India96.8
114Cuba97.4
115Kazakhstan97.8
116Timor-Leste (E. Timor)98.6
The Americas Avg73.9
World Avg87.9
q=199.
When it comes to press and media freedom, Cuba is one of the worst 5 countries in the world18; it's one of those countries where 'compliance with international human rights standards would mean removal of those in power'19. .

For tables, charts and commentary, see:

5. Cuba's Health

#alcohol #birth_control #demographics #health #life_expectancy #longevity #mental_health #obesity #overpopulation #parenting #population #smoking #suicide #vaccines

Compared to The Americas (2020)20
Pos.Lower is better
Avg Rank20
1Antigua & Barbuda75.6
2=Brazil82.1
3Cuba82.4
4=Canada83.5
5Barbados85.1
6=Grenada86.6
6=Trinidad & Tobago86.6
8Guyana87.5
9=Nicaragua87.5
10St Lucia88.9
11=Ecuador90.5
11=El Salvador90.5
13St Kitts & Nevis91.8
The Americas Avg96.2
q=35.
Health (2020)20
Pos.Lower is better
Avg Rank20
1Monaco13.0
2Hong Kong18.3
3Maldives41.0
...
53Solomon Islands82.0
54=Israel82.1
54=Brazil82.1
56Cuba82.4
57Macedonia82.5
58Croatia82.9
59=Turkmenistan83.1
59=Tajikistan83.1
World Avg93.5
q=196.

The countries with the best overall approach to public health, in terms of both public policy and individual lifestyle choices, are Monaco, Hong Kong and The Maldives21. These countries are worth emulating. And, although often through no fault of the average citizen, the worst countries are The Marshall Islands, S. Sudan and Palau21.

The data sets used to calculate points for each country are its average life expectancy, its alcohol consumption rate, its fertility rate, its smoking rate, its suicide rate, its food aid and health contributions and WHO compliance, the prevalence of overweight adults, its adolescent birth rate and its immunizations take-up. The regions with the best average results per country are Scandinavia, Asia and The Mediterranean21, whereas the worst are Micronesia, Australasia and Africa21.

For more, see:

Health:

Cuba has some poor policies and cultural issues which cause some public health problems. Cuba comes in the best 20 in terms of its immunizations take-up22 (amongst the highest in The Americas). It does better than average in its average life expectancy11 and in its alcohol consumption rate23. But, things still need to improve in Cuba. Cuba does worse than average for its suicide rate24 (amongst the highest in The Americas), its fertility rate13, its adolescent birth rate25 (still low for The Americas) and in its smoking rate26 (the worst in The Americas). The number of overweight adults has increased by 14% over the past 40 years. Life expectancy in Cuba improved by +3.6yrs in the 30 years from 1990, less than the global average of +7.9yrs.

Life Expectancy
Higher is better
11
Pos.2021
Years11
1Monaco85.9
2Hong Kong85.5
3Japan84.8
...
73Nicaragua73.8
74Tunisia73.8
75Lithuania73.7
76Cuba73.7
77Ecuador73.7
78Vietnam73.6
79Latvia73.6
80Mauritius73.6
The Americas Avg72.58
World Avg71.28
q=195.
Alcohol Consumption
Lower is better
23
Pos.2016
Per Capita23
1Bangladesh0.0
2Kuwait0.0
3Libya0.0
...
90=Haiti5.8
90=Colombia5.8
92Nauru6.0
93Cuba6.1
94Kyrgyzstan6.2
95=Guyana6.3
95=Peru6.3
97Bosnia & Herzegovina6.4
The Americas Avg6.9
World Avg6.2
q=189.
Fertility Rate
2.0 is best
13
Pos.201313
1N. Korea2.00
2Brunei1.99
3St Vincent & Grenadines2.01
...
89Italy1.47
90Cyprus1.46
91Moldova1.46
92Cuba1.45
93India2.55
94Germany1.44
95Laos2.58
96Malaysia2.58
The Americas Avg2.29
World Avg2.81
q=180.
Smoking Rates
Lower is better
26
Pos.201426
1Guinea 15
2Solomon Islands 26
3Kiribati 28
...
142Argentina1 359
143Denmark1 378
144Georgia1 378
145Cuba1 392
146Saudi Arabia1 395
147Netherlands1 396
148Poland1 396
149Italy1 443
The Americas Avg 457
World Avg 819
q=182.
Suicide Rate24
Pos.2013
Per 100k24
1Haiti0
2Grenada0
3Egypt0.1
...
59Norway23.8
60=Denmark23.9
60=Germany23.9
62Cuba24.5
63=Romania24.5
64Bulgaria25
65Sweden25.5
66Slovakia25.7
The Americas Avg13.57
World Avg20.93
q=91.
Overweight Adults
Lower is better27
Pos.2016
%27
1Vietnam18.3
2India19.7
3Bangladesh20.0
...
123=Norway58.3
123=Poland58.3
125Ukraine58.4
126=Cuba58.5
126=Italy58.5
128Luxembourg58.7
129Panama58.8
130Suriname58.9
The Americas Avg57.4
World Avg49.0
q=191.

Children's Health:

Adolescent Birth Rate
Lower is better
25
Pos.2015
Per 100025
1N. Korea0.5
2S. Korea1.6
3Switzerland2.9
...
100Antigua & Barbuda44.8
101Fiji44.8
102S. Africa45.5
103Cuba45.6
104Suriname46.1
105Timor-Leste (E. Timor)46.6
106Chile47.8
107Solomon Islands48.4
The Americas Avg56.6
World Avg47.9
q=185.
Infant Immunizations 2011-2015
Higher is better
22
Pos.2015
Avg %22
1=Hungary99.0
1=China99.0
3Uzbekistan98.9
...
15=Luxembourg98.0
15=Oman98.0
17Antigua & Barbuda98.0
18Cuba97.9
19Belgium97.8
20Thailand97.8
21=Mauritius97.6
21=Fiji97.6
The Americas Avg91.3
World Avg88.3
q=194.

6. Cuba's Responsibility Towards The Environment

#biodiversity #climate_change #deforestation #food #meat #over-exploitation #the_environment #veganism #vegetarianism

Compared to The Americas (2023)28
Pos.Lower is better
Avg Rank28
1Uruguay48.0
2Peru48.2
3Costa Rica49.6
...
7Venezuela58.0
8=Colombia58.8
9Paraguay61.0
10Cuba64.7
11Belize65.3
12Brazil66.8
13El Salvador71.8
14Trinidad & Tobago73.5
15Nicaragua75.5
The Americas Avg80.1
q=35.
Responsibility Towards The Environment (2023)28
Pos.Lower is better
Avg Rank28
1Japan33.2
2Philippines45.0
3Uruguay48.0
...
37New Zealand63.8
38Luxembourg64.2
39Burkina Faso64.3
40Cuba64.7
41Ethiopia64.8
42Belize65.3
43Netherlands65.8
44Australia66.4
World Avg85.7
q=188.
Cuba ranks 40th in the world when it comes to its responsibility towards the environment. This rank is calculated from 4 data sets. Cuba comes in the best 20 when it comes to its forested percent change 1990-201529 (amongst the best in The Americas). It does better than average in how quickly it ratified the 1993 Convention on Biological Diversity, its environmental performance30 and in annual meat consumption per person31.

