The Human Truth Foundation

Azerbaijan (Republic of Azerbaijan)

By Vexen Crabtree 2013


Comments:
FB, LJ

#azerbaijan #charity #economics #happiness #intelligence #morals #research #science #the_environment

Azerbaijan
Republic of Azerbaijan
StatusIndependent State
CapitalBaku
Land Area 82 658km21
LocationAsia, Europe
Population9.4m (2011)2
Life Expectancy70.90yrs (2017)3
GNI$16 413 (2017)4
ISO3166-1 CodesAZ, AZE, 315
Internet Domain.az6
CurrencyManat (AZN)7
Telephone+9948

1. Overview

#armenia #france #islam #russia

Azerbaijan - a nation with a majority-Turkic and majority-Shia Muslim population - was briefly independent (from 1918 to 1920) following the collapse of the Russian Empire; it was subsequently incorporated into the Soviet Union for seven decades. Azerbaijan has yet to resolve its conflict with Armenia over Nagorno-Karabakh, a primarily Armenian-populated region that Moscow recognized in 1923 as an autonomous region within Soviet Azerbaijan after Armenia and Azerbaijan disputed the status of the territory. Armenia and Azerbaijan began fighting over the area in 1988; the struggle escalated after both countries attained independence from the Soviet Union in 1991. By May 1994, when a cease-fire took hold, ethnic Armenian forces held not only Nagorno-Karabakh but also seven surrounding provinces in the territory of Azerbaijan. The OSCE Minsk Group, co-chaired by the United States, France, and Russia, is the framework established to mediate a peaceful resolution of the conflict. Corruption in the country is widespread, and the government, which eliminated presidential term limits in a 2009 referendum, has been accused of authoritarianism. Although the poverty rate has been reduced and infrastructure investment has increased substantially in recent years due to revenue from oil and gas production, reforms have not adequately addressed weaknesses in most government institutions, particularly in the education and health sectors. In January 2012, Azerbaijan assumed a nonpermanent seat on the UN Security Council for the 2012-13 term.

CIA's The World Factbook (2013)9

Book CoverMarrying timeless tradition and ultra-modernity, Azerbaijan reveals a melange of cultural influences and outstanding attractions at the meeting point between Europe and Asia. Tucked beneath the Caucasus Mountains and facing the Caspian Sea, it is where Central Asia edges into Europe, with a melange of Turkic, Persian and Russian influences contributing to its fabric. ... Surrounded by semi-desert on the oil-rich Caspian Sea, the cosmopolitan capital, Baku, rings its Unesco-listed ancient core with mushrooming new skyscrapers. Yet barely three hours´ drive away are timeless rural villages, clad in lush orchards and backed by the soaring Great Caucasus mountains. The modern Azerbaijanis, well versed in Turkic legend and Persian poetry, are a passionate and overwhelmingly hospitable people.

"The World" by Lonely Planet (2014)10

2. Azerbaijan National and Social Development

#human_development

UN HDI (2016)11
Pos.Lower is better
Rank11
1Norway1
2Australia2
3Switzerland2
...
75Albania75
76Lebanon76
77Mexico77
78Azerbaijan78
79Brazil79
80Grenada79
81Bosnia & Herzegovina81
82Macedonia82
World Avg94.3
q=188.
Social & Moral
Development Index
12
Pos.Higher is better
Points12
1Denmark84.2
2Sweden83.7
3Finland83.5
...
94Dominican Rep.52.7
95Sri Lanka52.5
96Russia52.4
97Azerbaijan52.0
98El Salvador51.9
99Vietnam51.9
100Nepal51.8
101Suriname51.7
World Avg54.1
q=198.

The United Nations produces an annual Human Development Report which includes the Human Development Index. The factors taken into account include life expectancy, education and schooling and Gross National Income (GNI) amongst many others..

The Social and Moral Development Index concentrates on moral issues and human rights, violence, public health, equality, tolerance, freedom and effectiveness in climate change mitigation and environmentalism, and on some technological issues. A country scores higher for achieving well in those areas, and for sustaining that achievement in the long term. Those countries towards the top of this index can truly said to be setting good examples and leading humankind onwards into a bright, humane, and free future. See: What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life.

3. Population and Demographics

#Azerbaijan #demographics #health #immigration #life_expectancy #overpopulation #population

Old-Age Dependency Ratio (2016)13
Pos.Lower is better
Per 10013
1Uganda04.3
2Mali04.5
3Chad04.7
...
111Turkey18.0
112Vietnam18.3
113Tunisia18.6
114Azerbaijan18.7
115Colombia18.8
116Antigua & Barbuda19.0
117St Vincent & Grenadines19.7
118Seychelles19.8
World Avg18.3
q=185.
Emigrants (2010)14
Pos.
%14
1Dominica104.8
2Palestine68.4
3Samoa67.3
...
37Marshall Islands16.6
38Ireland16.1
39Belize16.1
40Azerbaijan16.0
41Bulgaria16.0
42Lebanon15.6
43Equatorial Guinea14.9
44Seychelles14.6
World Avg11.5
q=192.
Fertility Rate (2013)15
Pos.2.0 is best15
1Korea, N.2.00
2Brunei1.99
3St Vincent & Grenadines2.01
...
19Finland1.87
20UK1.87
21New Zealand2.15
22Azerbaijan2.16
23Chile1.84
24Bangladesh2.16
25Belgium1.83
26Algeria2.17
World Avg2.81
q=180.

Immigrants (2010)14
Pos.
%14
1Qatar86.5
2Monaco71.6
3UAE70.0
...
99Mauritius3.3
100Sao Tome & Principe3.2
101Nepal3.2
102Azerbaijan3.0
103Mauritania2.9
104Zimbabwe2.9
105Ecuador2.9
106Iran2.8
World Avg9.2
q=192.
Life Expectancy (2015)16
Pos.Higher is better
Years16
1Hong Kong84.16
2Japan83.68
3Italy83.34
...
109Egypt71.33
110Suriname71.28
111Ukraine71.13
112Azerbaijan70.90
113Kyrgyzstan70.79
114Korea, N.70.52
115Trinidad & Tobago70.52
116Russia70.26
World Avg71.27
q=190.
Population (2012)17
Pos.The Overpopulation of the Earth17
1China1.4b
2India1.3b
3USA315.8m
...
87Somalia9.8m
88Belarus9.5m
89Sweden9.5m
90Azerbaijan9.4m
91Benin9.4m
92Burundi8.7m
93Austria8.4m
94UAE8.1m
World Avg36.0m
q=195.

Azerbaijan's population is predicted to rise to 10.81 million by 2030. This country has a fertility rate of 2.16. The fertility rate is, in simple terms, the average amount of children that each woman has. The higher the figure, the quicker the population is growing, although, to calculate the rate you also need to take into account morbidity, i.e., the rate at which people die. If people live healthy and long lives and morbidity is low, then, 2.0 approximates to the replacement rate, which would keep the population stable. If all countries had such a fertility rate, population growth would end. The actual replacement rate in most developed countries is around 2.1.

4. Human Rights, Equality and Freedom

#Azerbaijan #equality #freedom #human_rights #politics #tolerance

Azerbaijan is generally poor at ensuring human rights and freedom compared to the rest of the world. Azerbaijan comes in the top 20 in its nominal commitment to Human Rights18. It does better than average in opposing gender inequality19 and in LGBT equality20. But unfortunately Azerbaijan gets most other things wrong. It does worse than average in fighting anti-semitic opinions21, eliminating modern slavery22, supporting personal, civil & economic freedoms23, its Global Peace Index rating24, fighting corruption25 and in supporting press freedom26. In 2017 police harassment of LGBT folk picked up, with fines and invasions of personal space by the police27. The courts also conducted many unfair trials and the government executed worrying crackdowns on political critics and journalists in 201727.

For tables, charts and commentary, see:

5. Religion and Beliefs

#belief #buddhism #christianity #god #hinduism #islam #judaism #religion

Religiosity (2009)28
Pos.Lower is better
%28
1Estonia16
2Sweden17
3Denmark19
...
22Ukraine46
23Slovenia47
24Spain49
25Azerbaijan50
26Israel51
27Uzbekistan51
28Serbia54
29Ireland54
World Avg75.1
q=114.
Disbelief In God (2007)29
Pos.Higher is better29
1Vietnam81
2Japan65
3Sweden64
...
99Uganda0
100Bangladesh0
101UAE0
102Azerbaijan0
103Algeria0
104Yemen0
105Zambia0
106Tanzania0
World Avg9.9
q=137.

