The Human Truth Foundation

Libya (Great Socialist People's Libyan Arab Jamahiriya)

By Vexen Crabtree 2013


Comments:
FB, LJ

#charity #christianity #economics #happiness #intelligence #libya #morals #the_environment

Libya
Great Socialist People's Libyan Arab Jamahiriya
StatusIndependent State
CapitalTripoli
Land Area1 759 540km21
LocationAfrica, Mediterranean
Population6.5m (2011)2
Life Expectancy71.76yrs (2017)3
GNI$14 303 (2017)4
ISO3166-1 CodesLY, LBY, 4345
Internet Domain.ly6
CurrencyDinar (LYD)7
Telephone+2188

1. Overview

#chad #islam #italy #switzerland #turkey

The Italians supplanted the Ottoman Turks in the area around Tripoli in 1911 and did not relinquish their hold until 1943 when defeated in World War II. Libya then passed to UN administration and achieved independence in 1951. Following a 1969 military coup, Col. Muammar Abu Minyar al-QADHAFI began to espouse his political system, the Third Universal Theory. The system was a combination of socialism and Islam derived in part from tribal practices and was supposed to be implemented by the Libyan people themselves in a unique form of "direct democracy." QADHAFI used oil funds during the 1970s and 1980s to promote his ideology outside Libya, supporting subversives and terrorists abroad to hasten the end of Marxism and capitalism. In addition, beginning in 1973, he engaged in military operations in northern Chad's Aozou Strip - to gain access to minerals and to use as a base of influence in Chadian politics - but was forced to retreat in 1987. UN sanctions in 1992 isolated QADHAFI politically following the downing by Libyan state-sponsored terrorists of Pan Am Flight 103 over Lockerbie, Scotland. During the 1990s, QADHAFI began to rebuild his relationships with Europe. UN sanctions were suspended in April 1999 and finally lifted in September 2003 after Libya accepted responsibility for the Lockerbie bombing. In December 2003, Libya announced that it had agreed to reveal and end its programs to develop weapons of mass destruction and to renounce terrorism. QADHAFI subsequently made significant strides in normalizing relations with Western nations. The US rescinded Libya's designation as a state sponsor of terrorism in June 2006. In August 2008, the US and Libya signed a bilateral comprehensive claims settlement agreement to compensate claimants in both countries who allege injury or death at the hands of the other country, including the Lockerbie bombing, the LaBelle disco bombing, and the UTA 772 bombing. In October 2008, the US Government received $1.5 billion pursuant to the agreement to distribute to US national claimants, and as a result effectively normalized its bilateral relationship with Libya. The two countries then exchanged ambassadors for the first time since 1973 in January 2009. Libya in May 2010 was elected to its first three-year seat on the UN Human Rights Council, prompting protests from international non-governmental organizations and human rights campaigners. Unrest that began in several Near Eastern and North African countries in late December 2010 spread to several Libyan cities in early 2011. In March 2011, a Transitional National Council (TNC) was formed in Benghazi with the stated aim of overthrowing the QADHAFI regime and guiding the country to democracy. In response to QADHAFI's harsh military crackdown on protesters, the UN Security Council adopted Resolution 1973, which demanded an immediate ceasefire and authorized the international community to establish a no-fly zone over Libya. After several months of see-saw fighting, anti-QADHAFI forces in August 2011 captured the capital, Tripoli. In mid-September, the UN General Assembly voted to recognize the TNC as the legitimate interim governing body of Libya. The TNC on 23 October officially declared the country liberated following the defeat of the last remaining pro-QADHAFI stronghold and QADHAFI's death. In July 2012, Libya held its first post-QADHAFI nationwide election, which resulted in the formation of a 200-member National Congress (NC). In August 2012, the NC elected a congress president and in October, a new prime minister.

CIA's The World Factbook (2013)9

Book CoverLibya, a realm of stunning coastline, dramatic Greek and Roman ruins and the majesty of the Sahara remains poised to become a travel hotspot. Libya is a classic North African destination and its primary appeal derives from its position as an ancient crossroads of civilisations - these civilisations bequeathed to the Libyan coast some of the finest Roman and Greek ruins in existence, among them Leptis Magna, Cyrene and Sabratha. This is also one of the best places in Africa to experience the Sahara Desert, from seas of sand the size of Switzerland and sheltering palm-fringed lakes (the Ubari Sand Sea) to remote massifs adorned with prehistoric rock art (the Jebel Acacus), labyrinthine caravan towns (Ghadames) and an isolated black-as-black volcano (Wawa al-Namus) in the desert´s heart.

