The Human Truth Foundation

Peru (Republic of Peru)

By Vexen Crabtree 2013


Comments:
FB, LJ

#charity #climate_change #economics #happiness #intelligence #morals #peru #research #science #the_environment

Peru
Republic of Peru
StatusIndependent State
CapitalLima
Land Area1 280 000km21
LocationSouth America, The Americas
Population29.7m (2011)2
Life Expectancy74.81yrs (2017)3
GNI$11 295 (2017)4
ISO3166-1 CodesPE, PER, 6045
Internet Domain.pe6
CurrencySol (PEN)7
Telephone+518

1. Overview

Ancient Peru was the seat of several prominent Andean civilizations, most notably that of the Incas whose empire was captured by Spanish conquistadors in 1533. Peruvian independence was declared in 1821, and remaining Spanish forces were defeated in 1824. After a dozen years of military rule, Peru returned to democratic leadership in 1980, but experienced economic problems and the growth of a violent insurgency. President Alberto FUJIMORI's election in 1990 ushered in a decade that saw a dramatic turnaround in the economy and significant progress in curtailing guerrilla activity. Nevertheless, the president's increasing reliance on authoritarian measures and an economic slump in the late 1990s generated mounting dissatisfaction with his regime, which led to his ouster in 2000. A caretaker government oversaw new elections in the spring of 2001, which installed Alejandro TOLEDO Manrique as the new head of government - Peru's first democratically elected president of indigenous Quechuan ethnicity. The presidential election of 2006 saw the return of Alan GARCIA Perez who, after a disappointing presidential term from 1985 to 1990, oversaw a robust economic rebound. In June 2011, former army officer Ollanta HUMALA Tasso was elected president, defeating Keiko FUJIMORI Higuchi, the daughter of Alberto FUJIMORI. Since his election, HUMALA has carried on the sound, market-oriented economic policies of the three preceeding administrations.

CIA's The World Factbook (2013)9

Book CoverPeru startles with its variety - parched coastal desert, jagged Andean peaks, lush Amazon rainforest. Its rich culture runs the gamut from sophisticated Lima to mist-shrouded ancient ruins. A visit to South America isn´t complete without a pilgrimage to the glorious Inca citadel of Machu Picchu, but, the truth is, this feted site is just a flash in a 5000-year history of peoples. Walk through the dusted remnants of a vast ancient city at Chan Chan, the largest pre-Columbian ruins in all the Americas. Fly over the puzzling geo-glyphs etched into the arid earth at Nazca. Or venture into the rugged wilds that hem the stalwart fortress of Kuelap. Lima´s great museums, with priceless ceramics, gold and some of the finest textiles in the world, reveal in full detail the sophistication, skill and passion of these lost civilizations. Visit remote communities and see how old ways live on. Peru is as complex as its most intricate weavings. Festivals mix ancient pageantry with stomping brass bands. The urban vanguard beams with artistry and innovation. Trails mark the way from dense jungle to glacial peaks. Immerse yourself in Peru and leave a little closer to the past.

"The World" by Lonely Planet (2014)10

2. Peru National and Social Development

#human_development

UN HDI (2016)11
Pos.Lower is better
Rank11
1Norway1
2Australia2
3Switzerland2
...
84Armenia84
85Ukraine84
86Jordan86
87Peru87
88Thailand87
89Ecuador89
90China90
91Fiji91
World Avg94.3
q=188.
Social & Moral
Development Index
12
Pos.Higher is better
Points12
1Denmark83.6
2Finland83.1
3Sweden82.6
...
73Turkey56.5
74Montenegro56.5
75Ukraine56.5
76Peru56.4
77Seychelles56.3
78Philippines56.3
79Kyrgyzstan56.0
80Nicaragua56.0
World Avg55.4
q=198.

The United Nations produces an annual Human Development Report which includes the Human Development Index. The factors taken into account include life expectancy, education and schooling and Gross National Income (GNI) amongst many others..

The Social and Moral Development Index concentrates on moral issues and human rights, violence, public health, equality, tolerance, freedom and effectiveness in climate change mitigation and environmentalism, and on some technological issues. A country scores higher for achieving well in those areas, and for sustaining that achievement in the long term. Those countries towards the top of this index can truly said to be setting good examples and leading humankind onwards into a bright, humane, and free future. See: What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life.

