The Human Truth Foundation

Kosovo

https://www.humantruth.info/kosovo.html

By Vexen Crabtree 2013

#kosovo

Kosovo
StatusDisputed status
Social and Moral Index42nd best
CapitalPristina
Land Area 10 887km21
LocationEurope, The Balkans
Population
GNI
ISO3166-1 Codes, , 2
Internet Domain3
Currency4
Telephone+5

1. Overview

The central Balkans were part of the Roman and Byzantine Empires before ethnic Serbs migrated to the territories of modern Kosovo in the 7th century. During the medieval period, Kosovo became the center of a Serbian Empire and saw the construction of many important Serb religious sites, including many architecturally significant Serbian Orthodox monasteries. The defeat of Serbian forces at the Battle of Kosovo in 1389 led to five centuries of Ottoman rule during which large numbers of Turks and Albanians moved to Kosovo. By the end of the 19th century, Albanians replaced the Serbs as the dominant ethnic group in Kosovo. Serbia reacquired control over Kosovo from the Ottoman Empire during the First Balkan War of 1912. After World War II, Kosovo became an autonomous province of Serbia in the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (S.F.R.Y.) with status almost equivalent to that of a republic under the 1974 S.F.R.Y. constitution. Despite legislative concessions, Albanian nationalism increased in the 1980s, which led to riots and calls for Kosovo's independence. At the same time, Serb nationalist leaders, such as Slobodan MILOSEVIC, exploited Kosovo Serb claims of maltreatment to secure votes from supporters, many of whom viewed Kosovo as their cultural heartland. Under MILOSEVIC's leadership, Serbia instituted a new constitution in 1989 that revoked Kosovo's status as an autonomous province of Serbia. Kosovo's Albanian leaders responded in 1991 by organizing a referendum that declared Kosovo independent. Under MILOSEVIC, Serbia carried out repressive measures against the Kosovar Albanians in the early 1990s as the unofficial Kosovo government, led by Ibrahim RUGOVA, used passive resistance in an attempt to try to gain international assistance and recognition of an independent Kosovo. Albanians dissatisfied with RUGOVA's passive strategy in the 1990s created the Kosovo Liberation Army and launched an insurgency. Starting in 1998, Serbian military, police, and paramilitary forces under MILOSEVIC conducted a brutal counterinsurgency campaign that resulted in massacres and massive expulsions of ethnic Albanians. Approximately 800,000 Albanians were forced from their homes in Kosovo during this time. International attempts to mediate the conflict failed, and MILOSEVIC's rejection of a proposed settlement led to a three-month NATO military operation against Serbia beginning in March 1999 that forced Serbia to agree to withdraw its military and police forces from Kosovo. UN Security Council Resolution 1244 (1999) placed Kosovo under a transitional administration, the UN Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo (UNMIK), pending a determination of Kosovo's future status. A UN-led process began in late 2005 to determine Kosovo's final status. The negotiations ran in stages between 2006 and 2007, but ended without agreement between Belgrade and Pristina. On 17 February 2008, the Kosovo Assembly declared Kosovo independent. Since then, over 95 countries have recognized Kosovo, and it has joined the International Monetary Fund, World Bank, and European Bank for Reconstruction and Development, and is in the process of signing a framework agreement with the European Investment Bank (EIB). In October 2008, Serbia sought an advisory opinion from the International Court of Justice (ICJ) on the legality under international law of Kosovo's declaration of independence. The ICJ released the advisory opinion in July 2010 affirming that Kosovo's declaration of independence did not violate general principles of international law, UN Security Council Resolution 1244, or the Constitutive Framework. The opinion was closely tailored to Kosovo's unique history and circumstances. Serbia continues to reject Kosovo's independence, but the two countries are currently engaged in an EU-facilitated dialogue aimed at normalizing the countries' relations.

CIA's The World Factbook (2013)6

Book CoverIt may be Europe´s newest country, but Kosovo´s long and dramatic history can be witnessed at every turn in elegant Ottoman towns and little-visited mountain vistas. Kosovo is contested territory. Populated predominately by Albanians, it is considered holy ground by minority Serbs. The Kosovar Albanians declared independence in 2008, a move hotly disputed by some and still not universally recognised, leading to tensions between Albanian and Serbian locals.