Data from the Pew Forum, a professional polling outfit, states that in 2010 the religious makeup of this country was as follows in the table below30:

Christian3%
Muslim96.9%
Hindu0.1%
Buddhist0.1%
Folk Religion0.1%
Jew0.1%
Unaffiliated0.1%

It appears that when asked "What religion are you" many give pollsters the 'correct' answer despite how they actually feel, and despite what they actually believe. Although 100% of the populace say they belong to a religion, only 50% say that they are religious when the question is phrased as "Is religion an important part of your daily life?".

For more on this phenomenon, see:

The CIA World Factbook has slightly different data, and states: Muslim 93.4%, Russian Orthodox 2.5%, Armenian Orthodox 2.3%, other 1.8% (1995 est.). note: religious affiliation is still nominal in Azerbaijan; percentages for actual practicing adherents are much lower31.

When it comes to religious freedom and persecution, sociologists Grim & Finke place Azerbaijan into the worst category, along with just 13 other countries. In this category, severe restrictions on religious freedom and freedom of belief stem simultaneously from top-down pressure from government and institutionalized religion, and from bottom-up grassroots movements that often go even further than the government in harrassing those who do not believe the right things (2011)32.

Links:

6. The Internet

#Azerbaijan #internet #it_security #politics #the_internet

Freedom On The Internet (2012)33
Pos.Lower is better33
1Estonia10
2USA12
3Germany15
...
25Turkey46
26Tunisia46
27Venezuela48
28Azerbaijan50
29Rwanda51
30Russia52
31Zimbabwe54
32Sri Lanka55
World Avg46.7
q=47.
Internet Users (2016)34
Pos.Higher is better34
1Iceland100%
2Faroe Islands99%
3Norway98%
...
74Palestine63%
75Montenegro62%
76Bosnia & Herzegovina62%
77Azerbaijan61%
78Belarus61%
79St Vincent & Grenadines60%
80St Lucia59%
81Bulgaria59%
World Avg48.1%
q=201.
IPv6 Uptake (2017)35
Pos.Higher is better
Ratio35
1Belgium55.4
2Germany41.8
3Switzerland35.1
...
93Kyrgyzstan0.0
94Cambodia0.0
95Belarus0.0
96Azerbaijan0.0
97Angola0.0
98Armenia0.0
99Cape Verde0.0
100Nigeria0.0
World Avg3.82
q=176.

IT Security (2013)36
Pos.Lower is better36
1Ireland0.11
2Luxembourg0.11
3Belize0.11
...
51Vietnam1.15
52Nigeria1.18
53Mauritania1.19
54Azerbaijan1.21
55Belarus1.22
56Armenia1.22
57Malawi1.23
58Turkmenistan1.23
World Avg0.98
q=81.

Internet access has become an essential research tool. It facilitates an endless list of life improvements, from the ability to network and socialize without constraint, to access to a seemingly infinite repository of technical and procedural information on pretty much any task. The universal availability of data has sped up industrial development and personal learning at the national and personal level. Individuals can read any topic they wish regardless of the locality of expert teachers, and, entire nations can develop their technology and understanding of the world simply because they are now exposed to advanced societies and moral discourses online. Like every communications medium, the Internet has issues and causes a small range of problems, but these are insignificant compared to the advantages of having an online populace.

7. Public Health Issues

#alcohol #Azerbaijan #health #mental_health #parenting #population #smoking #suicide #vaccines

Adolescent Birth Rate (2015)19
Pos.Lower is better
Per 100019
1Korea, N.0.5
2Korea, S.1.6
3Switzerland2.9
...
121Ethiopia58.4
122Palestine58.6
123Jamaica59.7
124Azerbaijan59.8
125Yemen61.5
126Philippines61.7
127Mexico62.8
128Argentina63.8
World Avg47.9
q=185.
Alcohol Consumption (2010)37
Pos.Lower is better
Per Capita37
1Libya0.1
2Pakistan0.1
3Kuwait0.1
...
41Bahrain2.1
42Benin2.1
43Nepal2.2
44Azerbaijan2.3
45Mozambique2.3
46Togo2.3
47Lebanon2.4
48Malawi2.5
World Avg6.2
q=191.
Food Aid, Health Contributions & WHO Compliance (2017)38
Pos.Lower is better
Rank38
1Sweden1
2Ireland2
3Denmark3
...
86Kyrgyzstan86
87Moldova87
88Syria88
89Azerbaijan89
90Uganda90
91Chile91
92Tunisia92
93Bahrain93
World Avg82.0
q=163.

Infant Immunizations 2011-2015 (2015)39
Pos.Higher is better
Avg %39
1Hungary99.0
2China99.0
3Uzbekistan98.9
...
104Palau92.4
105Vietnam92.3
106Denmark92.3
107Azerbaijan92.2
108Australia92.1
109Barbados92.1
110Ghana91.7
111Lesotho91.7
World Avg88.3
q=194.
Smoking Rates (2014)40
Pos.Lower is better40
1Guinea 15
2Solomon Islands 26
3Kiribati 28
...
167Austria1 988
168Korea, S.2 073
169Greece2 086
170Azerbaijan2 114
171Kazakhstan2 157
172Czechia2 194
173Bosnia & Herzegovina2 233
174China2 250
World Avg 819
q=182.
Suicide Rate (2013)41
Pos.Lower is better
Per 100k41
1Haiti0
2Grenada0
3Egypt0.1
4Jordan0.2
5Maldives0.7
6Azerbaijan1.3
7S. Africa1.8
8Bahamas2.5
9Peru2.9
10Kuwait3.6
11Armenia3.9
12Dominican Rep.4.6
World Avg20.93
q=91.

8. More Charts and Comparisons to Other Countries

Personal Charitability
(World Position, 2013-2016)
42
Pos.Lower is better42
1Myanmar (Burma)1.25
2USA1.5
3New Zealand3.5
...
118Jordan102
119Japan102
120Hungary102
121Azerbaijan102.25
122Estonia103.25
123Moldova103.5
124Congo, (Brazzaville)104.75
q=156.
Intellectual Endeavours (2017)38
Pos.Lower is better
Rank38
1Ukraine1
2Czechia2
3Hungary3
...
126Ivory Coast126
127Kuwait127
128Vietnam128
129Azerbaijan129
130Bangladesh130
131Mongolia131
132Haiti132
q=163.
Creativity and Culture (2017)38
Pos.Lower is better
Rank38
1Belgium1
2Netherlands2
3Estonia3
...
136Saudi Arabia136
137Congo, (Brazzaville)137
138Algeria138
139Azerbaijan139
140Paraguay140
141Sri Lanka141
142Malawi142
q=163.
Peacekeeping and Security (2017)38
Pos.Lower is better
Rank38
1Samoa1
2S. Africa2
3Tunisia3
...
39Argentina39
40China40
41Canada41
42Azerbaijan42
43Senegal43
44Switzerland44
45Bolivia45
q=163.
Refugees and UN Treaties (2017)38
Pos.Lower is better
Rank38
1Austria1
2Germany2
3Netherlands3
...
129Pakistan129
130Samoa130
131Antigua & Barbuda131
132Azerbaijan132
133Togo133
134St Vincent & Grenadines134
135Afghanistan135
q=163.
Open Trading, Aid and Development (2017)38
Pos.Lower is better
Rank38
1Ireland1
2Denmark2
3Sweden3
...
83Kuwait83
84Belarus84
85Saudi Arabia85
86Azerbaijan86
87Uganda87
88Vietnam88
89Central African Rep.89
q=163.
Research and Development (2016)
Pos.Higher is better
% RDP PPP
1Korea, S.4.29
2Israel4.11
3Japan3.58
...
88Bermuda0.23
89Togo0.22
90Nigeria0.22
91Azerbaijan0.21
92Burkina Faso0.20
93Vietnam0.19
94Panama0.18
95Mauritius0.18
q=126.
Life Satisfaction (2011)43
Pos.Higher is better43
1Denmark7.8
2Norway7.6
3Netherlands7.6
...
102Nigeria4.8
103Dominican Rep.4.7
104Tunisia4.7
105Azerbaijan4.7
106Bosnia & Herzegovina4.7
107S. Africa4.7
108India4.6
109Serbia4.5
q=150.
Gross National Income Per-Capita (2011)16
Pos.Higher is better
PPP $16
1Qatar$129 916
2Singapore$78 162
3Kuwait$76 075
...
63Gabon$19 044
64Turkey$18 705
65Mauritius$17 948
66Azerbaijan$16 413
67Iran$16 395
68Mexico$16 383
69Bulgaria$16 261
70Suriname$16 018
q=193.
Environmental Performance (2018)44
Pos.Higher is better44
1Switzerland87.4
2France84.0
3Denmark81.6
...
56Panama62.7
57Tonga62.5
58Tunisia62.4
59Azerbaijan62.3
60Korea, S.62.3
61Kuwait62.3
62Jordan62.2
63Armenia62.1
q=180.
IQ (2006)45
Pos.Higher is better45
1Hong Kong108
2Singapore108
3Korea, S.106
...
63Brazil87
64Bolivia87
65Iraq87
66Azerbaijan87
67Indonesia87
68Turkmenistan87
69Uzbekistan87
70Kuwait86
q=138.

Current edition: 2013 May 01
Last Modified: 2017 Jul 06
http://www.humantruth.info/azerbaijan.html
Parent page: Compare International Statistics by Region and Continent

All #tags used on this page - click for more:

#alcohol #armenia #Azerbaijan #belief #buddhism #charity #christianity #demographics #economics #equality #france #freedom #god #happiness #health #hinduism #human_development #human_rights #immigration #intelligence #internet #islam #it_security #judaism #life_expectancy #mental_health #morals #overpopulation #parenting #politics #population #religion #research #russia #science #smoking #suicide #the_environment #the_internet #tolerance #vaccines

Social Media

References: (What's this?)

Book Cover

The Good Country Index. Published by The Good Country Inc., New York, USA. Website: goodcountry.org. The Good Country Index gauges how well countries are doing in helping international development. Edition 1.2 (2017) has 35 criteria.

Anti-Defamation League. (ADL)
(2014) ADL Global 100, Executive Summary. Accessed on global100.adl.org on 2017 Jan 02. The numbers given are of those who state that racist stereotyped statements about Jews are true; they have to agree to 6 or more of the 11 statements to be counted. An example statements is "Jews are hated because of the way they behave". The data was collected from 53,100 interviews across 101 countries plus the West Bank and Gaza. The global average is 26%.

Charities Aid Foundation
World Giving Index. On www.cafonline.org.

CIA
(2013) World Factbook. The USA Government's Central Intelligence Agency (USA CIA) publishes The World Factbook, and the online version is frequently updated.

Crabtree, Vexen
(2018) "What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life" (2018). Accessed 2018 Sep 02.

The Fraser Institute
(2016) The Human Freedom Index. Published by The Cato Institute, The Fraser Institute and the Friedrich Naumann Foundation for Freedom. Covers data up to 2014. On www.fraserinstitute.org/.../human-freedom-index-2016.

Gallup
(2009) Religiosity. gallup.com/poll/142727/.... The survey question was "Is religion an important part of your daily life?" and results are charted for those who said "yes". 1000 adults were polled in each of 114 countries.

Grim & Finke. Dr Grim is senior researcher in religion and world affairs at the Pew Research Center, Washington, D.C, USA. Finke is Professor of Sociology and Religious Studies at the Pennsylvania State University.
(2011) The Price of Freedom Denied. Subtitled: "Religious Persecution and Conflict in the Twenty-First Century". Amazon Kindle digital edition. Published by Cambridge University Press, UK. An e-book.

Human Rights Watch
(2018) World Report 2018. Covering the events of 2017.

Lonely Planet
(2014) The World. Subtitled: "A Traveller's Guide to the Planet". Published by Lonely Planet, London, UK. Each chapter is devoted to a specific country and includes a list of the most interesting places to visit and a few other cultural notes.

Lynn, Harvey & Nyborg
(2009) Average intelligence predicts atheism rates across 137 nations. Richard Lynn, John Harvey and Helmuth Nyborg. Published in Intelligence (2009 Jan/Feb) vol. 37 issue 1 pages 11-15. Online at www.sciencedirect.com, accessed 2009 Sep 15.

United Nations
(2011) Human Development Report. Published by the UN Development Programme. This edition had the theme of Sustainability and Equity: A Better Future for All. Available on hdr.undp.org/... UN Development Program: About the Human Development Index.
(2013) Human Development Report. Published by the UN Development Programme. This edition had the theme of The Rise of the South: Human Progress in a Diverse World. Available on hdr.undp.org/... UN Development Program: About the Human Development Index.
(2017) Human Development Report. Published by the UN Development Programme. Data for 2015. Available on hdr.undp.org/.

Walk Free Foundation
(2018) Global Slavery Index. Published on www.walkfreefoundation.org/.

World Health Organisation. (WHO)
(2014) Global Status Report on Alcohol and Health. A copy can be found on the WHO website. Accessed 2015 Jan 04. It "presents a comprehensive perspective on the global, regional and country consumption of alcohol, patterns of drinking, health consequences and policy responses in Member States" and was published in Geneva on 2014 May 12.

Footnotes

  1. World Bank data on data.worldbank.org accessed 2013 Nov 04.^
  2. UN (2011) .^
  3. UN (2017). Table 1.^
  4. UN (2017). Gross National Income, per person. Table 1.^
  5. International Standards Organisation (ISO) standard ISO3166-1, on www.iso.org, accessed 2013 May 01.^
  6. Top level domains (TLDs) are managed by the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) on www.iana.org.^
  7. According to ISO4217.^
  8. According to ITU-T.^
  9. CIA (2013). Https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/aj.html accessed 2014 Apr 27.^
  10. Lonely Planet (2014) .^
  11. UN (2017). Table 1. Lower is better.^
  12. "What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life" by Vexen Crabtree (2018)^
  13. UN (2017). Dashboard 2. Higher is worse. Old-age is counted as 65+, and ratio is of these to people ages 15-64. Projections are for 2030 based on medium-fertility variant of growth.^
  14. UN (2013). Table 11.^
  15. UN (2013). Table 14. Births per woman (2012), expressed as deviance (positive or negative) from the value of 2.0.^
  16. UN (2017). Table 1. Higher is better.^^
  17. UN (2013). Table 14.^
  18. Max possible=24. Total amount of treaties ratified. Nominal Commitment to Human Rights report published by UCL School of Public Policy, London, UK, at ucl.ac.uk/spp/research/research-projects/nchr accessed 2011 Apr 30.^
  19. UN (2017). Table 5. Lower is better.^^
  20. Sources:^
  21. ADL (2014). Lower is better.^
  22. Walk Free Foundation (2018) .^
  23. Fraser Institute, the (2016). Covers data for 2014.^
  24. ^
  25. Transparency International Corruption Perceptions Index (2017). Accessed 2017 Dec 30. The scores given are the TI average for the years 2012-2016.^
  26. Reporters Without Borders Report "2013 World Press Freedom Index: Dashed hopes after spring" at fr.rsf.org/.../classement_2013_gb-bd.pdf accessed 2013 Feb.^
  27. Human Rights Watch (2018). P54-59.^
  28. Gallup (2009) .^
  29. Zuckerman, P. (2007). Atheism: contemporary numbers and patterns. In M.Martin (Ed.), The Cambridge Companion to Atheism. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. In "Average intelligence predicts atheism rates across 137 nations" by Lynn et al. (2009)45.^
  30. Pew Forum (2012) publication "The Global Religious Landscape: A Report on the Size and Distribution of the World´s Major Religious Groups as of 2010" (2012 Dec 18) accessed 2013 May 01.^
  31. CIA (2013). Https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/ar.html accessed 2014 Apr 27.^
  32. Grim & Finke (2011). Chapter 5 "A Closer Look China, India, and Iran" digital location 3560.^
  33. Freedom House publication "Freedom on the Net 2012" at www.freedomhouse.org/.../FOTN%202012%20-%20Tables%20and%20Charts%20FINAL.pdf accessed 2013 Feb 05.^
  34. internetlivestats.com/internet-users-by-country accessed 2017 Mar 10.^
  35. % of internet access via native IPv6 compared to IPv4. As of 2017 Jun 20, from http://www.cidr-report.org. Accessed 2017 Jun 20.^
  36. "What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life: 3.4. Malware and Email Spam" by Vexen Crabtree (2018)^
  37. WHO (2014). Appendix 1. Alcohol Per Capita Consumption in liters of pure alcohol, 15+ years age population, consumed in 2010. Lower is better.^
  38. The Good Country Index (2017) .^^
  39. World Health Organisation data for 2011-2015 from 7 data series accessed 2017 May 21. Details in "Immunizations: International Statistics on Vaccines and the Autism Scare: 3. World Health Organisation Statistics" by Vexen Crabtree (2017).^
  40. Annual Cigarette Consumption Per Adult (age 15 and above) - compustible cigarettes. Euromonitor International (2014), via tobaccoatlas.org/topic/cigarette-use-globally/ . Accessed 2017 Jun 20.^
  41. UN (2013). World Health Organisation statistics. Suicide Rates Per 100k.^
  42. Charities Aid Foundation. Average ranking across years 2013-2016. Lower is better.^
  43. UN (2013). Table 9. Higher is better. Table 9. The UN's data is the latest available from a range of data from 2007-2011.^
  44. Yale University Center for Environmental Law & Policy 2018 EPI.^
  45. Lynn, Harvey & Nyborg (2009) .^

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