3. Population and Demographics

#birth_control #demographics #health #immigration #life_expectancy #longevity #overpopulation #Peru #population

Old-Age Dependency Ratio (2016)13
Pos.Lower is better
Per 10013
1Uganda04.3
2Mali04.5
3Chad04.7
...
96Guyana15.0
97Fiji15.3
98Mexico15.4
99Peru15.5
100Dominican Rep.15.6
101Venezuela15.6
102Kazakhstan15.6
103Ecuador16.0
World Avg18.3
q=185.
Emigrants (2010)14
Pos.
%14
1Dominica104.8%
2Palestine68.4%
3Samoa67.3%
...
128Bahrain3.7%
129Gambia3.7%
130Chile3.7%
131Peru3.7%
132Czechia3.6%
133Mauritania3.5%
134Canada3.5%
135Algeria3.4%
World Avg11.5%
q=192.

Fertility Rate (2013)15
Pos.2.0 is best15
1N. Korea2.00
2Brunei1.99
3St Vincent & Grenadines2.01
...
60Ecuador2.41
61Mauritius1.59
62Panama2.42
63Peru2.43
64Barbados1.57
65China1.57
66Serbia1.56
67Libya2.44
World Avg2.81
q=180.

The fertility rate is, in simple terms, the average amount of children that each woman has. The higher the figure, the quicker the population is growing, although, to calculate the rate you also need to take into account morbidity, i.e., the rate at which people die. If people live healthy and long lives and morbidity is low, then, 2.0 approximates to the replacement rate, which would keep the population stable. If all countries had such a fertility rate, population growth would end. The actual replacement rate in most developed countries is around 2.1.

Immigrants (2010)14
Pos.
%14
1Qatar86.5%
2Monaco71.6%
3UAE70.0%
...
185Myanmar (Burma)0.2%
186N. Korea0.2%
187Morocco0.2%
188Cuba0.1%
189Peru0.1%
190Vietnam0.1%
191Indonesia0.1%
192China0.1%
World Avg9.2%
q=192.
Life Expectancy (2015)16
Pos.Higher is better
Years16
1Hong Kong84.16
2Japan83.68
3Italy83.34
...
74Malaysia74.90
75Armenia74.89
76Romania74.84
77Peru74.81
78Brazil74.75
79Thailand74.62
80Mauritius74.60
81Kuwait74.55
World Avg71.27
q=190.
Population (2012)17
Pos.
Population17
1China1.4b
2India1.3b
3USA315.8m
...
40Morocco32.6m
41Nepal31.0m
42Venezuela29.9m
43Peru29.7m
44Malaysia29.3m
45Saudi Arabia28.7m
46Uzbekistan28.1m
47Yemen25.6m
World Avg36.0m
q=195.

Peru's population is predicted to rise to 35.49 million by 2030. These millions of extra people will all need space to live, food to eat, energy to consume, and will increase the burden on the planet's resources. This country has a fertility rate of 2.43. The fertility rate is, in simple terms, the average amount of children that each woman has. The higher the figure, the quicker the population is growing, although, to calculate the rate you also need to take into account morbidity, i.e., the rate at which people die. If people live healthy and long lives and morbidity is low, then, 2.0 approximates to the replacement rate, which would keep the population stable. If all countries had such a fertility rate, population growth would end. The actual replacement rate in most developed countries is around 2.1.

4. Human Rights, Equality and Freedom

#equality #freedom #human_rights #peru #politics #tolerance

Peru does relatively well in ensuring human rights and freedom, compared to many other countries. Peru does the second-best in terms of its nominal commitment to Human Rights18. It does better than average in LGBT equality19, commentary in Human Rights Watch reports20, eliminating modern slavery21 and in supporting personal, civil & economic freedoms22. Peru does not succeed in everything, however. It does worse than average in fighting anti-semitic opinions23 (one of the worst in The Americas), its Global Peace Index rating24, opposing gender inequality25, fighting corruption26, the year from which women could participate in democracy27 and in supporting press freedom28. "Efforts to prosecute grave human rights abuses committed during the 20-year armed conflict that ended in 2000 have had mixed results"29.

For tables, charts and commentary, see:

5. Peace Versus Instability

#extremism #human_development #peace #Peru #politics #religious_violence #terrorism

Peacekeeping and Security (2017)30
Pos.Lower is better
Rank30
1Samoa1
2S. Africa2
3Tunisia3
...
94Bahamas94
95Mauritania95
96Nicaragua96
97Peru97
98Czechia98
99Lithuania99
100Luxembourg100
101Niger101
World Avg82.0
q=163.
Refugees and UN Treaties (2017)30
Pos.Lower is better
Rank30
1Austria1
2Germany2
3Netherlands3
...
92Belarus92
93Ghana93
94Qatar94
95Peru95
96Gabon96
97Russia97
98Papua New Guinea98
99Mexico99
World Avg82.0
q=163.

