The Human Truth Foundation

Gabon (Gabonese Republic)

By Vexen Crabtree 2013


Comments:
FB, LJ

#charity #economics #gabon #homosexuality #morals #research #science #the_environment

Gabon
Gabonese Republic
StatusIndependent State
CapitalLibreville
Land Area 257 670km21
LocationAfrica
Population1.6m (2011)2
Life Expectancy64.94yrs (2017)3
GNI$19 044 (2017)4
ISO3166-1 CodesGA, GAB, 2665
Internet Domain.ga6
CurrencyFranc (XAF)7
Telephone+2418

1. Overview

El Hadj Omar BONGO Ondimba - one of the longest-serving heads of state in the world - dominated the country's political scene for four decades (1967-2009) following independence from France in 1960. President BONGO introduced a nominal multiparty system and a new constitution in the early 1990s. However, allegations of electoral fraud during local elections in 2002-03 and the presidential elections in 2005 exposed the weaknesses of formal political structures in Gabon. Following President BONGO's death in 2009, new elections brought Ali BONGO Ondimba, son of the former president, to power. Despite constrained political conditions, Gabon's small population, abundant natural resources, and considerable foreign support have helped make it one of the more prosperous and stable African countries.

CIA's The World Factbook (2013)9

Book CoverGabon is Africa´s last Eden, a realm of largely untouched natural riches; with its wealth of national parks it may just be, for the traveller, ecotourism heaven. Unlike many of its neighbours, this slab of equatorial Africa enjoys both peace and stability, while its superb wildlife makes it an increasingly popular place to safari away from the crowds of East Africa. With its seemingly endless rainforest now safeguarded by the 2003 decision to turn an incredible 10% of the country into protected national parkland, Gabon is Central Africa´s most progressive and traveller-friendly destination, although the competition is admittedly not too fierce.Despite being far ahead of its unstable, war-torn neighbours, tourism in Gabon remains DIY – you either put yourself in the hands of a travel agency, or negotiate the poor roads, infrequent transport and almost total lack of reliable infrastructure yourself. Outside cosmopolitan Libreville, the country´s only real city, Gabon is an undiscovered wonderland of thick jungle, white-sand beaches, rushing rivers and ethereal landscapes. Bring either plenty of money or plenty of patience, but don´t miss out on this Eden-like travel experience.

"The World" by Lonely Planet (2014)10

2. Gabon National and Social Development

#human_development

UN HDI (2016)11
Pos.Lower is better
Rank11
1Norway1
2Australia2
3Switzerland2
...
106Uzbekistan105
107Moldova107
108Botswana108
109Gabon109
110Paraguay110
111Egypt111
112Turkmenistan111
113Indonesia113
World Avg94.3
q=188.
Social & Moral
Development Index
12
Pos.Higher is better
Points12
1Denmark84.2
2Sweden83.7
3Finland83.5
...
175Pakistan41.2
176Tuvalu40.9
177Ivory Coast40.1
178Gabon40.0
179Papua New Guinea40.0
180Nigeria39.6
181Congo, (Brazzaville)39.1
182Palestine38.9
World Avg54.1
q=198.

The United Nations produces an annual Human Development Report which includes the Human Development Index. The factors taken into account include life expectancy, education and schooling and Gross National Income (GNI) amongst many others..

The Social and Moral Development Index concentrates on moral issues and human rights, violence, public health, equality, tolerance, freedom and effectiveness in climate change mitigation and environmentalism, and on some technological issues. A country scores higher for achieving well in those areas, and for sustaining that achievement in the long term. Those countries towards the top of this index can truly said to be setting good examples and leading humankind onwards into a bright, humane, and free future. See: What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life.

3. Population and Demographics

#demographics #Gabon #health #immigration #life_expectancy #overpopulation #population

Old-Age Dependency Ratio (2016)13
Pos.Lower is better
Per 10013
1Uganda04.3
2Mali04.5
3Chad04.7
...
54Laos08.1
55Timor-Leste (E. Timor)08.2
56Belize08.3
57Gabon08.5
58Pakistan08.6
59Bahrain08.7
60Syria09.0
61Djibouti09.1
World Avg18.3
q=185.
Emigrants (2010)14
Pos.
%14
1Dominica104.8
2Palestine68.4
3Samoa67.3
...
158S. Africa1.7
159Iran1.7
160Libya1.7
161Gabon1.7
162Vanuatu1.6
163Djibouti1.5
164Timor-Leste (E. Timor)1.4
165Zambia1.4
World Avg11.5
q=192.
Fertility Rate (2013)15
Pos.2.0 is best15
1Korea, N.2.00
2Brunei1.99
3St Vincent & Grenadines2.01
...
125Zimbabwe3.15
126Tajikistan3.19
127Haiti3.19
128Gabon3.20
129Swaziland3.21
130Bolivia3.25
131Pakistan3.25
132Micronesia3.33
World Avg2.81
q=180.