Forest Area Change 1990-2015
Higher is better
29
Pos.2015
%29
1Iceland+205.6
2Bahrain+144.4
3Uruguay+131.3
...
7Vietnam+65.6
8Ireland+62.2
9Tunisia+61.9
10Cuba+56.9
11Cape Verde+55.7
12Rwanda+50.9
13Bhutan+34.7
14Azerbaijan+34.6
The Americas Avg-00.2
World Avg+02.8
q=184.
Environmental Performance
Higher is better
30
Pos.201830
1Switzerland87.4
2France84.0
3Denmark81.6
...
52Russia63.8
53Brunei63.6
54Morocco63.5
55Cuba63.4
56Panama62.7
57Tonga62.5
58Tunisia62.4
59Azerbaijan62.3
The Americas Avg58.8
World Avg56.4
q=180.
Convention on Biological Diversity
Earlier is better
Pos.0
Signed
1=China1993 Dec 29
1=Guinea1993 Dec 29
1=Cook Islands1993 Dec 29
...
48Paraguay1994 May 25
49=Hungary1994 May 25
50Brazil1994 May 29
51Cuba1994 Jun 06
52Namibia1997 Aug 14
53Sri Lanka1994 Jun 21
54Ethiopia1994 Jul 04
55Dominica1994 Jul 05
The Americas Avg1899 Dec 30
World Avg1899 Dec 30
q=197.
Meat Consumption
Lower is better
31
Pos.2021
kg31
1Congo, DR03.0
2Burundi03.5
3Bangladesh04.3
...
85Chad47.1
86Oman48.0
87Ukraine48.5
88Cuba49.6
89Libya50.0
90Ecuador50.9
91Albania52.0
92Kiribati52.4
The Americas Avg70.3
World Avg52.5
q=185.

In the 2010s, Cuba increased its meat consumption by over 20kgs per person per year, one of only 11 countries to do so, and putting unnecessary strain on water supplies and the environment.31

7. Cuba's Modernity and Learning

#education #intelligence #modernity #politics #research #science #technology #the_internet

Compared to The Americas (2020)32
Pos.Lower is better
Avg Rank32
1Canada21.6
2USA29.3
3Argentina43.8
...
16Aruba71.5
17Colombia77.1
18Bahamas80.0
19Cuba80.3
20Cayman Islands82.0
21Dominican Rep.83.4
22Dominica83.8
23Ecuador83.9
24Antigua & Barbuda84.0
The Americas Avg81.7
q=41.
Modernity & Learning (2020)32
Pos.Lower is better
Avg Rank32
1Finland8.4
2Taiwan10.0
3Switzerland15.1
...
96Sri Lanka79.6
97Kenya79.8
98Bahamas80.0
99Cuba80.3
100Fiji80.8
101Jordan81.1
102Seychelles81.3
103Philippines81.8
World Avg83.2
q=205.

Modernity and Education:

In the 2000s, Cuba increased its expected duration of education by almost 5 years, more than any other country in that decade except Burundi, and becoming the country with the world 7th-longest period of education, although in the 2010s, this dropped back down by two years. 33

Research & Development
Higher is better
Pos.2016
% RDP PPP
1S. Korea4.2934
2Israel4.1134
3Japan3.5834
...
61=Cyprus0.4835
62Costa Rica0.4736
63=Qatar0.4737
63=Cuba0.4735
65Macedonia0.4435
66=Puerto Rico0.4435
67Jordan0.4338
68Mozambique0.4239
The Americas Avg0.47
World Avg0.84
q=126.
Secondary Education
Higher is better
40
Pos.201840
1=Luxembourg100.0%
1=Estonia100.0%
1=Austria100.0%
...
47Bahamas88.4%
48Ireland88.3%
49Netherlands88.3%
50Cuba87.4%
51Poland85.3%
52Belgium84.8%
53UK84.5%
54Jordan84.0%
The Americas Avg63.0%
World Avg63.0%
q=169.
Length of Schooling
Higher is better
41
Pos.2021
Years41
1Australia21.1
2New Zealand20.3
3Greece20.0
...
73Slovakia14.5
74Dominican Rep.14.5
75Albania14.4
76Cuba14.4
77Colombia14.4
78Moldova14.4
79Serbia14.4
80Luxembourg14.4
The Americas Avg14.2
World Avg13.5
q=193.
IQ
Higher is better42
Pos.200642
1=Hong Kong108
1=Singapore108
3S. Korea106
...
72=Yemen85
72=Trinidad & Tobago85
72=Peru85
72=Cuba85
76Venezuela84
77=Colombia84
77=Jordan84
77=Afghanistan84
The Americas Avg85.3
World Avg85.6
q=138.

Technology and Information:

The government controls virtually all media outlets in Cuba and restricts access to outside information. A small number of [independent] journalists and bloggers... manage to write articles for websites or blogs, or publish tweets. The government routinely blocks access within Cuba to these websites and only a fraction of Cubans can read independent websites and blogs because of the high cost of, and limited access to, the internet. In September 2017, Cuba announced it would gradually extend the home internet service to all the provinces in the country.