Global Peace Index (2012)24
Pos.Lower is better24
1Iceland1.11
2New Zealand1.24
3Denmark1.24
...
76Paraguay1.97
77Greece1.98
78Senegal1.99
79Peru2.00
80Nepal2.00
81Montenegro2.01
82Nicaragua2.01
83Brazil2.02
World Avg2.02
q=157.

"The 2012 Global Peace Index is the sixth edition of the world's leading study on global levels of peacefulness. The GPI ranks 158 nations using 23 qualitative and quantitative indicators from highly respected sources, which gauge three broad themes: the level of safety and security in society; the extent of domestic or international conflict; and the degree of militarisation. By generating new information on the state of peace at the national and global level, the Institute for Economics and Peace hopes to make a valuable contribution to better understanding how civil society, researchers, policymakers, and government can create a more peaceful society"24. The most peaceable countries in the world are Iceland, New Zealand and Denmark24 and the worst are Somalia, Afghanistan and Sudan24.

Impact of Terrorism (2019)31
Pos.Lower is better
Score31
1Togo0.00
2Mongolia0.00
3Swaziland0.00
...
81Congo, (Brazzaville)2.69
82Ireland2.69
83Zimbabwe2.83
84Peru2.84
85Rwanda2.95
86Nicaragua2.95
87Jordan3.09
88Italy3.11
World Avg2.78
q=150.

6. Religion and Beliefs

#belief #buddhism #christianity #god #hinduism #islam #judaism #religion

Religiosity (2009)32
Pos.Lower is better
%32
1Estonia16
2Sweden17
3Denmark19
...
53El Salvador83
54Romania84
55Honduras84
56Peru84
57Iraq84
58Nicaragua84
59S. Africa85
60Tajikistan85
World Avg75.1
q=114.
Disbelief In God (2007)33
Pos.Higher is better
%33
1Vietnam81
2Japan65
3Sweden64
...
80Ecuador1
81S. Africa1
82Venezuela1
83Peru1
84Guatemala1
85El Salvador1
86Panama1
87Somalia0
World Avg9.9
q=137.

Data from the Pew Forum, a professional polling outfit, states that in 2010 the religious makeup of this country was as follows in the table below34:

Christian95.5%
Muslim0.1%
Hindu0.1%
Buddhist0.2%
Folk Religion1%
Jew0.1%
Unaffiliated3%

The CIA World Factbook has slightly different data, and states: Roman Catholic 81.3%, Evangelical 12.5%, other 3.3%, unspecified or none 2.9% (2007 Census)35.

Links:

7. The Internet

#internet #it_security #Peru #the_internet

Internet Users (2016)36
Pos.Higher is better36
1Iceland100%
2Faroe Islands99%
3Norway98%
...
118Cape Verde43%
119Suriname42%
120Bolivia41%
121Peru41%
122Guyana40%
123Grenada39%
124El Salvador38%
125Bhutan37%
World Avg48.1%
q=201.
IPv6 Uptake (2017)37
Pos.Higher is better
Ratio37
1Belgium55.4
2Germany41.8
3Switzerland35.1
...
11Japan22.1
12France18.8
13Canada18.3
14Peru18.3
15Ecuador18.2
16Estonia17.6
17Malaysia16.5
18Norway14.7
World Avg3.82
q=176.
IT Security (2013)38
Pos.Lower is better38
1Ireland0.11
2Luxembourg0.11
3Belize0.11
...
11Czechia0.24
12Argentina0.27
13Hungary0.27
14Peru0.30
15Latvia0.33
16Pakistan0.38
17Taiwan0.44
18Sweden0.44
World Avg0.98
q=81.

Internet access has become an essential research tool. It facilitates an endless list of life improvements, from the ability to network and socialize without constraint, to access to a seemingly infinite repository of technical and procedural information on pretty much any task. The universal availability of data has sped up industrial development and personal learning at the national and personal level. Individuals can read any topic they wish regardless of the locality of expert teachers, and, entire nations can develop their technology and understanding of the world simply because they are now exposed to advanced societies and moral discourses online. Like every communications medium, the Internet has issues and causes a small range of problems, but these are insignificant compared to the advantages of having an online populace.

8. Public Health Issues

#alcohol #genetics #health #mental_health #obesity #organ_donation #Peru #public_health #smoking #sociology #suicide #UK

Peru has some poor policies and cultural issues which cause some public health problems. Peru comes in the best 20 when it comes to its suicide rate39. It does better than average in terms of its smoking rate40. But that's it. Peru has problems. It does worse than average when it comes to its alcohol consumption rate41, its adolescent birth rate25 (still low for The Americas), its food aid and health contributions and WHO compliance30, the prevalence of overweight adults42 and in its immunizations take-up43. And finally, it falls into the worst-performing 20 in number of organ donors44. The prevalence of overweight adults has increased by 14% over the past 40 years.

