The Human Truth Foundation

South Africa (Republic of South Africa)

By Vexen Crabtree 2013

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#south_africa

South Africa
Republic of South Africa
StatusIndependent State
Social and Moral Index74th best
CapitalPretoria (administrative), Cape Town (legislative), and Bloemfontein (judical)
Land Area1 213 090km21
LocationAfrica
Population50.7m (2011)2
Life Expectancy57.66yrs (2017)3
GNI$12 087 (2017)4
ISO3166-1 CodesZA, ZAF, 7105
Internet Domain.za6
CurrencyRand (ZAR)7
Telephone+278

1. Overview

#netherlands #UK

Dutch traders landed at the southern tip of modern day South Africa in 1652 and established a stopover point on the spice route between the Netherlands and the Far East, founding the city of Cape Town. After the British seized the Cape of Good Hope area in 1806, many of the Dutch settlers (the Boers) trekked north to found their own republics. The discovery of diamonds (1867) and gold (1886) spurred wealth and immigration and intensified the subjugation of the native inhabitants. The Boers resisted British encroachments but were defeated in the Boer War (1899-1902); however, the British and the Afrikaners, as the Boers became known, ruled together beginning in 1910 under the Union of South Africa, which became a republic in 1961 after a whites-only referendum. In 1948, the National Party was voted into power and instituted a policy of apartheid - the separate development of the races - which favored the white minority at the expense of the black majority. The African National Congress (ANC) led the opposition to apartheid and many top ANC leaders, such as Nelson MANDELA, spent decades in South Africa's prisons. Internal protests and insurgency, as well as boycotts by some Western nations and institutions, led to the regime's eventual willingness to negotiate a peaceful transition to majority rule. The first multi-racial elections in 1994 brought an end to apartheid and ushered in majority rule under an ANC-led government. South Africa since then has struggled to address apartheid-era imbalances in decent housing, education, and health care. ANC infighting, which has grown in recent years, came to a head in September 2008 when President Thabo MBEKI resigned, and Kgalema MOTLANTHE, the party's General-Secretary, succeeded him as interim president. Jacob ZUMA became president after the ANC won general elections in April 2009.

CIA's The World Factbook (2013)9

Book CoverAn astonishingly diverse region fused by its prolific wildlife, breathtaking landscapes and remnants of ancient culture, South Africa will etch itself onto your heart. When Archbishop Desmond Tutu called South Africa the `Rainbow Nation´, his words described the very essence of what makes this country extraordinary. Certainly, the blend of peoples and cultures that his oft-used moniker referred to is instantly evident, but the country´s diversity stretches far beyond its people.

Without straying beyond South Africa´s borders you can sleep under the stars in a desert or hike to snow-capped peaks. The hills of Zululand and the Wild Coast provide a bucolic antidote to the bustle of large cities like Johannesburg and Durban. Wildlife watching ranges from remote safari walks to up-close encounters with waddling penguins.

Variety continues in the cuisine, with delicate West Coast seafood, hearty Karoo meat feasts, fragrant Cape Malay stews and spicy Durban curries. And southwest of it all sits Cape Town, where gourmands, art lovers, thrill seekers and beach babes come together to sip, surf and sunbathe in beautiful surrounds.

"The World" by Lonely Planet (2014)10

2. South Africa National and Social Development

UN HDI (2016)
Lower is better

Rank11
1Norway1
2Australia2
3Switzerland2
...
116Philippines116
117El Salvador117
118Bolivia118
119S. Africa119
120Kyrgyzstan120
121Iraq121
122Cape Verde122
123Morocco123
World Avg94.3
q=188.
Social & Moral
Development Index
Higher is better

Points12
1Iceland84.1
2Sweden80.8
3Norway80.0
...
71Serbia56.4
72Uzbekistan56.3
73Macedonia56.3
74S. Africa56.3
75Qatar56.0
76Belize55.9
77Tajikistan55.8
78Bosnia & Herzegovina55.7
World Avg54.5
q=198.

The United Nations produces an annual Human Development Report which includes the Human Development Index. The factors taken into account include life expectancy, education and schooling and Gross National Income (GNI) amongst many others..

The Social and Moral Development Index concentrates on moral issues and human rights, violence, public health, equality, tolerance, freedom and effectiveness in climate change mitigation and environmentalism, and on some technological issues. A country scores higher for achieving well in those areas, and for sustaining that achievement in the long term. Those countries towards the top of this index can truly said to be setting good examples and leading humankind onwards into a bright, humane, and free future. See: What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life.

3. Population and Demographics

Old-Age Dependency Ratio (2016)
Lower is better

Per 10013
1Uganda04.3
2Mali04.5
3Chad04.7
...
71Cambodia10.4
72Egypt10.5
73Libya10.5
74S. Africa10.5
75Bangladesh10.6
76Nepal10.8
77Bhutan10.8
78Micronesia10.8
World Avg18.3
q=185.
Emigrants (2010)
%14
1Dominica104.8
2Palestine68.4
3Samoa67.3
...
155Australia2.1
156Serbia2.0
157Venezuela1.8
158S. Africa1.7
159Iran1.7
160Libya1.7
161Gabon1.7
162Vanuatu1.6
World Avg11.5
q=192.
Fertility Rate (2013)
2.0 is best
15
1Korea, N.2.00
2Brunei1.99
3St Vincent & Grenadines2.01
...
54Turkmenistan2.33
55Trinidad & Tobago1.63
56Montenegro1.63
57S. Africa2.39
58Iran1.60
59Venezuela2.41
60Ecuador2.41
61Mauritius1.59
World Avg2.81
q=180.

Immigrants (2010)
%14
1Qatar86.5
2Monaco71.6
3UAE70.0
...
90Congo, (Brazzaville)3.8
91Malta3.8
92Hungary3.7
93S. Africa3.7
94Argentina3.6
95Venezuela3.5
96Panama3.4
97Chad3.4
World Avg9.2
q=192.
Life Expectancy (2015)
Higher is better

Years16
1Hong Kong84.16
2Japan83.68
3Italy83.34
...
173Burkina Faso59.01
174Mali58.47
175Equatorial Guinea57.91
176S. Africa57.66
177Burundi57.12
178S. Sudan56.13
179Cameroon55.96
180Somalia55.71
World Avg71.27
q=190.
Population (2012)17
1China1.4b
2India1.3b
3USA315.8m
...
21France63.5m
22UK62.8m
23Italy61.0m
24S. Africa50.7m
25Myanmar (Burma)48.7m
26Korea, S.48.6m
27Tanzania47.7m
28Colombia47.6m
World Avg36.0m
q=195.

South Africa's population is predicted to rise to 54.71 million by 2030. These millions of extra people will all need space to live, food to eat, energy to consume, and will increase the burden on the planet's resources. This country has a fertility rate of 2.39. The fertility rate is, in simple terms, the average amount of children that each woman has. The higher the figure, the quicker the population is growing, although, to calculate the rate you also need to take into account morbidity, i.e., the rate at which people die. If people live healthy and long lives and morbidity is low, then, 2.0 approximates to the replacement rate, which would keep the population stable. If all countries had such a fertility rate, population growth would end. The actual replacement rate in most developed countries is around 2.1.

4. Gender Equality

Gender Inequality (2015)
Lower is better18
1Switzerland0.04
2Denmark0.04
3Netherlands0.04
...
87Sri Lanka0.39
88Ecuador0.39
89Colombia0.39
90S. Africa0.39
91Kyrgyzstan0.39
92Brazil0.41
93Jamaica0.42
94Algeria0.43
World Avg0.36
q=159.
Year Women Can Vote
Lower is better

Year19
1New Zealand1893
2Australia1902
3Finland1906
...
31St Lucia1924
32Turkmenistan1927
33UK1928
34S. Africa1930
35Sri Lanka1931
36Spain1931
37Maldives1932
38Uruguay1932
World Avg1930
q=189.

Gender inequality is not a necessary part of early human development. Although a separation of roles is almost universal due to different strengths between the genders, this does not have to mean that women are subdued, and, such patriarchialism is not universal in ancient history. Those cultures and peoples who shed, or never developed, the idea that mankind ought to dominate womankind, are better cultures and peoples than those who, even today, cling violently to those mores.

South Africa has made some steps towards ending gender inequality but much more needs to be done.

See:

5. Religion and Beliefs

#afterlife #buddhism #christianity #heaven #hell #hinduism #islam #judaism #universalism

Religiosity (2009)
Lower is better
%20
1Estonia16
2Sweden17
3Denmark19
...
56Peru84
57Iraq84
58Nicaragua84
59S. Africa85
60Tajikistan85
61Malta86
62Dominican Rep.87
63Brazil87
World Avg75.1
q=114.
Disbelief In God (2007)
Higher is better21
1Vietnam81
2Japan65
3Sweden64
...
78Honduras1
79Brazil1
80Ecuador1
81S. Africa1
82Venezuela1
83Peru1
84Guatemala1
85El Salvador1
World Avg9.9
q=137.

Data from the Pew Forum, a professional polling outfit, states that in 2010 the religious makeup of this country was as follows in the table below22:

Christian81.2%
Muslim1.7%
Hindu1.1%
Buddhist0.2%
Folk Religion0.4%
Jew0.1%
Unaffiliated14.9%

The CIA World Factbook has slightly different data, and states: Protestant 36.6% (Zionist Christian 11.1%, Pentecostal/Charismatic 8.2%, Methodist 6.8%, Dutch Reformed 6.7%, Anglican 3.8%), Catholic 7.1%, Muslim 1.5%, other Christian 36%, other 2.3%, unspecified 1.4%, none 15.1% (2001 census)23.

The Afterlife: Ipsos-NA in 2011 gathered some statistics on South Africa24. Despite the large numbers of Christians, not many have traditional beliefs in the afterlife - just 52%. Some people don't know what to believe (9%). Some believe that upon death, you simply cease to exist (9%). Also, 3% specifically believe in heaven but not in hell (which is nice - making them possible "universalists"). 5% believe in reincarnation.

Links:

6. The Internet

Freedom On The Internet (2012)
Lower is better
25
1Estonia10
2USA12
3Germany15
4Australia18
5Hungary19
6Philippines23
7Italy23
8UK25
9S. Africa26
10Argentina26
11Ukraine27
12Brazil27
World Avg46.7
q=47.
Internet Users (2016)
Higher is better
26
1Iceland100%
2Faroe Islands99%
3Norway98%
...
93Georgia53%
94China52%
95Vietnam52%
96S. Africa52%
97Dominican Rep.52%
98Uzbekistan51%
99Armenia50%
100Iran49%
World Avg48.1%
q=201.
IPv6 Uptake (2017)
Higher is better

Ratio27
1Belgium55.4
2Germany41.8
3Switzerland35.1
...
65Seychelles0.2
66Puerto Rico0.2
67Indonesia0.2
68S. Africa0.1
69Jersey0.1
70Sudan0.1
71Ukraine0.1
72Lithuania0.1
World Avg3.82
q=176.

IT Security (2013)
Lower is better
28
1Ireland0.11
2Luxembourg0.11
3Belize0.11
4Hong Kong0.12
5Mexico0.16
6Israel0.20
7Colombia0.22
8S. Africa0.22
9Japan0.22
10Philippines0.24
11Czech Rep.0.24
12Argentina0.27
World Avg0.98
q=81.

Internet access has become an essential research tool. It facilitates an endless list of life improvements, from the ability to network and socialize without constraint, to access to a seemingly infinite repository of technical and procedural information on pretty much any task. The universal availability of data has sped up industrial development and personal learning at the national and personal level. Individuals can read any topic they wish regardless of the locality of expert teachers, and, entire nations can develop their technology and understanding of the world simply because they are now exposed to advanced societies and moral discourses online. Like every communications medium, the Internet has issues and causes a small range of problems, but these are insignificant compared to the advantages of having an online populace.

7. Public Health Issues

Adolescent Birth Rate (2015)
Lower is better

Per 100018
1Korea, N.0.5
2Korea, S.1.6
3Switzerland2.9
...
99Thailand44.6
100Antigua & Barbuda44.8
101Fiji44.8
102S. Africa45.5
103Cuba45.6
104Suriname46.1
105Timor-Leste (E. Timor)46.6
106Chile47.8
World Avg47.9
q=185.
Alcohol Consumption (2010)
Lower is better

Per Capita29
1Libya0.1
2Pakistan0.1
3Kuwait0.1
...
160Gabon10.9
161New Zealand10.9
162Belgium11.0
163S. Africa11.0
164Spain11.2
165Bulgaria11.4
166Denmark11.4
167UK11.6
World Avg6.2
q=191.
Infant Immunizations 2011-2015 (2015)
Higher is better

Avg %30
1Hungary99.0
2China99.0
3Uzbekistan98.9
...
172Ethiopia73.9
173Pakistan73.0
174Liberia72.6
175S. Africa72.5
176Angola71.9
177Madagascar71.9
178Iraq70.7
179Afghanistan70.6
World Avg88.3
q=194.

Smoking Rates (2014)
Lower is better
31
1Guinea 15
2Solomon Islands 26
3Kiribati 28
...
84Pakistan 511
85Cape Verde 515
86Tajikistan 533
87S. Africa 537
88Iceland 551
89Norway 556
90Gabon 559
91Venezuela 565
World Avg 819
q=182.
Suicide Rate (2013)
Lower is better

Per 100k32
1Haiti0
2Grenada0
3Egypt0.1
4Jordan0.2
5Maldives0.7
6Azerbaijan1.3
7S. Africa1.8
8Bahamas2.5
9Peru2.9
10Kuwait3.6
11Armenia3.9
12Dominican Rep.4.6
World Avg20.93
q=91.

8. Politics and Freedom

Nominal Commitment to HR (2009)
Higher is better

Treaties33
1Argentina24
2Chile23
3Costa Rica23
...
36Macedonia20
37Slovakia20
38Honduras20
39S. Africa20
40Liechtenstein20
41Iceland20
42Romania20
43Bulgaria20
World Avg15.1
q=194.
Personal, Civil & Economic Freedom (2014)
Lower is better

Rank34
1Hong Kong1
2Switzerland2
3New Zealand3
...
71Bolivia71
72Indonesia72
73Turkey73
74S. Africa74
75Papua New Guinea74
76Nicaragua76
77Paraguay77
78Mexico77
World Avg79.7
q=159.
Press Freedom (2013)
Lower is better
35
1Finland638
2Netherlands648
3Norway652
...
48Haiti2409
49Korea, S.2448
50Comoros2452
51S. Africa2456
52Japan2517
53Argentina2567
54Moldova2601
55Hungary2609
World Avg3249
q=178.

9. More Charts and Comparisons to Other Countries

Anti-Semite Opinions
Lower is better

%36
1Laos0
2Philippines3
3Sweden4
...
65Chile37
66Azerbaijan37
67Ukraine38
68S. Africa38
69Belarus38
70Peru38
71Colombia41
72Hungary41
q=101.
Personal Charitability
(World Position, 2013-2016)
Lower is better
37
1Myanmar (Burma)1.25
2USA1.5
3New Zealand3.5
...
61Zambia51.5
62Sierra Leone51.67
63Kyrgyzstan52
64S. Africa53.25
65Nepal53.5
66Colombia55.75
67S. Sudan58
q=156.
Global Peace Index (2012)
Lower is better
38
1Iceland1.11
2New Zealand1.24
3Denmark1.24
...
123Guatemala2.29
124Mauritania2.30
125Thailand2.30
126S. Africa2.32
127Iran2.32
128Honduras2.34
129Turkey2.34
130Kyrgyzstan2.36
q=157.
Research and Development
Higher is better

% RDP PPP
1Korea, S.4.29
2Israel4.11
3Japan3.58
...
42Kenya0.79
43Ukraine0.76
44Morocco0.73
45S. Africa0.73
46Serbia0.73
47Hong Kong0.73
48Tunisia0.68
49Egypt0.68
q=126.
Life Satisfaction (2011)
Higher is better
39
1Denmark7.8
2Norway7.6
3Netherlands7.6
...
104Tunisia4.7
105Azerbaijan4.7
106Bosnia & Herzegovina4.7
107S. Africa4.7
108India4.6
109Serbia4.5
110Congo, (Brazzaville)4.5
111Bahrain4.5
q=150.
Gross National Income Per-Capita (2011)
Higher is better
PPP $16
1Qatar$129 916
2Singapore$78 162
3Kuwait$76 075
...
86Dominican Rep.$12 756
87Macedonia$12 405
88Serbia$12 202
89S. Africa$12 087
90Nauru$12 058
91Iraq$11 608
92Grenada$11 502
93Peru$11 295
q=193.
Environmental Performance (2010)
Higher is better
40
1Iceland93.5
2Switzerland89.1
3Costa Rica86.4
...
111Mozambique51.2
112Solomon Islands51.1
113Kuwait51.1
114S. Africa50.8
115Gambia50.3
116Libya50.1
117Honduras49.9
118Uganda49.8
q=162.
LGBT Equality (2013)
Higher is better

Score41
1Netherlands405
2Belgium350
3Canada280
4Sweden255
5Spain245
6S. Africa241
7Denmark225
8Iceland220
9Norway210
10Andorra210
11Argentina200
12Brazil196
q=211.
IQ (2006)
Higher is better42
1Singapore108
2Hong Kong108
3Korea, S.106
...
105Uganda73
106Kenya72
107Tanzania72
108S. Africa72
109Ghana71
110Jamaica71
111Zambia71
112Namibia70
q=138.

Current edition: 2013 May 01
Last Modified: 2017 Jun 21
http://www.humantruth.info/south_africa.html
Parent page: Compare International Statistics by Region and Continent

All #tags used on this page - click for more:

#afterlife #buddhism #christianity #heaven #hell #hinduism #islam #judaism #netherlands #south_africa #UK #universalism

Social Media

References: (What's this?)

Anti-Defamation League. (ADL)
(2014) ADL Global 100, Executive Summary. Accessed on global100.adl.org on 2017 Jan 02. The numbers given are of those who state that racist stereotyped statements about Jews are true; they have to agree to 6 or more of the 11 statements to be counted. An example statements is "Jews are hated because of the way they behave". The data was collected from 53,100 interviews across 101 countries plus the West Bank and Gaza. The global average is 26%.

Charities Aid Foundation
World Giving Index. On www.cafonline.org.

CIA
(2013) World Factbook. The USA Government's Central Intelligence Agency (USA CIA) publishes The World Factbook, and the online version is frequently updated.

Crabtree, Vexen
(2017) "What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life" (2017). Accessed 2017 Aug 01.

Gallup
(2009) Religiosity. gallup.com/poll/142727/.... The survey question was "Is religion an important part of your daily life?" and results are charted for those who said "yes". 1000 adults were polled in each of 114 countries.

Ipsos-NA. Ipsos-North America.
(2011) Supreme Being(s), the Afterlife and Evolution. Ipsos press release page, link to raw data. Accessed 2017 May 29. The poll was conducted in 23 developed and mostly rich countries - it would be unwise to use their irresponsibly extrapolated data on "global beliefs", but their data on individual countries is still good..

Lonely Planet
(2014) The World. Subtitled: "A Traveller's Guide to the Planet". Published by Lonely Planet, London, UK. Each chapter is devoted to a specific country and includes a list of the most interesting places to visit and a few other cultural notes..

Lynn, Harvey & Nyborg
(2009) Average intelligence predicts atheism rates across 137 nations. Richard Lynn, John Harvey and Helmuth Nyborg article "Average intelligence predicts atheism rates across 137 nations" in Intelligence (2009 Jan/Feb) vol. 37 issue 1 pages 11-15. Online at www.sciencedirect.com, accessed 2009 Sep 15.

The Fraser Institute
(2016) The Human Freedom Index. Published by The Cato Institute, The Fraser Institute and the Friedrich Naumann Foundation for Freedom. Covers data up to 2014. On www.fraserinstitute.org/.../human-freedom-index-2016..

United Nations
(2011) Human Development Report. This edition had the theme of Sustainability and Equity: A Better Future for All. Published on the United Nation's website at hdr.undp.org/.../HDR_2011_EN_Complete.pdf (accessed throughout 2013, Jan-Mar). UN Development Program: About the Human Development Index.
(2013) Human Development Report. This edition had the theme of The Rise of the South: Human Progress in a Diverse World. Published on the United Nation's HDR website at hdr.undp.org/.../hdr2013/ (accessed throughout 2013). UN Development Program: About the Human Development Index.
(2017) Human Development Report. Published by the UN Development Programme. Data for 2015. Analysis conducted by the UN Development Report Office. Available on hdr.undp.org/..

World Health Organisation. (WHO)
(2014) Global Status Report on Alcohol and Health. A copy can be found on the WHO website. Accessed 2015 Jan 04. It "presents a comprehensive perspective on the global, regional and country consumption of alcohol, patterns of drinking, health consequences and policy responses in Member States" and was published in Geneva on 2014 May 12.

Footnotes

  1. World Bank data on data.worldbank.org accessed 2013 Nov 04.^
  2. UN (2011) .^
  3. UN (2017) Table 1.^
  4. UN (2017) Gross National Income, per person. Table 1.^
  5. International Standards Organisation (ISO) standard ISO3166-1, on www.iso.org, accessed 2013 May 01.^
  6. Top level domains (TLDs) are managed by the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) on www.iana.org.^
  7. According to ISO4217.^
  8. According to ITU-T.^
  9. CIA (2013) https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/sf.html accessed 2014 Apr 27.^
  10. Lonely Planet (2014) chapter "South Africa" .^
  11. UN (2017) Table 1. Lower is better.^
  12. "What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life" by Vexen Crabtree (2017)^
  13. UN (2017) Dashboard 2. Higher is worse. Old-age is counted as 65+, and ratio is of these to people ages 15-64. Projections are for 2030 based on medium-fertility variant of growth.^
  14. UN (2013) Table 11.^
  15. UN (2013) Table 14. Births per woman (2012), expressed as deviance (positive or negative) from the value of 2.0.^
  16. UN (2017) Table 1. Higher is better.^^
  17. UN (2013) Table 14.^
  18. UN (2017) Table 5. Lower is better.^^
  19. "What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life: 3.6. Women Stand for Election & Vote (1893+) New Zealand, Australia, Finland" by Vexen Crabtree (2017)^
  20. Gallup (2009) .^
  21. Zuckerman, P. (2007). Atheism: contemporary numbers and patterns. In M.Martin (Ed.), The Cambridge Companion to Atheism. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. In "Average intelligence predicts atheism rates across 137 nations" by Lynn et al. (2009).^
  22. Pew Forum (2012) publication "The Global Religious Landscape: A Report on the Size and Distribution of the World´s Major Religious Groups as of 2010" (2012 Dec 18) accessed 2013 May 01.^
  23. CIA (2013) https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/ar.html accessed 2014 Apr 27.^
  24. Ipsos (2011) .^
  25. Freedom House publication "Freedom on the Net 2012" at www.freedomhouse.org/.../FOTN%202012%20-%20Tables%20and%20Charts%20FINAL.pdf accessed 2013 Feb 05.^
  26. internetlivestats.com/internet-users-by-country accessed 2017 Mar 10.^
  27. % of internet access via native IPv6 compared to IPv4. As of 2017 Jun 20, from http://www.cidr-report.org. Accessed 2017 Jun 20.^
  28. "What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life: 4.4. Malware and Email Spam (2010-2) " by Vexen Crabtree (2017)^
  29. WHO (2014) Appendix 1. Alcohol Per Capita Consumption in liters of pure alcohol, 15+ years age population, consumed in 2010. Lower is better.^
  30. World Health Organisation data for 2011-2015 from 7 data series accessed 2017 May 21. Details in "Immunizations: International Statistics on Vaccines and the Autism Scare: 3. World Health Organisation Statistics" by Vexen Crabtree (2017).^
  31. Annual Cigarette Consumption Per Adult (age 15 and above) - compustible cigarettes. Euromonitor International (2014), via tobaccoatlas.org/topic/cigarette-use-globally/ . Accessed 2017 Jun 20.^
  32. UN (2013) World Health Organisation statistics. Suicide Rates Per 100k.^
  33. Max possible=24. Total amount of treaties ratified. Nominal Commitment to Human Rights report published by UCL School of Public Policy, London, UK, at ucl.ac.uk/spp/research/research-projects/nchr accessed 2011 Apr 30.^
  34. Fraser Institute, the (2016) . Covers data for 2014.^
  35. Reporters Without Borders Report "2013 World Press Freedom Index: Dashed hopes after spring" at fr.rsf.org/.../classement_2013_gb-bd.pdf accessed 2013 Feb.^
  36. ADL (2014) . Lower is better.^
  37. Charities Aid Foundation . Average ranking across years 2013-2016. Lower is better.^
  38. ^
  39. UN (2013) Table 9. Higher is better. Table 9. The UN's data is the latest available from a range of data from 2007-2011.^
  40. UN (2011) Table 6. Higher is better.^
  41. Higher is better. Sources:^
  42. Lynn, Harvey & Nyborg (2009) .^

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