Far from being the dangerous or depressing place most people imagine, Kosovo is a fascinating land at the heart of the Balkans and one of the last corners of Eastern Europe where tourism has yet to take off.

Barbs of its past are impossible to miss: roads are dotted with memorials to those killed in inter-ethnic tension in 1999, while NATO forces still guard Serbian monasteries. But with independence has come a degree of stability, and Kosovo is now the latest word in getting off the beaten track in the Balkans. Visitors will be rewarded with welcoming smiles, terracotta-roofed old quarters, remote 13th-century domed Orthodox monasteries and poppy-splashed hillside meadows, which they will likely have all to themselves.

"The World" by Lonely Planet (2014)7

2. Kosovo National and Social Development

#human_development

Social & Moral
Development Index
8
Pos.Lower is better
Avg Rank8
1Norway28.6
2Denmark30.0
3Sweden30.7
...
39Greece59.5
40Latvia64.4
41Bulgaria65.5
42Kosovo65.6
43Croatia65.7
44Romania65.8
45Lithuania65.8
46Mauritius66.0
Europe Avg57.4
World Avg86.8
q=195.

The Social and Moral Development Index concentrates on moral issues and human rights, violence, public health, equality, tolerance, freedom and effectiveness in climate change mitigation and environmentalism, and on some technological issues. A country scores higher for achieving well in those areas, and for sustaining that achievement in the long term. Those countries towards the top of this index can truly said to be setting good examples and leading humankind onwards into a bright, humane, and free future. See: Which are the Best Countries in the World? The Social and Moral Development Index.

3. Human Rights, Equality & Tolerance

#equality #freethought #gender_equality #human_rights #kosovo #morals #politics #prejudice #religious_tolerance #tolerance

Human Rights, Equality & Tolerance (2020)9
Pos.Lower is better
Avg Rank9
1Sweden9.0
2Norway14.5
3Denmark14.5
...
42Lithuania53.0
43Bolivia53.6
44Peru53.8
45Kosovo54.2
46S. Africa56.1
47Mexico56.4
Europe Avg51.4
World Avg87.9
q=199.
Kosovo performs very well in ensuring human rights and freedom compared to most other countries. Kosovo comes in the best 20 for freethought10. It does better than average when it comes to commentary in Human Rights Watch reports11 (but bad for Europe), LGBT equality12 (but bad for Europe) and in supporting press freedom13 (but high for Europe). Solid progress is being made in bringing prosecutions against those involved in serious war crimescommitted during the 1998-1999 Kosovo war14.

For tables, charts and commentary, see:

4. Kosovo's Modernity and Learning

#education #english #maths #modernity #religion #religiosity #science #secularisation #technology #the_internet

Compared to Europe (2020)15
Pos.Lower is better
Avg Rank15
1Finland8.4
2Switzerland15.1
3Estonia15.8
...
36Cyprus54.0
37Moldova56.3
38Serbia56.4
39Kosovo57.0
40Bosnia & Herzegovina58.1
41Monaco64.5
42Georgia65.1
43Montenegro66.0
44Armenia70.0
Europe Avg41.2
q=49.
Modernity & Learning (2020)15
Pos.Lower is better
Avg Rank15
1Finland8.4
2Taiwan10.0
3Switzerland15.1
...
56Moldova56.3
57Serbia56.4
58St Kitts & Nevis56.7
59Kosovo57.0
60Puerto Rico57.5
61Bosnia & Herzegovina58.1
62Palau59.3
63Mexico59.8
World Avg83.2
q=205.