Immigrants (2010)14
Pos.
%14
1Qatar86.5
2Monaco71.6
3UAE70.0
...
23Canada21.3
24Ireland19.6
25Kazakhstan19.5
26Gabon18.9
27Lebanon17.8
28Cyprus17.5
29Gambia16.6
30Croatia15.9
World Avg9.2
q=192.
Life Expectancy (2015)16
Pos.Higher is better
Years16
1Hong Kong84.16
2Japan83.68
3Italy83.34
...
143Madagascar65.52
144Tanzania65.51
145Namibia65.06
146Gabon64.94
147Rwanda64.75
148Ethiopia64.60
149Botswana64.51
150Eritrea64.19
World Avg71.27
q=190.
Population (2012)17
Pos.The Overpopulation of the Earth17
1China1.4b
2India1.3b
3USA315.8m
...
146Qatar1.9m
147Gambia1.8m
148Guinea-Bissau1.6m
149Gabon1.6m
150Bahrain1.4m
151Trinidad & Tobago1.4m
152Estonia1.3m
153Mauritius1.3m
World Avg36.0m
q=195.

Gabon's population is predicted to rise to 2.146 million by 2030. This country has a fertility rate of 3.20. The fertility rate is, in simple terms, the average amount of children that each woman has. The higher the figure, the quicker the population is growing, although, to calculate the rate you also need to take into account morbidity, i.e., the rate at which people die. If people live healthy and long lives and morbidity is low, then, 2.0 approximates to the replacement rate, which would keep the population stable. If all countries had such a fertility rate, population growth would end. The actual replacement rate in most developed countries is around 2.1.

4. Politics and Freedom

#burundi #corruption #eritrea #france #freedom #Gabon #human_development #human_rights #indonesia #mass_media #peace #politics #slavery

Corruption (2012-2016)18
Pos.Higher is better
Avg Score18
1Denmark90.8
2New Zealand90.6
3Finland89.4
...
99Philippines35.6
100Algeria35.2
101Armenia35.0
102Gabon35.0
103Albania34.4
104Egypt34.2
105Argentina34.2
106Niger34.2
World Avg43.05
q=176.
Global Peace Index (2012)19
Pos.Lower is better19
1Iceland1.11
2New Zealand1.24
3Denmark1.24
...
72Tunisia1.96
73Cyprus1.96
74Gambia1.96
75Gabon1.97
76Paraguay1.97
77Greece1.98
78Senegal1.99
79Peru2.00
World Avg2.02
q=157.
Nominal Commitment to HR (2009)20
Pos.Higher is better
Treaties20
1Argentina24
2Chile23
3Costa Rica23
...
95Burundi16
96Nigeria16
97Benin16
98Gabon16
99San Marino16
100Cambodia16
101Sierra Leone15
102Chad15
World Avg15.1
q=194.

Personal, Civil & Economic Freedom (2014)21
Pos.Lower is better
Rank21
1Hong Kong1
2Switzerland2
3New Zealand3
...
132Niger132
133Sierra Leone133
134Swaziland134
135Gabon135
136Togo136
137Bangladesh137
138Belize138
139Congo, (Brazzaville)139
World Avg79.7
q=159.
Press Freedom (2013)22
Pos.Lower is better22
1Finland638
2Netherlands648
3Norway652
...
85Guinea2849
86Bulgaria2858
87Madagascar2862
88Gabon2869
89Timor-Leste (E. Timor)2872
90Paraguay2878
91Guinea-Bissau2894
92Seychelles2919
World Avg3249
q=178.
Slavery (2018)23
Pos.Lower is better
% Victims23
1Japan0.03
2Canada0.05
3Taiwan0.05
...
94Indonesia0.47
95Ghana0.48
96Iraq0.48
97Gabon0.48
98Sierra Leone0.50
99Uzbekistan0.52
100Armenia0.53
101Mozambique0.54
World Avg0.65
q=167.

The taking of slaves has been an unwholesome feature of Human cultures since prehistory24. Private households and national endeavours have frequently been augmented with the use of slaves. The Egyptian and Roman empires both thrived on them for both purposes. Aside from labourers they are often abused sexually by their owners and their owners' friends25. The era of colonialism and the beginnings of globalisation changed nothing: the imprisonment and forced movements of labour continued to destroy many lives except that new justifications were invented based on Christian doctrine and the effort to convert non-Christians. By 1786 over 12 million slaves had been extracted from Africa and sent to colonial labour camps, with a truly atrocious condition of life26. But they were not the only ones to blame; in Africa internal nations such as the Asantes sold and bought tens of thousands of slaves27.

The abolition of the slave trade was a long and slow process. Until a relatively modern time, even philosophers, religious leaders and those concerned with ethics justified, or ignored, the problem of slavery28. The first abolitionists were always the slaves themselves. Their protests and rebellions caused the industry to become too expensive to continue. After that, it was the economic costs of maintain slave colonies that led the British to reject and then oppose the slave trade globally. Finally, the enlightenment-era thinkers of France encouraged moral and ethical thinking including the declaration of the inherent value of human life and human dignity29. A long-overdue wave of compassionate and conscientious movements swept across the West, eliminating public support for slavery, until the industries and churches that supported it had no choice but to back down.

'Modern slavery' includes forced labour (often of the under-age), debt bondage (especially generational), sexual slavery, chattel slavery and other forms of abuse, some of which can be surprisingly difficult to detect, but often target those fleeing from warzones and the vulnerable.30. Some industries (diamond, clothing, coal) from some countries (Burundi23, Eritrea23, Indonesia31) are a particular concern. The Walk Free Foundation, say that in 2016, 40.3 million people were living in modern slavery32.

5. Gender Equality

#Gabon #gender #misogyny #politics #women

Gender Inequality (2015)33
Pos.Lower is better33
1Switzerland0.04
2Denmark0.04
3Netherlands0.04
...
124Zambia0.53
125India0.53
126Zimbabwe0.54
127Gabon0.54
128Qatar0.54
129Tanzania0.54
130Pakistan0.55
131Ghana0.55
World Avg0.36
q=159.
Year Women Can Vote34
Pos.Lower is better
Year34
1New Zealand1893
2Australia1902
3Finland1906
...
109Benin1956
110Mauritius1956
111Somalia1956
112Gabon1956
113Egypt1956
114Comoros1956
115Malaysia1957
116Laos1958
World Avg1930
q=189.

Gender inequality is not a necessary part of early human development. Although a separation of roles is almost universal due to different strengths between the genders, this does not have to mean that women are subdued, and, such patriarchialism is not universal in ancient history. Those cultures and peoples who shed, or never developed, the idea that mankind ought to dominate womankind, are better cultures and peoples than those who, even today, cling violently to those mores.

The 1950s saw a late rush of 43 countries, including Gabon and many developing nations, move to cease preventing women from voting. Gabon is an unequal country, with male rights dominating those of women.

See:

6. Religion and Beliefs

#buddhism #christianity #hinduism #islam #judaism

Data from the Pew Forum, a professional polling outfit, states that in 2010 the religious makeup of this country was as follows in the table below35:

Christian76.5%
Muslim11.2%
Hindu0.1%
Buddhist0.1%
Folk Religion6%
Jew0.1%
Unaffiliated5.6%

The CIA World Factbook has slightly different data, and states simply: Christian 55%-75%, animist, Muslim less than 1%36.

Links:

7. The Internet

#Gabon #internet #the_internet

Internet Users (2016)37
Pos.Higher is better37
1Iceland100%
2Faroe Islands99%
3Norway98%
...
173Papua New Guinea12%
174Djibouti12%
175Cambodia11%
176Gabon10%
177Burkina Faso10%
178Solomon Islands10%
179Liberia9%
180Congo, (Brazzaville)8%
World Avg48.1%
q=201.
IPv6 Uptake (2017)38
Pos.Higher is better
Ratio38
1Belgium55.4
2Germany41.8
3Switzerland35.1
...
162Belize0.0
163Suriname0.0
164Grenada0.0
165Gabon0.0
166Lebanon0.0
167St Lucia0.0
168Dominica0.0
169Cuba0.0
World Avg3.82
q=176.

Internet access has become an essential research tool. It facilitates an endless list of life improvements, from the ability to network and socialize without constraint, to access to a seemingly infinite repository of technical and procedural information on pretty much any task. The universal availability of data has sped up industrial development and personal learning at the national and personal level. Individuals can read any topic they wish regardless of the locality of expert teachers, and, entire nations can develop their technology and understanding of the world simply because they are now exposed to advanced societies and moral discourses online. Like every communications medium, the Internet has issues and causes a small range of problems, but these are insignificant compared to the advantages of having an online populace.

8. Public Health Issues

#alcohol #Gabon #health #parenting #population #smoking #vaccines

Adolescent Birth Rate (2015)33
Pos.Lower is better
Per 100033
1Korea, N.0.5
2Korea, S.1.6
3Switzerland2.9
...
160Togo92.0
161Lesotho92.7
162Dominican Rep.97.9
163Gabon99.9
164Somalia103.9
165Cameroon104.6
166Burkina Faso108.5
167Equatorial Guinea108.7
World Avg47.9
q=185.
Alcohol Consumption (2010)39
Pos.Lower is better
Per Capita39
1Libya0.1
2Pakistan0.1
3Kuwait0.1
...
157St Lucia10.4
158Switzerland10.7
159Namibia10.8
160Gabon10.9
161New Zealand10.9
162Belgium11.0
163S. Africa11.0
164Spain11.2
World Avg6.2
q=191.
Food Aid, Health Contributions & WHO Compliance (2017)40
Pos.Lower is better
Rank40
1Sweden1
2Ireland2
3Denmark3
...
125Burkina Faso125
126Mauritius126
127Congo, DR127
128Gabon128
129Ivory Coast129
130Mongolia130
131Afghanistan131
132Suriname132
World Avg82.0
q=163.

Infant Immunizations 2011-2015 (2015)41
Pos.Higher is better
Avg %41
1Hungary99.0
2China99.0
3Uzbekistan98.9
...
159Mauritania79.9
160Lebanon79.4
161San Marino79.3
162Gabon78.7
163Micronesia78.2
164Philippines77.9
165Sweden77.8
166Ivory Coast76.9
World Avg88.3
q=194.
Smoking Rates (2014)42
Pos.Lower is better42
1Guinea 15
2Solomon Islands 26
3Kiribati 28
...
87S. Africa 537
88Iceland 551
89Norway 556
90Gabon 559
91Venezuela 565
92Uzbekistan 573
93Oman 577
94Malaysia 584
World Avg 819
q=182.

9. More Charts and Comparisons to Other Countries

Personal Charitability
(World Position, 2013-2016)
43
Pos.Lower is better43
1Myanmar (Burma)1.25
2USA1.5
3New Zealand3.5
...
96Vietnam84.5
97Paraguay84.75
98Argentina86.5
99Gabon86.75
100Bangladesh87.5
101Brazil88.5
102Mexico89.5
q=156.
Intellectual Endeavours (2017)40
Pos.Lower is better
Rank40
1Ukraine1
2Czechia2
3Hungary3
...
148Lesotho148
149Venezuela149
150Libya150
151Gabon151
152Sierra Leone152
153Cambodia153
154Zambia154
q=163.
Creativity and Culture (2017)40
Pos.Lower is better
Rank40
1Belgium1
2Netherlands2
3Estonia3
...
155Yemen155
156Iraq156
157Iran157
158Gabon158
159Central African Rep.159
160Burundi160
161Rwanda161
q=163.
Peacekeeping and Security (2017)40
Pos.Lower is better
Rank40
1Samoa1
2S. Africa2
3Tunisia3
...
78Turkey78
79Georgia79
80Albania80
81Gabon81
82Russia82
83Iran83
84Serbia84
q=163.
Refugees and UN Treaties (2017)40
Pos.Lower is better
Rank40
1Austria1
2Germany2
3Netherlands3
...
93Ghana93
94Qatar94
95Peru95
96Gabon96
97Russia97
98Papua New Guinea98
99Mexico99
q=163.
Open Trading, Aid and Development (2017)40
Pos.Lower is better
Rank40
1Ireland1
2Denmark2
3Sweden3
...
149India149
150Cameroon150
151Suriname151
152Gabon152
153Iraq153
154Paraguay154
155Grenada155
q=163.
Research and Development (2016)
Pos.Higher is better
% RDP PPP
1Korea, S.4.29
2Israel4.11
3Japan3.58
...
52Bulgaria0.65
53Ethiopia0.61
54Latvia0.60
55Gabon0.58
56Argentina0.58
57Mexico0.54
58Senegal0.54
59UAE0.49
q=126.
Gross National Income Per-Capita (2011)16
Pos.Higher is better
PPP $16
1Qatar$129 916
2Singapore$78 162
3Kuwait$76 075
...
60Panama$19 470
61Romania$19 428
62Uruguay$19 148
63Gabon$19 044
64Turkey$18 705
65Mauritius$17 948
66Azerbaijan$16 413
67Iran$16 395
q=193.
Environmental Performance (2018)44
Pos.Higher is better44
1Switzerland87.4
2France84.0
3Denmark81.6
...
137Chad45.3
138Myanmar (Burma)45.3
139Ivory Coast45.3
140Gabon45.1
141Ethiopia44.8
142S. Africa44.7
143Guinea-Bissau44.7
144Vanuatu44.6
q=180.
LGBT Equality (2017)45
Pos.Higher is better
Score45
1Netherlands103
2Belgium90
3Sweden86
...
107Djibouti11
108Mali11
109Tajikistan11
110Gabon10
111Bahamas10
112Kazakhstan8
113Korea, N.8
114Rwanda7
q=196.

Current edition: 2013 May 01
Last Modified: 2017 Jun 21
http://www.humantruth.info/gabon.html
Parent page: Compare International Statistics by Region and Continent

All #tags used on this page - click for more:

#alcohol #buddhism #burundi #charity #christianity #corruption #demographics #economics #eritrea #france #freedom #Gabon #gender #health #hinduism #homosexuality #human_development #human_rights #immigration #indonesia #internet #islam #judaism #life_expectancy #mass_media #misogyny #morals #overpopulation #parenting #peace #politics #population #research #science #slavery #smoking #the_environment #the_internet #vaccines #women

Social Media

References: (What's this?)

The Good Country Index. Published by The Good Country Inc., New York, USA. Website: goodcountry.org. The Good Country Index gauges how well countries are doing in helping international development. Edition 1.2 (2017) has 35 criteria.

Casely-Hayford, Gus
(2012) The Lost Kingdoms of Africa. Published by Bantram Press. A hardback book.

Charities Aid Foundation
World Giving Index. On www.cafonline.org.

CIA
(2013) World Factbook. The USA Government's Central Intelligence Agency (USA CIA) publishes The World Factbook, and the online version is frequently updated.

Crabtree, Vexen
(2018) "What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life" (2018). Accessed 2018 Aug 22.

The Fraser Institute
(2016) The Human Freedom Index. Published by The Cato Institute, The Fraser Institute and the Friedrich Naumann Foundation for Freedom. Covers data up to 2014. On www.fraserinstitute.org/.../human-freedom-index-2016.

Klein, Naomi
(2004) No Logo. Originally published 2000, HarperCollins, London, UK. A paperback book.

Lonely Planet
(2014) The World. Subtitled: "A Traveller's Guide to the Planet". Published by Lonely Planet, London, UK. Each chapter is devoted to a specific country and includes a list of the most interesting places to visit and a few other cultural notes.

McCall, Andrew
(1979) The Medieval Underworld. 2004 edition. Published by Sutton Publishing. A paperback book.

Thomson, Oliver
(1993) A History of Sin. Published by Canongate Press. A hardback book.

United Nations
(2011) Human Development Report. Published by the UN Development Programme. This edition had the theme of Sustainability and Equity: A Better Future for All. Available on hdr.undp.org/... UN Development Program: About the Human Development Index.
(2013) Human Development Report. Published by the UN Development Programme. This edition had the theme of The Rise of the South: Human Progress in a Diverse World. Available on hdr.undp.org/... UN Development Program: About the Human Development Index.
(2017) Human Development Report. Published by the UN Development Programme. Data for 2015. Available on hdr.undp.org/.

Walk Free Foundation
(2018) Global Slavery Index. Published on www.walkfreefoundation.org/.

World Health Organisation. (WHO)
(2014) Global Status Report on Alcohol and Health. A copy can be found on the WHO website. Accessed 2015 Jan 04. It "presents a comprehensive perspective on the global, regional and country consumption of alcohol, patterns of drinking, health consequences and policy responses in Member States" and was published in Geneva on 2014 May 12.

Footnotes

  1. World Bank data on data.worldbank.org accessed 2013 Nov 04.^
  2. UN (2011) .^
  3. UN (2017). Table 1.^
  4. UN (2017). Gross National Income, per person. Table 1.^
  5. International Standards Organisation (ISO) standard ISO3166-1, on www.iso.org, accessed 2013 May 01.^
  6. Top level domains (TLDs) are managed by the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) on www.iana.org.^
  7. According to ISO4217.^
  8. According to ITU-T.^
  9. CIA (2013). Https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/gb.html accessed 2014 Apr 27.^
  10. Lonely Planet (2014). Chapter "Gabon".^
  11. UN (2017). Table 1. Lower is better.^
  12. "What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life" by Vexen Crabtree (2018)^
  13. UN (2017). Dashboard 2. Higher is worse. Old-age is counted as 65+, and ratio is of these to people ages 15-64. Projections are for 2030 based on medium-fertility variant of growth.^
  14. UN (2013). Table 11.^
  15. UN (2013). Table 14. Births per woman (2012), expressed as deviance (positive or negative) from the value of 2.0.^
  16. UN (2017). Table 1. Higher is better.^^
  17. UN (2013). Table 14.^
  18. Transparency International Corruption Perceptions Index (2017). Accessed 2017 Dec 30. The scores given are the TI average for the years 2012-2016.^
  19. ^
  20. Max possible=24. Total amount of treaties ratified. Nominal Commitment to Human Rights report published by UCL School of Public Policy, London, UK, at ucl.ac.uk/spp/research/research-projects/nchr accessed 2011 Apr 30.^
  21. Fraser Institute, the (2016). Covers data for 2014.^
  22. Reporters Without Borders Report "2013 World Press Freedom Index: Dashed hopes after spring" at fr.rsf.org/.../classement_2013_gb-bd.pdf accessed 2013 Feb.^
  23. Walk Free Foundation (2018) .^
  24. Thomson (1993). P28.^
  25. McCall (1979). P180.^
  26. Thomson (1993). P166.^
  27. Casely-Hayford (2012). P253.^
  28. Thomson (1993). P31.^
  29. Thomson (1993). P199.^
  30. Thomson (1993). P28-29.^
  31. Klein (2004) .^
  32. Walk Free Foundation (2018). P2.^
  33. UN (2017). Table 5. Lower is better.^^
  34. "What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life: 2.6. Women Stand for Election & Vote" by Vexen Crabtree (2018)^
  35. Pew Forum (2012) publication "The Global Religious Landscape: A Report on the Size and Distribution of the World´s Major Religious Groups as of 2010" (2012 Dec 18) accessed 2013 May 01.^
  36. CIA (2013). Https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/ar.html accessed 2014 Apr 27.^
  37. internetlivestats.com/internet-users-by-country accessed 2017 Mar 10.^
  38. % of internet access via native IPv6 compared to IPv4. As of 2017 Jun 20, from http://www.cidr-report.org. Accessed 2017 Jun 20.^
  39. WHO (2014). Appendix 1. Alcohol Per Capita Consumption in liters of pure alcohol, 15+ years age population, consumed in 2010. Lower is better.^
  40. The Good Country Index (2017) .^^
  41. World Health Organisation data for 2011-2015 from 7 data series accessed 2017 May 21. Details in "Immunizations: International Statistics on Vaccines and the Autism Scare: 3. World Health Organisation Statistics" by Vexen Crabtree (2017).^
  42. Annual Cigarette Consumption Per Adult (age 15 and above) - compustible cigarettes. Euromonitor International (2014), via tobaccoatlas.org/topic/cigarette-use-globally/ . Accessed 2017 Jun 20.^
  43. Charities Aid Foundation. Average ranking across years 2013-2016. Lower is better.^
  44. Yale University Center for Environmental Law & Policy 2018 EPI.^
  45. Sources:^

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