However, the upheaval caused by Libya´s democratic revolution in 2011-12 continues, meaning the future is still uncertain. That said, Libya´s tourism and transport infrastructure are excellent, so once peace returns fully to the country, expect it to be one of the hottest travel destinations on the continent.

"The World" by Lonely Planet (2014)10

2. Libya National and Social Development

#human_development

UN HDI (2016)11
Pos.Lower is better
Rank11
1Norway1
2Australia2
3Switzerland2
...
99Dominican Rep.99
100St Vincent & Grenadines99
101Tonga101
102Libya102
103Belize103
104Samoa104
105Maldives105
106Uzbekistan105
World Avg94.3
q=188.
Social & Moral
Development Index
12
Pos.Higher is better
Points12
1Denmark84.0
2Sweden83.9
3Finland83.5
...
152Liberia44.7
153Tanzania44.7
154Myanmar (Burma)44.5
155Libya44.4
156Benin44.2
157Lesotho44.2
158Togo44.1
159Madagascar44.1
World Avg53.8
q=198.

The United Nations produces an annual Human Development Report which includes the Human Development Index. The factors taken into account include life expectancy, education and schooling and Gross National Income (GNI) amongst many others..

The Social and Moral Development Index concentrates on moral issues and human rights, violence, public health, equality, tolerance, freedom and effectiveness in climate change mitigation and environmentalism, and on some technological issues. A country scores higher for achieving well in those areas, and for sustaining that achievement in the long term. Those countries towards the top of this index can truly said to be setting good examples and leading humankind onwards into a bright, humane, and free future. See: What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life.

3. Population and Demographics

#demographics #health #immigration #Libya #life_expectancy #overpopulation #population

Old-Age Dependency Ratio (2016)13
Pos.Lower is better
Per 10013
1Uganda04.3
2Mali04.5
3Chad04.7
...
70Philippines10.3
71Cambodia10.4
72Egypt10.5
73Libya10.5
74S. Africa10.5
75Bangladesh10.6
76Nepal10.8
77Bhutan10.8
World Avg18.3
q=185.
Emigrants (2010)14
Pos.
%14
1Dominica104.8
2Palestine68.4
3Samoa67.3
...
157Venezuela1.8
158S. Africa1.7
159Iran1.7
160Libya1.7
161Gabon1.7
162Vanuatu1.6
163Djibouti1.5
164Timor-Leste (E. Timor)1.4
World Avg11.5
q=192.
Fertility Rate (2013)15
Pos.2.0 is best15
1N. Korea2.00
2Brunei1.99
3St Vincent & Grenadines2.01
...
64Barbados1.57
65China1.57
66Serbia1.56
67Libya2.44
68Cambodia2.45
69Bulgaria1.54
70Bahrain2.46
71Thailand1.54
World Avg2.81
q=180.

Immigrants (2010)14
Pos.
%14
1Qatar86.5
2Monaco71.6
3UAE70.0
...
51Costa Rica10.5
52Netherlands10.5
53Armenia10.5
54Libya10.4
55Greece10.1
56Norway10.0
57Syria9.8
58Bahamas9.7
World Avg9.2
q=192.
Life Expectancy (2015)16
Pos.Higher is better
Years16
1Hong Kong84.16
2Japan83.68
3Italy83.34
...
103Vanuatu72.11
104Guatemala72.06
105Bangladesh71.99
106Libya71.76
107Moldova71.73
108Belarus71.46
109Egypt71.33
110Suriname71.28
World Avg71.27
q=190.
Population (2012)17
Pos.The Overpopulation of the Earth17
1China1.4b
2India1.3b
3USA315.8m
...
100Papua New Guinea7.2m
101Tajikistan7.1m
102Paraguay6.7m
103Libya6.5m
104Jordan6.5m
105Laos6.4m
106Togo6.3m
107El Salvador6.3m
World Avg36.0m
q=195.

Libya's population is predicted to rise to 7.783 million by 2030. This country has a fertility rate of 2.44. The fertility rate is, in simple terms, the average amount of children that each woman has. The higher the figure, the quicker the population is growing, although, to calculate the rate you also need to take into account morbidity, i.e., the rate at which people die. If people live healthy and long lives and morbidity is low, then, 2.0 approximates to the replacement rate, which would keep the population stable. If all countries had such a fertility rate, population growth would end. The actual replacement rate in most developed countries is around 2.1.