Modernity and Education:

Maths, Science & Reading
Higher is better
16
Pos.2015
Score16
1Singapore1655
2Hong Kong1598
3Japan1586
...
63Brazil1185
64Peru1182
65Lebanon1129
66Tunisia1114
67Macedonia1107
68Kosovo1087
69Algeria1086
70Dominican Rep.1018
Europe Avg1417
World Avg1389
q=70.
Religiosity
Lower is better
17
Pos.2018
%17
1China3
2Estonia6
3Czechia7
...
43Argentina43
44Mexico45
45Kyrgyzstan47
46Kosovo48
47=Tajikistan50
47=Romania50
49Georgia51
50=Armenia53
Europe Avg25.8
World Avg54.3
q=106.

5. National Culture

#charity #corruption #happiness #morals #politics

On the Corruption Index, Kosovo scored on average 33.8 over the 2012-2016 period. Over the 10 years since then, it improved by 7.2 points.

World Giving Index
Higher is better
18
Pos.2022
%18
1Indonesia68.0
2Kenya61.0
3USA59.0
...
45=Costa Rica44.0
46Vietnam43.0
47=Iran43.0
47=Kosovo43.0
47=Bolivia43.0
47=Ghana43.0
51Sweden42.0
52=Colombia42.0
Europe Avg39.0
World Avg39.6
q=125.
Corruption
Higher is better
19
Pos.2022
Points19
1Denmark90.0
2=Finland87.0
2=New Zealand87.0
...
81Solomon Islands42.0
82=Kuwait42.0
82=Hungary42.0
84Kosovo41.0
85=Tunisia40.0
85=Suriname40.0
85=Macedonia40.0
85=Maldives40.0
Europe Avg57.61
World Avg42.98
q=180.
Happiness
Higher is better
20
Pos.2018
Score20
1Finland7.6
2Norway7.6
3Denmark7.6
...
63Estonia5.7
64Paraguay5.7
65Peru5.7
66Kosovo5.7
67Moldova5.6
68Turkmenistan5.6
69Hungary5.6
70Libya5.6
Europe Avg6.06
World Avg5.38
q=156.

6. Peace Versus Instability

#extremism #human_development #peace #politics #religious_violence #terrorism

Global Peace Index
Lower is better
21
Pos.2023
Score21
1Iceland1.12
2Denmark1.31
3Ireland1.31
...
69Paraguay1.94
70=Liberia1.95
70=Trinidad & Tobago1.95
70=Kosovo1.95
73Cambodia1.95
74Malawi1.97
75UAE1.98
76Kazakhstan1.98
Europe Avg1.70
World Avg2.07
q=163.
Impact of Terrorism
Lower is better
22
Pos.2019
Score22
1Togo0.00
2Mongolia0.00
3Swaziland0.00
...
69Madagascar1.96
70Finland2.03
71Haiti2.18
72Kosovo2.26
73Japan2.29
74Netherlands2.35
75Ecuador2.46
76Kuwait2.49
Europe Avg1.62
World Avg2.78
q=150.

7. Religion and Beliefs

#buddhism #christianity #hinduism #islam #judaism #religion #religiosity #secularisation

Religiosity (2018)17
Pos.Lower is better
%17
1China3
2Estonia6
3Czechia7
...
43Argentina43
44Mexico45
45Kyrgyzstan47
46Kosovo48
47=Tajikistan50
47=Romania50
49Georgia51
50=Armenia53
50=USA53
52Bosnia & Herzegovina54
53=Greece56
53=Paraguay56
55Lebanon57
56Panama61
57Venezuela67
58Turkey68
World Avg54.3
q=106.

Data from the Pew Forum, a professional polling outfit, states that in 2010 the religious makeup of this country was as follows in the table below23:

Christian11.4%
Muslim87%
Hindu0.1%
Buddhist0.1%
Folk Religion0.1%
Jewish0.1%
Unaffiliated1.6%

It appears that when asked "What religion are you" many give pollsters the 'correct' answer despite how they actually feel, and despite what they actually believe. Although 98.8% of the populace say they belong to a religion, only 48% say that they are religious when the question is phrased as "Is religion an important part of your daily life?".

For more on this phenomenon, see:

The CIA World Factbook has slightly different data, and states simply: Muslim, Serbian Orthodox, Roman Catholic24.

Links: