The Human Truth Foundation

Peru (Republic of Peru)

By Vexen Crabtree 2013

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#Peru

Peru
Republic of Peru
StatusIndependent State
Social and Moral Index77th best
CapitalLima
Land Area11 280 000 km2
LocationSouth America, The Americas
Population2 29.73 million
Life Expectancy374.194yrs (2012)
GNI3$9 306
ISO3166-1 Codes4PE, PER, 604
Internet Domain5.pe
Currency6Sol (PEN)
Telephone7+51

1. Overview

Ancient Peru was the seat of several prominent Andean civilizations, most notably that of the Incas whose empire was captured by Spanish conquistadors in 1533. Peruvian independence was declared in 1821, and remaining Spanish forces were defeated in 1824. After a dozen years of military rule, Peru returned to democratic leadership in 1980, but experienced economic problems and the growth of a violent insurgency. President Alberto FUJIMORI's election in 1990 ushered in a decade that saw a dramatic turnaround in the economy and significant progress in curtailing guerrilla activity. Nevertheless, the president's increasing reliance on authoritarian measures and an economic slump in the late 1990s generated mounting dissatisfaction with his regime, which led to his ouster in 2000. A caretaker government oversaw new elections in the spring of 2001, which installed Alejandro TOLEDO Manrique as the new head of government - Peru's first democratically elected president of indigenous Quechuan ethnicity. The presidential election of 2006 saw the return of Alan GARCIA Perez who, after a disappointing presidential term from 1985 to 1990, oversaw a robust economic rebound. In June 2011, former army officer Ollanta HUMALA Tasso was elected president, defeating Keiko FUJIMORI Higuchi, the daughter of Alberto FUJIMORI. Since his election, HUMALA has carried on the sound, market-oriented economic policies of the three preceeding administrations.

CIA's The World Factbook (2013)8

2. Peru National and Social Development

UN's Human Development Index
Country2012
score
Average
1980-2010
1Norway95.587.3
2Australia93.888.9
3USA93.787.8
...
74Dominica74.571.1
75Georgia74.572.9
76Iran74.257.9
77Peru74.164.5
78Ukraine74.070.0
79Macedonia74.072.6
80Mauritius73.764.1
81Bosnia & Herzegovina73.573.1
82Azerbaijan73.469.9
83St Vincent & Grenadines73.371.5
84Oman73.170.4
85Jamaica73.066.2
86Brazil73.063.2
Data Source
Social and Moral Development
CountryScore
1Sweden88.9
2Iceland87.4
3Denmark87.2
...
74Dominican Rep.59.9
75Nicaragua59.5
76Mongolia59.5
77Peru59.1
78Belarus58.9
79Kyrgyzstan58.8
80Philippines58.6
81Bosnia & Herzegovina58.1
82Guyana57.9
83Georgia57.2
84S. Africa57.2
85Cuba57.2
86Palau56.7
87Cape Verde56.6
Data Source

The United Nations produces an annual Human Development Report which includes the Human Development Index. The factors taken into account include life expectancy, education and schooling and Gross National Income (GNI) amongst many others. The values in the chart are factored by 100.

The Social and Moral Development Index is a formulaic aggregation of many factors. It concentrates on moral issues and human rights, violence, equality, tolerance, freedom and effectiveness in climate change mitigation and environmentalism. A country scores higher for achieving well in those areas, and for sustaining that achievement in the long term. Those countries towards the top of this index can truly said to be setting good examples and leading humankind onwards into a bright, humane, and free future. See: "What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life" by Vexen Crabtree (2017).

3. Population and Life Expectancy

Life Expectancy (at birth)
1Japan83.6
2Hong Kong83
3Switzerland82.5
...
75Cape Verde74.3
76Thailand74.3
77Nicaragua74.3
78Peru74.2
79Turkey74.2
80Romania74.2
81Saudi Arabia74.1
82Georgia73.9
Data Source
Fertility Rate
1Korea, N.2.0
2Brunei2.0
3St Vincent & Grenadines2.0
...
60Ecuador2.4
61Mauritius1.6
62Panama2.4
63Peru2.4
64Barbados1.6
65China1.6
66Serbia1.6
67Libya2.4
Data Source
Population (m=millions)
CountryPeoplePer km2
1China1 353.6m145
2India1 258.35m423
3USA 315.79m35
...
40Morocco 32.6m73
41Nepal 31.01m216
42Venezuela 29.89m34
43Peru 29.73m23
44Malaysia 29.32m89
45Saudi Arabia 28.71m13
46Uzbekistan 28.08m66
Data Source

Peru's population is predicted to rise to 35.49 million by 2030. These millions of extra people will all need space to live, food to eat, energy to consume, and will increase the burden on the planet's resources. This country has a fertility rate of 2.43.

The fertility rate is, in simple terms, the average amount of children that each woman has. The higher the figure, the quicker the population is growing, although, to calculate the rate you also need to take into account morbidity, i.e., the rate at which people die. If people live healthy and long lives and morbidity is low, then, 2.0 approximates to the replacement rate, which would keep the population stable. If all countries had such a fertility rate, population growth would end. The actual replacement rate in most developed countries is around 2.1.

4. Gender Equality

Female Vote and Stand
1New Zealand1893
2Australia1902
3Finland1906
...
103Nicaragua1955
104Eritrea1955
105Cambodia1955
106Peru1955
107Ethiopia1955
108Mali1956
109Benin1956
110Mauritius1956
Gender Equality
1Netherlands0.04
2Sweden0.05
3Denmark0.06
...
70Mauritius0.38
71Argentina0.38
72Mexico0.38
73Peru0.39
74Algeria0.39
75Sri Lanka0.40
76Rwanda0.41
77Philippines0.42
Data Source

Gender inequality is not a necessary part of early human development. Although a separation of roles is almost universal due to different strengths between the genders, this does not have to mean that women are subdued, and, such patriarchialism is not universal in ancient history. Those cultures and peoples who shed, or never developed, the idea that mankind ought to dominate womankind, are better cultures and peoples than those who, even today, cling violently to those mores.

The 1950s saw a late rush of 43 countries, including Peru and many developing nations, move to cease preventing women from voting. Peru has made some steps towards ending gender inequality but much more needs to be done.

See:

5. Religion and Beliefs

#buddhism #christianity #hinduism #islam #judaism

Disbelief In God
1Vietnam81%
2Japan65%
3Sweden64%
...
78Nicaragua1%
79Guatemala1%
80Honduras1%
81Peru1%
82Bolivia1%
83Panama1%
84Brazil1%
85Paraguay1%
Data Source
How Many Are Religious?
1Estonia16%
2Sweden17%
3Denmark19%
...
53El Salvador83%
54Honduras84%
55Iraq84%
56Peru84%
57Nicaragua84%
58Romania84%
59Tajikistan85%
60S. Africa85%
Data Source

Data from the Pew Forum, a professional polling outfit, states that in 2010 the religious makeup of this country was as follows in the table below9:

Christian95.5%
Muslim0.1%
Hindu0.1%
Buddhist0.2%
Folk Religion1%
Jew0.1%
Unaffiliated3%

The CIA World Factbook has slightly different data, and states: Roman Catholic 81.3%, Evangelical 12.5%, other 3.3%, unspecified or none 2.9% (2007 Census)10.

Links:

6. The Internet

IT Security Risks
271USA3.68
270Russia2.42
269India2.10
...
207Taiwan0.44
206Pakistan0.38
205Latvia0.33
204Peru0.30
203Hungary0.27
202Argentina0.27
201Czech Rep.0.24
200Philippines0.24
Data Source
Internet Users in Population
1Iceland95.64
2Norway93.28
3Netherlands90.70
...
81Argentina36.00
82Venezuela35.85
83China34.38
84Peru34.30
85Grenada33.62
86Kazakhstan33.38
87Belarus32.05
88Suriname31.57
Data Source

Internet access has become an essential research tool. It facilitates an endless list of life improvements, from the ability to network and socialize without constraint, to access to a seemingly infinite repository of technical and procedural information on pretty much any task. The universal availability of data has sped up industrial development and personal learning at the national and personal level. Individuals can read any topic they wish regardless of the locality of expert teachers, and, entire nations can develop their technology and understanding of the world simply because they are now exposed to advanced societies and moral discourses online. Like every communications medium, the Internet has issues and causes a small range of problems, but these are insignificant compared to the advantages of having an online populace.

Links:

7. More Charts and Comparisons to Other Countries

Personal Charitability (2013-2016)11
CountryValue11
1Myanmar (Burma)1.25
2USA1.5
3New Zealand3.5
...
91Kazakhstan79.75
92Portugal80.25
93France80.5
94Peru83.75
95Comoros84
96Vietnam84.5
97Paraguay84.75
98Argentina86.5
Economic Freedom
1Hong Kong9.0
2Singapore8.8
3New Zealand8.4
...
23Kuwait7.6
24Norway7.6
25Austria7.6
26Peru7.6
27Sweden7.6
28Lithuania7.6
29Malta7.6
30Germany7.6
Data Source
Global Peace Index
1Iceland1.11
2New Zealand1.24
3Denmark1.24
...
76Paraguay1.97
77Greece1.98
78Senegal1.99
79Peru2.00
80Nepal2.00
81Nicaragua2.01
82Montenegro2.01
83Brazil2.02
Data Source
Average IQ
1Singapore108
2Korea, S.106
3Taiwan105
...
70Cuba85
71Trinidad & Tobago85
72Yemen85
73Peru85
74Saudi Arabia84
75Colombia84
76Venezuela84
77Paraguay84
Data Source
Human Rights Treaties
1Argentina24
2Ecuador23
3Germany23
...
10Chile23
11Costa Rica23
12Paraguay23
13Peru23
14Austria22
15Denmark22
16Croatia22
17Italy22
Data Source
Press Freedom Index
1Finland99.0
2Netherlands99.0
3Norway99.0
...
101Albania99.3
102Maldives99.3
103Uganda99.3
104Peru99.3
105Kyrgyzstan99.3
106Fiji99.3
107Brazil99.3
108Bolivia99.3
Data Source
R & D Spending
Country% RDP PPP
1Korea, S.4.2912
2Israel4.1112
3Japan3.5812
...
107Madagascar0.1113
108Myanmar (Burma)0.1114
109Philippines0.1115
110Peru0.1016
111Paraguay0.0917
112Congo, DR0.0818
113Indonesia0.0819
114Saudi Arabia0.0718
Gross National Income
1Qatar$87 478
2Liechtenstein$84 880
3Kuwait$52 793
...
80Serbia$9 533
81Macedonia$9 377
82St Vincent & Grenadines$9 367
83Peru$9 306
84Grenada$9 257
85Colombia$8 711
86Dominican Rep.$8 506
87Azerbaijan$8 153
Data Source
Happiness
1Denmark7.8
2Netherlands7.6
3Norway7.6
...
57Turkmenistan5.8
58Jordan5.7
59Nicaragua5.7
60Peru5.6
61Croatia5.6
62Poland5.6
63Ghana5.6
64Kazakhstan5.5
Data Source
Environmental Performance
1Iceland93.5
2Switzerland89.1
3Costa Rica86.4
...
26Belize69.9
27Antigua & Barbuda69.8
28Singapore69.6
29Peru69.3
30Ecuador69.3
31Denmark69.2
32Hungary69.1
33El Salvador69.1
Data Source
Gay Equality
1Netherlands405
2Belgium350
3Canada280
...
18Portugal135
19UK130
20Uruguay125
21Peru120
22Italy115
23Guatemala115
24Poland115
25Paraguay110
Data Source

Current edition: 2013 May 01
http://www.humantruth.info/peru.html
Parent page: Vexing International Issues

Social Media

References: (What's this?)

Charities Aid Foundation
World Giving Index. On www.cafonline.org.

CIA
(2013) World Factbook. The USA Government's Central Intelligence Agency (USA CIA) publishes The World Factbook, and the online version is frequently updated.

Crabtree, Vexen
(2017) "What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life" (2017). Accessed 2017 Feb 20.

Gallup
(2009) Religiosity. gallup.com/poll/142727/.... The survey question was "Is religion an important part of your daily life?" and results are charted for those who said "yes". 1000 adults were polled in each of 114 countries.

Lynn, Harvey & Nyborg
(2009) Average intelligence predicts atheism rates across 137 nations. Richard Lynn, John Harvey and Helmuth Nyborg article "Average intelligence predicts atheism rates across 137 nations" in Intelligence (2009 Jan/Feb) vol. 37 issue 1 pages 11-15. Online at www.sciencedirect.com, accessed 2009 Sep 15.

OECD
(2016) Research and development (R&D) - Gross domestic spending on R&D. Data from data.oecd.org. Accessed 2016 Sep 28.

UNESCO
Research and Development and a Percent of GDP PPP. Data from unesdoc.unesco.org. Accessed 2016 Sep 30.

United Nations
(2011) Human Development Report. This edition had the theme of Sustainability and Equity: A Better Future for All. Published on the United Nation's website at hdr.undp.org/.../HDR_2011_EN_Complete.pdf (accessed throughout 2013, Jan-Mar). UN Development Program: About the Human Development Index.
(2013) Human Development Report. This edition had the theme of The Rise of the South: Human Progress in a Diverse World. Published on the United Nation's HDR website at hdr.undp.org/.../hdr2013/ (accessed throughout 2013). UN Development Program: About the Human Development Index.

World Bank
Research and Development and a Percent of GDP PPP. Data from databank.worldbank.org. Accessed 2016 Sep 29.

Footnotes

  1. World Bank data on data.worldbank.org accessed 2013 Nov 04.^
  2. UN (2011) .^
  3. UN (2013) .^
  4. International Standards Organisation (ISO) standard ISO3166-1, on www.iso.org, accessed 2013 May 01.^
  5. Top level domains (TLDs) are managed by the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) on www.iana.org.^
  6. According to ISO4217.^
  7. According to ITU-T.^
  8. CIA (2013) https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/pe.html accessed 2014 Apr 27.^
  9. Pew Forum (2012) publication "The Global Religious Landscape: A Report on the Size and Distribution of the World´s Major Religious Groups as of 2010" (2012 Dec 18) accessed 2013 May 01.^
  10. CIA (2013) https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/ar.html accessed 2014 Apr 27.^
  11. Charities Aid Foundation . Average ranking across years 2013-2016. Lower is better.^
  12. OECD (2016) data for year 2014.^
  13. World Bank data for year 2011.^
  14. World Bank data for year 2000.^
  15. World Bank data for year 2007.^
  16. UNESCO data for year 2007.^
  17. World Bank data for year 2012.^
  18. World Bank data for year 2009.^
  19. World Bank data for year 2013.^

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