"World Report 2018" by Human Rights Watch (2018)43

Internet Users
Higher is better
44
Pos.201644
1Iceland100%
2Faroe Islands99%
3Norway98%
...
127India35%
128Kyrgyzstan34%
129Egypt33%
130Cuba32%
131Micronesia31%
132Vanuatu31%
133Syria30%
134Sri Lanka29%
The Americas Avg56.4%
World Avg48.1%
q=201.
Freedom On The Internet
Lower is better
45
Pos.201245
1Estonia10
2USA12
3Germany15
...
40Vietnam73
41=Ethiopia75
41=Myanmar (Burma)75
43Uzbekistan77
44Syria83
45China85
46Cuba86
47Iran90
The Americas Avg39.3
World Avg46.7
q=47.
IPv6 Uptake
Higher is better
46
Pos.2017
Ratio46
1Belgium55.4
2Germany41.8
3Switzerland35.1
...
166=Lebanon0.0
166=St Lucia0.0
166=Dominica0.0
166=Cuba0.0
166=St Vincent & Grenadines0.0
166=Montenegro0.0
166=Libya0.0
166=Jamaica0.0
The Americas Avg3.36
World Avg3.82
q=176.

8. National Culture

#corruption #politics

Corruption
Higher is better
47
Pos.2022
Points47
1Denmark90.0
2=Finland87.0
2=New Zealand87.0
...
65China45.0
66=Sao Tome & Principe45.0
66=Montenegro45.0
66=Cuba45.0
69Jamaica44.0
70=Oman44.0
70=Bahrain44.0
72Senegal43.0
The Americas Avg42.97
World Avg42.98
q=180.

9. Peace Versus Instability

#human_development #peace #politics

Global Peace Index
Lower is better
48
Pos.2023
Score48
1Iceland1.12
2Denmark1.31
3Ireland1.31
...
96=Papua New Guinea2.10
96=Azerbaijan2.10
98Ecuador2.10
99Cuba2.10
100Turkmenistan2.11
101Tajikistan2.11
102Kyrgyzstan2.12
103=Peru2.13
The Americas Avg2.13
World Avg2.07
q=163.

10. Economic Inequality and Poverty

#health #inequality #life_expectancy

Inequality in Life Expectancy
Lower is better49
Pos.201949
1Iceland2.40
2=Singapore2.50
2=Hong Kong2.50
...
36Malta4.60
37Serbia4.90
38Slovakia5.00
39Cuba5.10
40UAE5.20
41=Bosnia & Herzegovina5.40
41=Latvia5.40
43Lithuania5.50
The Americas Avg12.03
World Avg14.59
q=184.

11. Religion and Beliefs

#belief #buddhism #christianity #cuba #god #hinduism #islam #judaism #religion #USA

Disbelief In God (2007)50
Pos.Higher is better
%50
1Vietnam81
2Japan65
3Sweden64
...
9=Netherlands42
9=Germany42
9=UK42
12Cuba40
13Slovenia35
14Bulgaria34
15Hungary32
16Norway31
17S. Korea30
18Finland28
19Russia27
20Australia25
21Taiwan24
22=New Zealand22
22=Canada22
24Latvia20
World Avg9.9
q=137.

Data from the Pew Forum, a professional polling outfit, states that in 2010 the religious makeup of this country was as follows in the table below51:

Christian59.2%
Muslim0.1%
Hindu0.2%
Buddhist0.1%
Folk Religion17.4%
Jewish0.1%
Unaffiliated23%

The CIA World Factbook has slightly different data, and states: nominally Roman Catholic 85%, Protestant, Jehovah's Witnesses, Jewish, Santeria. note: prior to CASTRO assuming power52.

Freedom of Religion and Belief: Cuba's Constitution affirms religious liberty and freedom (Article 15 and Article 57), and outlaws discrimination based on religion (Article 43). Despite this, things are not well. As recently as 2020, the USA has again put Cuba on its "Special Watch List for having engaged in or tolerated severe violations of religious freedom"53.

Links: