The Human Truth Foundation

Sao Tome & Principe (Democratic Republic of Sao Tome and Principe)

https://www.humantruth.info/sao_tome_and_principe.html

By Vexen Crabtree 2013

Sao Tome & Principe
Democratic Republic of Sao Tome and Principe
StatusIndependent State
Social and Moral Index142nd best
CapitalSao Tome
Land Area 960km21
LocationAfrica
GroupingsSmall Islands
Population0.2m2
Life Expectancy67.59yrs (2017)3
GNI$4 021 (2017)4
ISO3166-1 CodesST, STP, 6785
Internet Domain.st6
CurrencyDobra (STD)7
Telephone+2398

1. Overview

Discovered and claimed by Portugal in the late 15th century, the islands' sugar-based economy gave way to coffee and cocoa in the 19th century - all grown with African plantation slave labor, a form of which lingered into the 20th century. While independence was achieved in 1975, democratic reforms were not instituted until the late 1980s. The country held its first free elections in 1991, but frequent internal wrangling between the various political parties precipitated repeated changes in leadership and two failed coup attempts in 1995 and 2003. In 2012, three opposition parties combined in a no confidence vote to bring down the majority government of former Prime Minister Patrice TROVOADA. The new government of Prime Minister Gabriel Arcanjo Ferreira DA COSTA is entirely composed of opposition party members with limited experience in governance. The recent discovery of oil in the Gulf of Guinea promises to attract increased attention to the small island nation.

CIA's The World Factbook (2013)9

Book CoverThis nation is full of beauty: rainforests blanket rolling hills and backdrop spellbinding beaches, tropical birds circle stark volcanic rock formations and aquatic life patrols immaculate shores. If you adore quietude, take a trip to São Tomé and Príncipe, Africa´s second-smallest country. These two tiny volcanic bumps anchored off the Gabonese coast easily win the hearts of foreigners with their Portuguese-Creole flavour and relaxed vibes, and it won´t take too long before you´re infected with the pervasive leve leve (which loosely means `take it easy´) mood.

The sublime laid-back tempo is enhanced by a wealth of natural attractions: miles of perfect palm-fringed beaches, huge swaths of emerald rainforest, soaring volcanic peaks and mellow fishing villages. The birdlife is excellent, and endemic plants (especially orchids) are plentiful. In season, turtle- and whale-watching opportunities abound.

This two-island nation has its cultural gems as well, with a surprising number of heritage buildings dating back to the colonial era. Tourism is still low-key and is being developed in a controlled, ecologically mindful way. No tacky resorts, just a number of locally run, enticing, nature-oriented lodges.

"The World" by Lonely Planet (2014)10

2. Sao Tome & Principe National and Social Development

#economics #human_development #wealth

UN HDI (2021)11
Pos.Higher is better
Value11
1Switzerland0.962
2Norway0.961
3Iceland0.959
...
135Guatemala0.627
136Kiribati0.624
137Honduras0.621
138Sao Tome & Principe0.618
139Namibia0.615
140=Vanuatu0.607
140=Laos0.607
140=Timor-Leste (E. Timor)0.607
Africa Avg0.56
World Avg0.72
q=191.
Gross National Income Per-Capita (2021)11
Pos.Higher is better
PPP $11
1Liechtenstein$146 830
2Singapore$90 919
3Qatar$87 134
...
149Syria$4 192
150Cambodia$4 079
151Kiribati$4 063
152Sao Tome & Principe$4 021
153Papua New Guinea$4 009
154Nepal$3 877
155Myanmar (Burma)$3 851
156Zimbabwe$3 810
Africa Avg$5 339
World Avg$20 136
q=193.
Social & Moral
Development Index
12
Pos.Lower is better
Avg Rank12
1Norway28.6
2Denmark30.0
3Sweden30.7
...
139Libya103.6
140Samoa105.2
141Turkmenistan105.8
142Sao Tome & Principe105.8
143Lesotho107.2
144Tanzania107.8
145Malawi108.3
146Togo109.3
Africa Avg110.5
World Avg86.8
q=195.

The United Nations produces an annual Human Development Report which includes the Human Development Index. The factors taken into account include life expectancy, education and schooling and Gross National Income (GNI) amongst many others..

The Social and Moral Development Index concentrates on moral issues and human rights, violence, public health, equality, tolerance, freedom and effectiveness in climate change mitigation and environmentalism, and on some technological issues. A country scores higher for achieving well in those areas, and for sustaining that achievement in the long term. Those countries towards the top of this index can truly said to be setting good examples and leading humankind onwards into a bright, humane, and free future. See: Which are the Best Countries in the World? The Social and Moral Development Index.

3. Sao Tome & Principe's Demographics and Migration

#birth_control #demographics #health #immigration #life_expectancy #longevity #migration #overpopulation #population

Population:

Sao Tome & Principe's population is predicted to rise to 234 630 by 2030. This country has a fertility rate of 3.52. The fertility rate is, in simple terms, the average amount of children that each woman has. The higher the figure, the quicker the population is growing, although, to calculate the rate you also need to take into account morbidity, i.e., the rate at which people die. If people live healthy and long lives and morbidity is low, then, 2.0 approximates to the replacement rate, which would keep the population stable. If all countries had such a fertility rate, population growth would end. The actual replacement rate in most developed countries is around 2.1.

Population2
Pos.2018
Population2
1China1.4b
2India1.4b
3USA327.1m
...
173Iceland0.3m
174Vanuatu0.3m
175Barbados0.3m
176Sao Tome & Principe0.2m
177Samoa0.2m
178St Lucia0.2m
179Kiribati0.1m
180Micronesia0.1m
World Avg39.0m
q=195.
Life Expectancy
Higher is better
11
Pos.2021
Years11
1Monaco85.9
2Hong Kong85.5
3Japan84.8
...
131Nepal68.4
132Laos68.1
133Timor-Leste (E. Timor)67.7
134Sao Tome & Principe67.6
135Indonesia67.6
136Kiribati67.4
137India67.2
138Fiji67.1
World Avg71.28
q=195.
Fertility Rate
2.0 is best
13
Pos.201313
1N. Korea2.00
2Brunei1.99
3St Vincent & Grenadines2.01
...
130Bolivia3.25
131Pakistan3.25
132Micronesia3.33
133Sao Tome & Principe3.52
134Djibouti3.61
135Vanuatu3.77
136Samoa3.77
137Tonga3.81
World Avg2.81
q=180.
Old-Age Dependency Ratio
Lower is better
14
Pos.2016
Per 10014
1Uganda04.3
2Mali04.5
3=Chad04.7
...
30Kenya06.1
31S. Sudan06.2
32=Tanzania06.2
32=Sao Tome & Principe06.2
34Comoros06.3
35=Mozambique06.4
35=Madagascar06.4
35=Papua New Guinea06.4
World Avg18.3
q=185.

Migration:

Immigrants15
Pos.2017
%15
1UAE88.4%
2Kuwait75.5%
3Qatar65.2%
...
149Guinea-Bissau1.3%
150Vanuatu1.2%
151Ethiopia1.2%
152Sao Tome & Principe1.1%
153Congo, DR1.1%
154Bosnia & Herzegovina1.1%
155Guinea1.0%
156Iraq1.0%
World Avg9.4%
q=195.
Emigrants16
Pos.2010
%16
1Dominica104.8%
2Palestine68.4%
3Samoa67.3%
...
22Kazakhstan23.6%
23St Lucia23.3%
24Macedonia21.9%
25Sao Tome & Principe21.9%
26Moldova21.5%
27Fiji21.3%
28Portugal20.8%
29Lesotho20.5%
World Avg11.5%
q=192.

4. Sao Tome & Principe's Human Rights, Equality & Tolerance

#equality #freethought #gender #gender_equality #homosexuality #human_rights #international_law #misogyny #morals #politics #prejudice #religious_tolerance #tolerance #women

Compared to Africa (2020)17
Pos.Lower is better
Avg Rank17
1S. Africa56.1
2Seychelles66.7
3Namibia69.4
...
38Liberia117.8
39Central African Rep.121.0
40Malawi123.2
41Sao Tome & Principe123.5
42Burundi126.1
43Congo, DR126.7
44Equatorial Guinea128.4
45Chad130.3
46Zimbabwe134.3
Africa Avg108.2
q=54.
Human Rights, Equality & Tolerance (2020)17
Pos.Lower is better
Avg Rank17
1Sweden9.0
2Norway14.5
3Denmark14.5
...
160=Nauru123.0
161Malawi123.2
162Yemen123.4
163Sao Tome & Principe123.5
164Iraq124.4
165Burundi126.1
166Congo, DR126.7
167Malaysia127.2
World Avg87.9
q=199.