Alcohol Consumption (2016)41
Pos.Lower is better
Per Capita41
1Bangladesh0.0
2Kuwait0.0
3Libya0.0
...
93Cuba6.1
94Kyrgyzstan6.2
95Guyana6.3
96Peru6.3
97Bosnia & Herzegovina6.4
98Angola6.4
99Mexico6.5
100Philippines6.6
World Avg6.2
q=189.

There is nothing wrong with drinking modest and sensible amounts of alcohol but fitness, physical health, mental health and long-term health all suffer as a result of medium- or heavy- drinking45 and the health risks to the baby when pregnant mothers drink46 are well-known. Aside from the effects on the individual, alcohol misuse impacts on entire economies47 via increased health service costs, policing costs and lost days' work. Worldwide, alcohol misuse is "among the top five risk factors for disease, disability and death" and is a "cause of more than 200 disease and injury conditions in individuals, most notably alcohol dependence, liver cirrhosis, cancers and injuries"48. "In 2012... 5.9% of all global deaths, were attributable to alcohol consumption"49. Deaths from chronic alcohol misuse have been rising for decades, and so has violence, abuse, vandalism and crime all associated with alcohol over-use. The aggression and crime associated with alcohol in some Western countries infringes on the human rights of those who want nothing to do with such behaviour. Many of the social effects of alcohol are psychological and cultural; i.e., people don't have to behave criminally or destructively whilst drunk - it is a culturally learned behaviour. Experiments have shown that behaviour can be controlled: Those who do not wish to behave badly whilst drunk, will not do so.

Organ Donors (At Death) (2017)44
Pos.Higher is better
pmp44
1Spain46.9050
2Portugal34.0150
3Belgium33.6250
...
57Romania3.25
58Lebanon2.88
59Paraguay1.62
60Peru1.61
61Trinidad & Tobago1.47
62Dominican Rep.1.40
63Malaysia1.10
64Bosnia & Herzegovina0.90
World Avg13.03
q=70.
Food Aid, Health Contributions & WHO Compliance (2017)30
Pos.Lower is better
Rank30
1Sweden1
2Ireland2
3Denmark3
...
110Costa Rica110
111Dominica111
112Romania112
113Peru113
114Kenya114
115Haiti115
116Malawi116
117Swaziland117
World Avg82.0
q=163.

Overweight Adults (2016)42
Pos.Lower is better
%42
1Vietnam18.3
2India19.7
3Bangladesh20.0
...
112Serbia57.1
113Russia57.1
114Portugal57.5
115Peru57.5
116Albania57.7
117Romania57.7
118Netherlands57.8
119Latvia57.8
World Avg49.0
q=191.

About one third of the global population is overweight or obese51. Most Western countries are facing an obesity epidemic. Our cultures are having to change to compensate for widespread ill-health. It is costing our health systems a massive amount of money, and is having negative effects on national economies. The situation has persisted for a suitable length of time for our very perceptions to change; opinions on "normal weights" for people and "average sizes" for clothes has shot up52. Over 2 in 3 adults in the UK are overweight52 and this costs the NHS £5.1 billion per year53 and "costs Britain's economy £47bn a year; more than war, terrorism or armed violence"54. We are forgetting how to be healthy.

The causes are not genetic. Most people who say obesity "runs in their family" are wrong. The rate of increase in obesity is many, many times too fast to be accounted for by a change in inherited genes55. Our culture and lifestyle choices are to blame. The causes of the modern obesity epidemic are processed foods, low levels of physical exercise, over-indulgence, poor choices in food products, poor knowledge of nutrition. Most of this is made much worse by well-funded advertising campaigns by food manufacturers selling cheaper mass-produced food. Even some so-called "health foods" contain well over recommended limits of fat, salt and sugar56.

Smoking Rates (2014)40
Pos.Lower is better40
1Guinea 15
2Solomon Islands 26
3Kiribati 28
...
24India 111
25Eritrea 114
26Haiti 114
27Peru 116
28Somalia 117
29Ghana 121
30Benin 122
31Zimbabwe 134
World Avg 819
q=182.
Suicide Rate (2013)39
Pos.Lower is better
Per 100k39
1Haiti0
2Grenada0
3Egypt0.1
4Jordan0.2
5Maldives0.7
6Azerbaijan1.3
7S. Africa1.8
8Bahamas2.5
9Peru2.9
10Kuwait3.6
11Armenia3.9
12Dominican Rep.4.6
World Avg20.93
q=91.

9. Children's Health

#health #parenting #Peru #population #vaccines

Adolescent Birth Rate (2015)25
Pos.Lower is better
Per 100025
1N. Korea0.5
2S. Korea1.6
3Switzerland2.9
...
105Timor-Leste (E. Timor)46.6
106Chile47.8
107Solomon Islands48.4
108Peru49.1
109Indonesia49.6
110Colombia50.2
111St Vincent & Grenadines51.0
112Cambodia51.6
World Avg47.9
q=185.
Infant Immunizations 2011-2015 (2015)43
Pos.Higher is better
Avg %43
1Hungary99.0
2China99.0
3Uzbekistan98.9
...
120Montenegro89.9
121Zimbabwe89.7
122Senegal89.5
123Peru89.3
124Ireland89.2
125Sudan89.2
126Honduras88.8
127Kenya88.5
World Avg88.3
q=194.

10. More Charts and Comparisons to Other Countries

Personal Charitability
(World Position, 2013-2016)
57
Pos.Lower is better57
1Myanmar (Burma)1.25
2USA1.5
3New Zealand3.5
...
91Kazakhstan79.75
92Portugal80.25
93France80.5
94Peru83.75
95Comoros84
96Vietnam84.5
97Paraguay84.75
q=156.
Intellectual Endeavours (2017)30
Pos.Lower is better
Rank30
1Ukraine1
2Czechia2
3Hungary3
...
99Panama99
100Laos100
101Cameroon101
102Peru102
103Cape Verde103
104Swaziland104
105Albania105
q=163.
Creativity and Culture (2017)30
Pos.Lower is better
Rank30
1Belgium1
2Netherlands2
3Estonia3
...
87Senegal87
88Indonesia88
89Cambodia89
90Peru90
91Jordan91
92Haiti92
93Tunisia93
q=163.
Peacekeeping and Security (2017)30
Pos.Lower is better
Rank30
1Samoa1
2S. Africa2
3Tunisia3
...
94Bahamas94
95Mauritania95
96Nicaragua96
97Peru97
98Czechia98
99Lithuania99
100Luxembourg100
q=163.
Refugees and UN Treaties (2017)30
Pos.Lower is better
Rank30
1Austria1
2Germany2
3Netherlands3
...
92Belarus92
93Ghana93
94Qatar94
95Peru95
96Gabon96
97Russia97
98Papua New Guinea98
q=163.
Open Trading, Aid and Development (2017)30
Pos.Lower is better
Rank30
1Ireland1
2Denmark2
3Sweden3
...
93Mozambique93
94Guinea94
95Ivory Coast95
96Peru96
97Libya97
98Czechia98
99Israel99
q=163.
Research and Development (2016)
Pos.Higher is better
% RDP PPP
1S. Korea4.2958
2Israel4.1158
3Japan3.5858
...
107Madagascar0.1159
108Philippines0.1160
109Myanmar (Burma)0.1161
110Peru0.1062
111Paraguay0.0963
112Congo, DR0.0864
113Indonesia0.0865
114Saudi Arabia0.0764
q=126.
Life Satisfaction (2011)66
Pos.Higher is better66
1Denmark7.8
2Norway7.6
3Netherlands7.6
...
59Jordan5.7
60Poland5.6
61Ghana5.6
62Peru5.6
63Croatia5.6
64Montenegro5.5
65Hong Kong5.5
66Kazakhstan5.5
q=150.
Gross National Income Per-Capita (2011)16
Pos.Higher is better
PPP $16
1Qatar$129 916
2Singapore$78 162
3Kuwait$76 075
...
90Nauru$12 058
91Iraq$11 608
92Grenada$11 502
93Peru$11 295
94Sri Lanka$10 789
95Ecuador$10 536
96Mongolia$10 449
97Maldives$10 383
q=193.
Environmental Performance (2018)67
Pos.Higher is better67
1Switzerland87.4
2France84.0
3Denmark81.6
...
61Kuwait62.3
62Jordan62.2
63Armenia62.1
64Peru61.9
65Montenegro61.3
66Egypt61.2
67Lebanon61.1
68Macedonia61.1
q=180.
IQ (2006)68
Pos.Higher is better68
1Hong Kong108
2Singapore108
3S. Korea106
...
71Philippines86
72Yemen85
73Trinidad & Tobago85
74Peru85
75Cuba85
76Venezuela84
77Colombia84
78Jordan84
q=138.