4. Human Rights, Equality and Freedom

#equality #freedom #human_rights #ISIS #libya #politics #tolerance

Libya is amongst the worst places in the world at ensuring human rights and freedom, and it has severe cultural issues when it comes to tolerance and equality. Libya does worse than average in its nominal commitment to Human Rights18, supporting press freedom19 and in eliminating modern slavery20. It falls into the bottom 20 in fighting anti-semitic opinions21, commentary from Human Rights Watch22, its Global Peace Index rating23, fighting corruption24 and in LGBT equality25. And finally, it is the worst in supporting personal, civil & economic freedoms26. Freedom of speech is undermined by needlessly aggressive and restrictive laws27. In 2016, slave markets in Libya had migrant men, women and children auctioned off to the highest bidders, many destined for lives of abuse28. In 2017, the country is still steeped in conflict between multiple militias (including ISIS) and competing proto-governments, the fighting has "decimated the economy and public services, including the public health system, law enforcement, and the judiciary" with executions and widespread human rights abuses27. Freedom of religion and freedom of belief are not protected in Libya and minorities such as Sufis and Christians are openly attacked27.

For tables, charts and commentary, see:

5. Religion and Beliefs

#belief #buddhism #christianity #god #hinduism #ISIS #islam #judaism #libya #religion

Disbelief In God (2007)29
Pos.Higher is better29
1Vietnam81
2Japan65
3Sweden64
...
116Afghanistan0
117Egypt0
118Liberia0
119Libya0
120Ivory Coast0
121Pakistan0
122Niger0
123Saudi Arabia0
World Avg9.9
q=137.

Data from the Pew Forum, a professional polling outfit, states that in 2010 the religious makeup of this country was as follows in the table below30:

Christian2.7%
Muslim96.6%
Hindu0.1%
Buddhist0.3%
Folk Religion0.1%
Jew0.1%
Unaffiliated0.2%

The CIA World Factbook has slightly different data, and states simply: Sunni Muslim (official) 97%, other 3%31.

Freedom of Religion and Belief: Freedom of religion and freedom of belief are not protected in Libya; in addition the current conflict from 2011 has allowed "militias and forces affiliated with several interim authorities, as well as ISIS fighters [to attack] religious minorities, including Sufis and Christians, and [destroy] religious sites in Libya with impunity"27.

Links:

6. The Internet

#internet #it_security #Libya #politics #the_internet

Freedom On The Internet (2012)32
Pos.Lower is better32
1Estonia10
2USA12
3Germany15
...
19Mexico37
20India39
21Indonesia42
22Libya43
23Malaysia43
24Jordan45
25Turkey46
26Tunisia46
World Avg46.7
q=47.
Internet Users (2016)33
Pos.Higher is better33
1Iceland100%
2Faroe Islands99%
3Norway98%
...
144Ivory Coast22%
145Honduras22%
146Botswana21%
147Libya21%
148Zimbabwe21%
149Equatorial Guinea21%
150Lesotho21%
151Indonesia20%
World Avg48.1%
q=201.
IPv6 Uptake (2017)34
Pos.Higher is better
Ratio34
1Belgium55.4
2Germany41.8
3Switzerland35.1
...
169Cuba0.0
170St Vincent & Grenadines0.0
171Montenegro0.0
172Libya0.0
173Jamaica0.0
174Fiji0.0
175Jordan0.0
176Barbados0.0
World Avg3.82
q=176.

IT Security (2013)35
Pos.Lower is better35
1Ireland0.11
2Luxembourg0.11
3Belize0.11
...
22Switzerland0.55
23S. Korea0.56
24Australia0.63
25Libya0.63
26Qatar0.65
27Chile0.66
28Guinea-Bissau0.67
29Uzbekistan0.69
World Avg0.98
q=81.

Internet access has become an essential research tool. It facilitates an endless list of life improvements, from the ability to network and socialize without constraint, to access to a seemingly infinite repository of technical and procedural information on pretty much any task. The universal availability of data has sped up industrial development and personal learning at the national and personal level. Individuals can read any topic they wish regardless of the locality of expert teachers, and, entire nations can develop their technology and understanding of the world simply because they are now exposed to advanced societies and moral discourses online. Like every communications medium, the Internet has issues and causes a small range of problems, but these are insignificant compared to the advantages of having an online populace.

7. Public Health Issues

#alcohol #health #Libya #parenting #population #smoking #vaccines

Adolescent Birth Rate (2015)36
Pos.Lower is better
Per 100036
1N. Korea0.5
2S. Korea1.6
3Switzerland2.9
...
13Luxembourg5.9
14Italy6.0
15Iceland6.1
16Libya6.2
17Finland6.5
18Germany6.7
19Maldives6.7
20Tunisia6.8
World Avg47.9
q=185.
Alcohol Consumption (2010)37
Pos.Lower is better
Per Capita37
1Libya0.1
2Pakistan0.1
3Kuwait0.1
4Mauritania0.1
5Comoros0.2
6Saudi Arabia0.2
7Bangladesh0.2
8Yemen0.3
9Niger0.3
10Egypt0.4
11Iraq0.5
12Somalia0.5
World Avg6.2
q=191.
Food Aid, Health Contributions & WHO Compliance (2017)38
Pos.Lower is better
Rank38
1Sweden1
2Ireland2
3Denmark3
...
153Mozambique153
154Cape Verde154
155Bahamas155
156Libya156
157Papua New Guinea157
158Belize158
159Algeria159
160Senegal160
World Avg82.0
q=163.

Infant Immunizations 2011-2015 (2015)39
Pos.Higher is better
Avg %39
1Hungary99.0
2China99.0
3Uzbekistan98.9
...
40Brunei96.6
41Spain96.5
42Poland96.5
43Libya96.4
44St Kitts & Nevis96.3
45Bahamas96.2
46Maldives96.2
47Tajikistan96.1
World Avg88.3
q=194.
Smoking Rates (2014)40
Pos.Lower is better40
1Guinea 15
2Solomon Islands 26
3Kiribati 28
...
137Malta1 266
138Philippines1 291
139Indonesia1 322
140Libya1 333
141Israel1 346
142Argentina1 359
143Denmark1 378
144Georgia1 378
World Avg 819
q=182.

8. More Charts and Comparisons to Other Countries

Personal Charitability
(World Position, 2013-2016)
41
Pos.Lower is better41
1Myanmar (Burma)1.25
2USA1.5
3New Zealand3.5
...
29Finland28.25
30Thailand28.75
31Uzbekistan29
32Libya29
33Puerto Rico29
34Cyprus31
35Iran32
q=156.
Intellectual Endeavours (2017)38
Pos.Lower is better
Rank38
1Ukraine1
2Czechia2
3Hungary3
...
147Mozambique147
148Lesotho148
149Venezuela149
150Libya150
151Gabon151
152Sierra Leone152
153Cambodia153
q=163.
Creativity and Culture (2017)38
Pos.Lower is better
Rank38
1Belgium1
2Netherlands2
3Estonia3
...
157Iran157
158Gabon158
159Central African Rep.159
160Burundi160
161Rwanda161
162Congo, DR162
163Libya163
q=163.
Peacekeeping and Security (2017)38
Pos.Lower is better
Rank38
1Samoa1
2S. Africa2
3Tunisia3
...
142St Vincent & Grenadines142
143Belize143
144Haiti144
145Libya145
146Croatia146
147UAE147
148Central African Rep.148
q=163.
Refugees and UN Treaties (2017)38
Pos.Lower is better
Rank38
1Austria1
2Germany2
3Netherlands3
...
109China109
110Kazakhstan110
111Jordan111
112Libya112
113Belize113
114Morocco114
115Iraq115
q=163.
Open Trading, Aid and Development (2017)38
Pos.Lower is better
Rank38
1Ireland1
2Denmark2
3Sweden3
...
94Guinea94
95Ivory Coast95
96Peru96
97Libya97
98Czechia98
99Israel99
100Argentina100
q=163.
Life Satisfaction (2011)42
Pos.Higher is better42
1Denmark7.8
2Norway7.6
3Netherlands7.6
...
95Namibia4.9
96Kyrgyzstan4.9
97Hungary4.9
98Libya4.9
99Palestine4.8
100Zimbabwe4.8
101Iran4.8
102Nigeria4.8
q=150.
Gross National Income Per-Capita (2011)16
Pos.Higher is better
PPP $16
1Qatar$129 916
2Singapore$78 162
3Kuwait$76 075
...
74Barbados$14 952
75Botswana$14 663
76Thailand$14 519
77Libya$14 303
78Brazil$14 145
79Turkmenistan$14 026
80Costa Rica$14 006
81Palau$13 771
q=193.
Environmental Performance (2018)43
Pos.Higher is better43
1Switzerland87.4
2France84.0
3Denmark81.6
...
120China50.7
121Thailand49.9
122Micronesia49.8
123Libya49.8
124Ghana49.7
125Timor-Leste (E. Timor)49.5
126Senegal49.5
127Malawi49.2
q=180.
IQ (2006)44
Pos.Higher is better44
1Hong Kong108
2Singapore108
3S. Korea106
...
85Morocco84
86Saudi Arabia84
87Algeria83
88Libya83
89Tunisia83
90Oman83
91Syria83
92India82
q=138.

Current edition: 2013 May 01
Last Modified: 2019 Jan 01
http://www.humantruth.info/libya.html
Parent page: Compare International Statistics by Region and Continent

All #tags used on this page - click for more:

#alcohol #belief #buddhism #chad #charity #christianity #demographics #economics #equality #freedom #god #happiness #health #hinduism #human_development #human_rights #immigration #intelligence #internet #ISIS #islam #it_security #italy #judaism #libya #life_expectancy #morals #overpopulation #parenting #politics #population #religion #smoking #switzerland #the_environment #the_internet #tolerance #turkey #vaccines

Social Media

References: (What's this?)

Book Cover

The Good Country Index. Published by The Good Country Inc., New York, USA. Website: goodcountry.org. The Good Country Index gauges how well countries are doing in helping international development. Edition 1.2 (2017) has 35 criteria.

Anti-Defamation League. (ADL)
(2014) ADL Global 100, Executive Summary. Accessed on global100.adl.org on 2017 Jan 02. The numbers given are of those who state that racist stereotyped statements about Jews are true; they have to agree to 6 or more of the 11 statements to be counted. An example statements is "Jews are hated because of the way they behave". The data was collected from 53,100 interviews across 101 countries plus the West Bank and Gaza. The global average is 26%.

Charities Aid Foundation
World Giving Index. On www.cafonline.org.

CIA
(2013) World Factbook. The USA Government's Central Intelligence Agency (USA CIA) publishes The World Factbook, and the online version is frequently updated.

Crabtree, Vexen
(2019) "What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life" (2019). Accessed 2019 Jan 13.

The Fraser Institute
(2016) The Human Freedom Index. Published by The Cato Institute, The Fraser Institute and the Friedrich Naumann Foundation for Freedom. Covers data up to 2014. On www.fraserinstitute.org/.../human-freedom-index-2016.

Human Rights Watch
(2018) World Report 2018. Covering the events of 2017.

Lonely Planet
(2014) The World. Subtitled: "A Traveller's Guide to the Planet". Published by Lonely Planet, London, UK. Each chapter is devoted to a specific country and includes a list of the most interesting places to visit and a few other cultural notes.

Lynn, Harvey & Nyborg
(2009) Average intelligence predicts atheism rates across 137 nations. Richard Lynn, John Harvey and Helmuth Nyborg. Published in Intelligence (2009 Jan/Feb) vol. 37 issue 1 pages 11-15. Online at www.sciencedirect.com, accessed 2009 Sep 15.

United Nations
(2011) Human Development Report. Published by the UN Development Programme. This edition had the theme of Sustainability and Equity: A Better Future for All. Available on hdr.undp.org/... UN Development Program: About the Human Development Index.
(2013) Human Development Report. Published by the UN Development Programme. This edition had the theme of The Rise of the South: Human Progress in a Diverse World. Available on hdr.undp.org/... UN Development Program: About the Human Development Index.
(2017) Human Development Report. Published by the UN Development Programme. Data for 2015. Available on hdr.undp.org/.

Walk Free Foundation
(2018) Global Slavery Index. Published on www.walkfreefoundation.org/.

World Health Organisation. (WHO)
(2014) Global Status Report on Alcohol and Health. A copy can be found on the WHO website. Accessed 2015 Jan 04. It "presents a comprehensive perspective on the global, regional and country consumption of alcohol, patterns of drinking, health consequences and policy responses in Member States" and was published in Geneva on 2014 May 12.

Footnotes

  1. World Bank data on data.worldbank.org accessed 2013 Nov 04.^
  2. UN (2011) .^
  3. UN (2017). Table 1.^
  4. UN (2017). Gross National Income, per person. Table 1.^
  5. International Standards Organisation (ISO) standard ISO3166-1, on www.iso.org, accessed 2013 May 01.^
  6. Top level domains (TLDs) are managed by the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) on www.iana.org.^
  7. According to ISO4217.^
  8. According to ITU-T.^
  9. CIA (2013). Https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/ly.html accessed 2014 Apr 27.^
  10. Lonely Planet (2014). Chapter "Libya".^
  11. UN (2017). Table 1. Lower is better.^
  12. "What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life" by Vexen Crabtree (2019)^
  13. UN (2017). Dashboard 2. Higher is worse. Old-age is counted as 65+, and ratio is of these to people ages 15-64. Projections are for 2030 based on medium-fertility variant of growth.^
  14. UN (2013). Table 11.^
  15. UN (2013). Table 14. Births per woman (2012), expressed as deviance (positive or negative) from the value of 2.0.^
  16. UN (2017). Table 1. Higher is better.^^
  17. UN (2013). Table 14.^
  18. Max possible=24. Total amount of treaties ratified. Nominal Commitment to Human Rights report published by UCL School of Public Policy, London, UK, at ucl.ac.uk/spp/research/research-projects/nchr accessed 2011 Apr 30.^
  19. Reporters Without Borders Report "2013 World Press Freedom Index: Dashed hopes after spring" at fr.rsf.org/.../classement_2013_gb-bd.pdf accessed 2013 Feb.^
  20. Walk Free Foundation (2018) .^
  21. ADL (2014). Lower is better.^
  22. Human Rights Watch (2018). Negative and positive comments have been added to create a score for each country covered in the report.^
  23. ^
  24. Transparency International Corruption Perceptions Index (2017). Accessed 2017 Dec 30. The scores given are the TI average for the years 2012-2016.^
  25. Sources:^
  26. Fraser Institute, the (2016). Covers data for 2014.^
  27. Human Rights Watch (2018). p343-351.^^
  28. Walk Free Foundation (2018). p44.^
  29. Zuckerman, P. (2007). Atheism: contemporary numbers and patterns. In M.Martin (Ed.), The Cambridge Companion to Atheism. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. In "Average intelligence predicts atheism rates across 137 nations" by Lynn et al. (2009)44.^
  30. Pew Forum (2012) publication "The Global Religious Landscape: A Report on the Size and Distribution of the World´s Major Religious Groups as of 2010" (2012 Dec 18) accessed 2013 May 01.^
  31. CIA (2013). Https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/ar.html accessed 2014 Apr 27.^
  32. Freedom House publication "Freedom on the Net 2012" at www.freedomhouse.org/.../FOTN%202012%20-%20Tables%20and%20Charts%20FINAL.pdf accessed 2013 Feb 05.^
  33. internetlivestats.com/internet-users-by-country accessed 2017 Mar 10.^
  34. % of internet access via native IPv6 compared to IPv4. As of 2017 Jun 20, from http://www.cidr-report.org. Accessed 2017 Jun 20.^
  35. "What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life: 3.4. Malware and Email Spam" by Vexen Crabtree (2019)^
  36. UN (2017). Table 5. Lower is better.^
  37. WHO (2014). Appendix 1. Alcohol Per Capita Consumption in liters of pure alcohol, 15+ years age population, consumed in 2010. Lower is better.^
  38. The Good Country Index (2017) .^^
  39. World Health Organisation data for 2011-2015 from 7 data series accessed 2017 May 21. Details in "Immunizations: International Statistics on Vaccines and the Autism Scare: 3. World Health Organisation Statistics" by Vexen Crabtree (2017).^
  40. Annual Cigarette Consumption Per Adult (age 15 and above) - compustible cigarettes. Euromonitor International (2014), via tobaccoatlas.org/topic/cigarette-use-globally/ . Accessed 2017 Jun 20.^
  41. Charities Aid Foundation. Average ranking across years 2013-2016. Lower is better.^
  42. UN (2013). Table 9. Higher is better. Table 9. The UN's data is the latest available from a range of data from 2007-2011.^
  43. Yale University Center for Environmental Law & Policy 2018 EPI.^
  44. Lynn, Harvey & Nyborg (2009) .^

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