The best countries in the world at ensuring human rights, fostering equality and promoting tolerance, are Sweden, Norway and Denmark18. These countries are displaying the best traits that humanity has to offer. The worst countries are The Solomon Islands, Somalia and Tuvalu18.

The data sets used to calculate points for each country are statistics on commentary in Human Rights Watch reports, its nominal commitment to Human Rights, speed of uptake of HR treaties, supporting personal, civil & economic freedoms, supporting press freedom, eliminating modern slavery, opposing gender inequality, the rate of gender bias (from 7 indicators), the year from which women could participate in democracy, its success in fighting anti-semitic prejudice, LGBT equality and freethought. The regions with the best average results per country are Scandinavia, Baltic States and Europe18, whereas the worst are Melanesia, Micronesia and Australasia18.

For more, see:

Human Rights & Tolerance:

Nominal Commitment to HR
Higher is better19
Pos.2009
Treaties19
1Argentina24
2=Chile23
2=Costa Rica23
...
175Eritrea8
176Indonesia7
177=N. Korea7
177=Sao Tome & Principe7
177=Grenada7
177=UAE7
181St Lucia6
182=Brunei6
Africa Avg14.8
World Avg15.1
q=194.
HR Treaties Lag
Lower is better20
Pos.2019
Avg Yrs/Treaty20
1Ecuador2.15
2Uruguay2.25
3Tunisia3.65
...
188Kiribati15.80
189Solomon Islands15.81
190Nauru16.16
191Sao Tome & Principe16.17
192Tuvalu16.33
193Palau16.34
194Marshall Islands16.34
195Palestine17.21
Africa Avg9.88
World Avg10.02
q=195.

Gender Equality:

Sao Tome & Principe is an unequal country, with male rights dominating those of women.

See:

Gender Inequality
Lower is better
21
Pos.201521
1Switzerland0.04
2Denmark0.04
3Netherlands0.04
...
119Bangladesh0.52
120Senegal0.52
121Uganda0.52
122Sao Tome & Principe0.52
123Iraq0.53
124Zambia0.53
125India0.53
126Zimbabwe0.54
Africa Avg0.54
World Avg0.36
q=159.
Year Women Can Vote
Lower is better
Pos.0
Year
1New Zealand1893
2Australia1902
3Finland1906
...
163=Andorra1973
164Jordan1974
165=Solomon Islands1974
166Sao Tome & Principe1975
167=Cape Verde1975
167=Angola1975
167=Mozambique1975
170Portugal1976
Africa Avg1961
World Avg1930
q=189.

Prejudice:

LGBT Equality
Higher is better
22
Pos.2017
Score22
1Netherlands103
2Belgium90
3Sweden86
...
82=Paraguay20
82=Philippines20
82=Central African Rep.20
82=Sao Tome & Principe20
82=Palau20
82=Nauru20
82=Marshall Islands20
82=Guinea-Bissau20
Africa Avg-10.4
World Avg12.6
q=196.
Freedom of Thought
Lower is better
23
Pos.202123
1=Belgium1.0
1=Netherlands1.0
1=Taiwan1.0
4Sao Tome & Principe1.3
5=Ecuador1.3
5=France1.3
5=Bolivia1.3
5=Nauru1.3
9Iceland1.5
10=Congo, (Brazzaville)1.5
10=Sweden1.5
10=Norway1.5
Africa Avg3.1
World Avg3.0
q=196.

5. Sao Tome & Principe's Health

#alcohol #birth_control #demographics #health #life_expectancy #longevity #obesity #overpopulation #parenting #population #smoking #vaccines

Compared to Africa (2020)24
Pos.Lower is better
Avg Rank24
1Mauritius64.5
2Morocco73.1
3=Eritrea77.0
...
8Sudan91.2
9Rwanda91.9
10Ethiopia93.3
11Sao Tome & Principe93.6
12Djibouti95.7
13Cape Verde97.3
14Seychelles97.3
15Gambia101.3
16=Egypt101.8
Africa Avg108.2
q=54.
Health (2020)24
Pos.Lower is better
Avg Rank24
1Monaco13.0
2Hong Kong18.3
3Maldives41.0
...
96Latvia93.1
97Cambodia93.3
98Ethiopia93.3
99Sao Tome & Principe93.6
100Costa Rica93.8
101San Marino94.5
102Lebanon95.4
103Russia95.5
World Avg93.5
q=196.

The countries with the best overall approach to public health, in terms of both public policy and individual lifestyle choices, are Monaco, Hong Kong and The Maldives25. These countries are worth emulating. And, although often through no fault of the average citizen, the worst countries are The Marshall Islands, S. Sudan and Palau25.

The data sets used to calculate points for each country are its average life expectancy, its alcohol consumption rate, its fertility rate, its smoking rate, its suicide rate, its food aid and health contributions and WHO compliance, the prevalence of overweight adults, its adolescent birth rate and its immunizations take-up. The regions with the best average results per country are Scandinavia, Asia and The Mediterranean25, whereas the worst are Micronesia, Australasia and Africa25.

For more, see:

Health:

Sao Tome & Principe has some poor policies and cultural issues which cause some public health problems. Sao Tome & Principe does better than average in its smoking rate26 and in its immunizations take-up27. When it comes to most other metrics, Sao Tome & Principe does not do well. It does worse than average for its alcohol consumption rate28, its fertility rate13 (still good for Africa), its average life expectancy11 (still high for Africa) and in its adolescent birth rate21. The prevalence of overweight adults has increased by 14% over the last 40 years. Life expectancy in Sao Tome and Principe improved by +7.1yrs in the 30 years from 1990, on par with the global average improvement of +7.9yrs.

Life Expectancy
Higher is better
11
Pos.2021
Years11
1Monaco85.9
2Hong Kong85.5
3Japan84.8
...
131Nepal68.4
132Laos68.1
133Timor-Leste (E. Timor)67.7
134Sao Tome & Principe67.6
135Indonesia67.6
136Kiribati67.4
137India67.2
138Fiji67.1
Africa Avg62.79
World Avg71.28
q=195.
Alcohol Consumption
Lower is better
28
Pos.2016
Per Capita28
1Bangladesh0.0
2Kuwait0.0
3Libya0.0
...
100Philippines6.6
101Cambodia6.7
102=Belize6.8
102=Sao Tome & Principe6.8
104Dominican Rep.6.9
105=Antigua & Barbuda7.0
105=Niue7.0
107China7.2
Africa Avg4.8
World Avg6.2
q=189.
Fertility Rate
2.0 is best
13
Pos.201313
1N. Korea2.00
2Brunei1.99
3St Vincent & Grenadines2.01
...
130Bolivia3.25
131Pakistan3.25
132Micronesia3.33
133Sao Tome & Principe3.52
134Djibouti3.61
135Vanuatu3.77
136Samoa3.77
137Tonga3.81
Africa Avg4.31
World Avg2.81
q=180.
Smoking Rates
Lower is better
26
Pos.201426
1Guinea 15
2Solomon Islands 26
3Kiribati 28
...
20Tanzania 101
21Liberia 104
22Niger 105
23Sao Tome & Principe 111
24India 111
25Eritrea 114
26Haiti 114
27Peru 116
Africa Avg 340
World Avg 819
q=182.
Overweight Adults
Lower is better29
Pos.2016
%29
1Vietnam18.3
2India19.7
3Bangladesh20.0
...
57Cameroon33.6
58Mauritania34.4
59Cape Verde34.8
60Sao Tome & Principe35.4
61Seychelles36.8
62Zimbabwe38.2
63Swaziland38.4
64Djibouti38.6
Africa Avg33.3
World Avg49.0
q=191.

Children's Health:

Adolescent Birth Rate
Lower is better
21
Pos.2015
Per 100021
1N. Korea0.5
2S. Korea1.6
3Switzerland2.9
...
150Bangladesh83.0
151Benin83.2
152Iraq84.0
153Sao Tome & Principe84.3
154Guyana88.0
155Nicaragua88.8
156Guinea-Bissau89.5
157Zambia90.4
Africa Avg87.5
World Avg47.9
q=185.
Infant Immunizations 2011-2015
Higher is better
27
Pos.2015
Avg %27
1=Hungary99.0
1=China99.0
3Uzbekistan98.9
...
46Maldives96.2
47Tajikistan96.1
48Rwanda96.1
49Sao Tome & Principe96.0
50Malaysia96.0
51Croatia95.9
52Nicaragua95.9
53Tunisia95.7
Africa Avg81.7
World Avg88.3
q=194.

6. Sao Tome & Principe's Responsibility Towards The Environment

#biodiversity #climate_change #deforestation #food #meat #over-exploitation #the_environment #veganism #vegetarianism

Compared to Africa (2023)30
Pos.Lower is better
Avg Rank30
1Seychelles55.3
2Kenya57.4
3=Zambia57.6
...
42Botswana106.8
43S. Africa106.8
44Lesotho109.7
45Sao Tome & Principe110.3
46Congo, (Brazzaville)111.8
47Mauritania114.5
48=S. Sudan118.0
49Zimbabwe119.0
50Liberia125.8
Africa Avg90.1
q=53.
Responsibility Towards The Environment (2023)30
Pos.Lower is better
Avg Rank30
1Japan33.2
2Philippines45.0
3Uruguay48.0
...
156=Samoa108.0
157Latvia109.0
158Lesotho109.7
159Sao Tome & Principe110.3
160Turkmenistan110.8
161USA111.0
162Grenada111.3
163Congo, (Brazzaville)111.8
World Avg85.7
q=188.
In terms of its responsibility towards the environment, Sao Tome & Principe comes 159th in the world. This rank is calculated from 4 data sets. Sao Tome & Principe does better than average in annual meat consumption per person31 (but high for Africa). But that's it. Sao Tome & Principe has problems. It does worse than average for its environmental performance32 (still good for Africa), its forested percent change 1990-201533 (still good for Africa) and in how quickly it ratified the 1993 Convention on Biological Diversity.

Forest Area Change 1990-2015
Higher is better
33
Pos.2015
%33
1Iceland+205.6
2Bahrain+144.4
3Uruguay+131.3
...
115Australia-02.9
116Kazakhstan-03.3
117S. Korea-03.9
118Sao Tome & Principe-04.3
119Bangladesh-04.4
120Ecuador-04.4
121Burundi-04.5
122Antigua & Barbuda-04.9
Africa Avg-08.0
World Avg+02.8
q=184.
Environmental Performance
Higher is better
32
Pos.201832
1Switzerland87.4
2France84.0
3Denmark81.6
...
101Kazakhstan54.6
102Samoa54.5
103Suriname54.2
104Sao Tome & Principe54.0
105Paraguay53.9
106El Salvador53.9
107Fiji53.1
108Turkey53.0
Africa Avg46.4
World Avg56.4
q=180.
Convention on Biological Diversity
Earlier is better
Pos.0
Signed
1=China1993 Dec 29
1=Guinea1993 Dec 29
1=Cook Islands1993 Dec 29
...
173Angola1998 Jun 30
174Tonga1998 Aug 17
175Palau1999 Apr 06
176Sao Tome & Principe1999 Dec 28
177UAE2000 May 10
178Azerbaijan2000 Nov 01
179Liberia2001 Feb 06
180Malta2001 Mar 29
Africa Avg1899 Dec 30
World Avg1899 Dec 30
q=197.
Meat Consumption
Lower is better
31
Pos.2021
kg31
1Congo, DR03.0
2Burundi03.5
3Bangladesh04.3
...
49Swaziland27.1
50Malawi27.4
51Tunisia27.8
52Sao Tome & Principe28.3
53Maldives28.8
54Egypt29.1
55Laos29.8
56Botswana30.1
Africa Avg24.9
World Avg52.5
q=185.

7. Sao Tome & Principe's Modernity and Learning

#education #modernity #technology #the_internet

Compared to Africa (2020)34
Pos.Lower is better
Avg Rank34
1S. Africa52.8
2Egypt70.4
3Tunisia73.4
...
23=Namibia119.0
23=Senegal119.0
25Sudan119.8
26Sao Tome & Principe120.3
27Burkina Faso120.6
28Ivory Coast121.3
29Malawi121.6
30Mali124.1
31Togo124.4
Africa Avg120.7
q=53.
Modernity & Learning (2020)34
Pos.Lower is better
Avg Rank34
1Finland8.4
2Taiwan10.0
3Switzerland15.1
...
159=Senegal119.0
159=Namibia119.0
161Sudan119.8
162Sao Tome & Principe120.3
163Burkina Faso120.6
164Ivory Coast121.3
165Malawi121.6
166Iraq121.8
World Avg83.2
q=205.

Modernity and Education:

In the 2010s, Sao Tome and Principe increased its expected duration of education by over 3 years, one of only five countries to do so in that decade. 35

Secondary Education
Higher is better
36
Pos.201836
1=Luxembourg100.0%
1=Estonia100.0%
1=Austria100.0%
...
123El Salvador42.8%
124Namibia41.1%
125Syria41.0%
126Sao Tome & Principe40.8%
127Togo40.5%
128Laos40.4%
129Algeria38.9%
130Guatemala37.8%
Africa Avg34.4%
World Avg63.0%
q=169.
Length of Schooling
Higher is better
37
Pos.2021
Years37
1Australia21.1
2New Zealand20.3
3Greece20.0
...
94Macedonia13.6
95Azerbaijan13.5
96Jamaica13.4
97Sao Tome & Principe13.4
98Palestine13.4
99Malaysia13.3
100Dominica13.3
101Andorra13.3
Africa Avg11.0
World Avg13.5
q=193.

Technology and Information:

Internet Users
Higher is better
38
Pos.201638
1Iceland100%
2Faroe Islands99%
3Norway98%
...
137Swaziland28%
138Guatemala27%
139Sudan26%
140Sao Tome & Principe26%
141Yemen25%
142Senegal23%
143Angola23%
144Ivory Coast22%
Africa Avg18.4%
World Avg48.1%
q=201.
IPv6 Uptake
Higher is better
39
Pos.2017
Ratio39
1Belgium55.4
2Germany41.8
3Switzerland35.1
...
137=Nicaragua0.0
137=Solomon Islands0.0
137=Congo, (Brazzaville)0.0
137=Sao Tome & Principe0.0
137=Kiribati0.0
137=Ivory Coast0.0
137=Mauritania0.0
137=Iraq0.0
Africa Avg0.04
World Avg3.82
q=176.

8. National Culture

#corruption #politics

Corruption
Higher is better
40
Pos.2022
Points40
1Denmark90.0
2=Finland87.0
2=New Zealand87.0
...
63Armenia46.0
64=Romania46.0
65China45.0
66=Sao Tome & Principe45.0
66=Montenegro45.0
66=Cuba45.0
69Jamaica44.0
70=Oman44.0
Africa Avg32.31
World Avg42.98
q=180.

9. Economic Inequality and Poverty

#capitalism #economics #health #inequality #life_expectancy #poverty #social_development

Inequality in Life Expectancy
Lower is better41
Pos.201941
1Iceland2.40
2=Singapore2.50
2=Hong Kong2.50
...
118Micronesia16.10
119Tajikistan16.70
120=Dominican Rep.17.00
120=Sao Tome & Principe17.00
122Bhutan17.10
123=Venezuela17.10
124Bangladesh17.30
125Nepal17.50
Africa Avg26.10
World Avg14.59
q=184.
Income Inequality (Gini Coefficient)
Lower is better42
Pos.2017
%42
1Ukraine25.0
2=Belarus25.4
2=Slovenia25.4
...
21Iraq29.5
22Hungary30.4
23Austria30.5
24=Sao Tome & Principe30.8
24=Poland30.8
26Croatia31.1
27S. Korea31.6
28Germany31.7
Africa Avg42.6
World Avg38.1
q=152.
Multidimensional Poverty
Lower is better43
Pos.2018
Severity43
1Armenia.001
2Ukraine.001
3Serbia.001
...
46Swaziland.081
47Morocco.085
48Honduras.090
49Sao Tome & Principe.092
50Bolivia.094
51Laos.108
52Congo, (Brazzaville).112
53India.123
Africa Avg.264
World Avg.154
q=101.

10. Religion and Beliefs

#buddhism #christianity #hinduism #islam #judaism

Data from the Pew Forum, a professional polling outfit, states that in 2010 the religious makeup of this country was as follows in the table below44:

Christian82.2%
Muslim0.1%
Hindu0.1%
Buddhist0.1%
Folk Religion2.9%
Jewish0.1%
Unaffiliated12.6%

The CIA World Factbook has slightly different data, and states: Catholic 70.3%, Evangelical 3.4%, New Apostolic 2%, Adventist 1.8%, other 3.1%, none 19.4% (2001 census)45.

Links: