The Human Truth Foundation

Mauritania (Islamic Republic of Mauritania)

By Vexen Crabtree 2013


Comments:
FB, LJ

#charity #economics #happiness #homosexuality #intelligence #mauritania #morals #the_environment

Mauritania
Islamic Republic of Mauritania
StatusIndependent State
CapitalNouakchott
Land Area1 030 700km21
LocationAfrica
Population3.6m (2011)2
Life Expectancy63.24yrs (2017)3
GNI$3 527 (2017)4
ISO3166-1 CodesMR, MRT, 4785
Internet Domain.mr6
CurrencyOuguiya (MRO)7
Telephone+2228

1. Overview

#france #spain

Independent from France in 1960, Mauritania annexed the southern third of the former Spanish Sahara (now Western Sahara) in 1976 but relinquished it after three years of raids by the Polisario guerrilla front seeking independence for the territory. Maaouya Ould Sid Ahmed TAYA seized power in a coup in 1984 and ruled Mauritania with a heavy hand for more than two decades. A series of presidential elections that he held were widely seen as flawed. A bloodless coup in August 2005 deposed President TAYA and ushered in a military council that oversaw a transition to democratic rule. Independent candidate Sidi Ould Cheikh ABDALLAHI was inaugurated in April 2007 as Mauritania's first freely and fairly elected president. His term ended prematurely in August 2008 when a military junta led by General Mohamed Ould Abdel AZIZ deposed him and installed a military council government. AZIZ was subsequently elected president in July 2009 and sworn in the following month. AZIZ sustained injuries from an accidental shooting by his own troops in October 2012, but has continued to maintain his authority. The country continues to experience ethnic tensions among its black population (Afro-Mauritanians) and white and black Moor (Arab-Berber) communities, and is having to confront a growing terrorism threat by al-Qa'ida in the Islamic Maghreb (AQIM).

CIA's The World Factbook (2013)9

Book CoverA seemingly endless realm of Saharan sands, lapped by the Atlantic, Mauritania is a bridge between North Africa and sub-Saharan regions. If West Africa is a playground for overlanders, then Mauritania often seems to be little more than a transit between the better-known attractions of Marrakesh, Dakar or Bamako. As the safest trans-Saharan route for overlanders, Mauritania has long been regarded as a waystation en route from Europe to West Africa. That´s a shame because Mauritania has some tremendous secrets to reveal.

Just as impressive as the cultural diversity is some of the continent´s grandest scenery. The Adrar region offers epic sand dunes, eye-popping plateaus and Africa´s biggest monolith. The Tagānt has similar charms, and both hide ancient caravan towns - Chinguetti, Ouadāne and Oualāta. The World Heritage feast continues along the coast at Parc National du Banc d´Arguin, which attracts millions of migratory birds and is a renowned birdwatching site.

If you just breeze through, you´ll miss out on a truly incredible country. No one in Mauritania is in a rush, and you shouldn´t be either.

"The World" by Lonely Planet (2014)10

2. Mauritania National and Social Development

#human_development

UN HDI (2016)11
Pos.Lower is better
Rank11
1Norway1
2Australia2
3Switzerland2
...
154Zimbabwe154
155Papua New Guinea154
156Solomon Islands156
157Mauritania157
158Madagascar158
159Rwanda159
160Comoros160
161Lesotho160
World Avg94.3
q=188.
Social & Moral
Development Index
12
Pos.Higher is better
Points12
1Denmark84.2
2Sweden83.7
3Finland83.5
...
180Nigeria39.6
181Congo, (Brazzaville)39.1
182Palestine38.9
183Mauritania38.3
184Mali38.0
185Niger38.0
186Sudan37.9
187Syria35.7
World Avg54.1
q=198.

The United Nations produces an annual Human Development Report which includes the Human Development Index. The factors taken into account include life expectancy, education and schooling and Gross National Income (GNI) amongst many others..

The Social and Moral Development Index concentrates on moral issues and human rights, violence, public health, equality, tolerance, freedom and effectiveness in climate change mitigation and environmentalism, and on some technological issues. A country scores higher for achieving well in those areas, and for sustaining that achievement in the long term. Those countries towards the top of this index can truly said to be setting good examples and leading humankind onwards into a bright, humane, and free future. See: What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life.

3. Population and Demographics

#demographics #health #immigration #life_expectancy #Mauritania #overpopulation #population

Old-Age Dependency Ratio (2016)13
Pos.Lower is better
Per 10013
1Uganda04.3
2Mali04.5
3Chad04.7
...
41Swaziland06.6
42Central African Rep.06.8
43Sudan06.8
44Mauritania06.8
45Kuwait06.8
46Congo, (Brazzaville)07.0
47Solomon Islands07.0
48Rwanda07.0
World Avg18.3
q=185.
Emigrants (2010)14
Pos.
%14
1Dominica104.8
2Palestine68.4
3Samoa67.3
...
130Chile3.7
131Peru3.7
132Czechia3.6
133Mauritania3.5
134Canada3.5
135Algeria3.4
136Sweden3.4
137Ghana3.4
World Avg11.5
q=192.
Fertility Rate (2013)15
Pos.2.0 is best15
1Korea, N.2.00
2Brunei1.99
3St Vincent & Grenadines2.01
...
146Eritrea4.28
147Palestine4.31
148Cameroon4.33
149Mauritania4.40
150Congo, (Brazzaville)4.46
151Central African Rep.4.46
152Madagascar4.52
153Iraq4.57
World Avg2.81
q=180.

Immigrants (2010)14
Pos.
%14
1Qatar86.5
2Monaco71.6
3UAE70.0
...
100Sao Tome & Principe3.2
101Nepal3.2
102Azerbaijan3.0
103Mauritania2.9
104Zimbabwe2.9
105Ecuador2.9
106Iran2.8
107Albania2.8
World Avg9.2
q=192.
Life Expectancy (2015)16
Pos.Higher is better
Years16
1Hong Kong84.16
2Japan83.68
3Italy83.34
...
152Malawi63.88
153Sudan63.73
154Comoros63.57
155Mauritania63.24
156Haiti63.12
157Congo, (Brazzaville)62.89
158Papua New Guinea62.77
159Djibouti62.30
World Avg71.27
q=190.
Population (2012)17
Pos.The Overpopulation of the Earth17
1China1.4b
2India1.3b
3USA315.8m
...
127Congo, (Brazzaville)4.2m
128Bosnia & Herzegovina3.7m
129Panama3.6m
130Mauritania3.6m
131Moldova3.5m
132Uruguay3.4m
133Lithuania3.3m
134Albania3.2m
World Avg36.0m
q=195.

Mauritania's population is predicted to rise to 5.2 million by 2030. This country has a fertility rate of 4.40. The fertility rate is, in simple terms, the average amount of children that each woman has. The higher the figure, the quicker the population is growing, although, to calculate the rate you also need to take into account morbidity, i.e., the rate at which people die. If people live healthy and long lives and morbidity is low, then, 2.0 approximates to the replacement rate, which would keep the population stable. If all countries had such a fertility rate, population growth would end. The actual replacement rate in most developed countries is around 2.1.

4. Politics and Freedom

#burundi #corruption #eritrea #france #freedom #human_development #human_rights #indonesia #mass_media #Mauritania #peace #politics #slavery

Corruption (2012-2016)18
Pos.Higher is better
Avg Score18
1Denmark90.8
2New Zealand90.6
3Finland89.4
...
124Sierra Leone30.2
125Mozambique30.0
126Guatemala30.0
127Mauritania29.8
128Guyana29.6
129Pakistan29.2
130Gambia29.0
131Honduras28.8
World Avg43.05
q=176.
Global Peace Index (2012)19
Pos.Lower is better19
1Iceland1.11
2New Zealand1.24
3Denmark1.24
...
121Eritrea2.26
122Venezuela2.28
123Guatemala2.29
124Mauritania2.30
125Thailand2.30
126S. Africa2.32
127Iran2.32
128Honduras2.34
World Avg2.02
q=157.
Nominal Commitment to HR (2009)20
Pos.Higher is better
Treaties20
1Argentina24
2Chile23
3Costa Rica23
...
122Sudan14
123Cameroon14
124Uzbekistan14
125Mauritania13
126Sri Lanka13
127Malawi13
128Zambia13
129Congo, (Brazzaville)13
World Avg15.1
q=194.

Personal, Civil & Economic Freedom (2014)21
Pos.Lower is better
Rank21
1Hong Kong1
2Switzerland2
3New Zealand3
...
140Nigeria140
141China141
142Ethiopia142
143Mauritania143
144Egypt144
145Saudi Arabia144
146Chad146
147Pakistan146
World Avg79.7
q=159.
Press Freedom (2013)22
Pos.Lower is better22
1Finland638
2Netherlands648
3Norway652
...
63Croatia2661
64Central African Rep.2661
65Tonga2670
66Mauritania2676
67Bosnia & Herzegovina2686
68Guyana2708
69Tanzania2734
70Kenya2780
World Avg3249
q=178.
Slavery (2018)23
Pos.Lower is better
% Victims23
1Japan0.03
2Canada0.05
3Taiwan0.05
...
159Cambodia1.68
160Pakistan1.68
161S. Sudan2.05
162Mauritania2.14
163Afghanistan2.22
164Central African Rep.2.23
165Burundi4.00
166Eritrea9.30
World Avg0.65
q=167.

The taking of slaves has been an unwholesome feature of Human cultures since prehistory24. Private households and national endeavours have frequently been augmented with the use of slaves. The Egyptian and Roman empires both thrived on them for both purposes. Aside from labourers they are often abused sexually by their owners and their owners' friends25. The era of colonialism and the beginnings of globalisation changed nothing: the imprisonment and forced movements of labour continued to destroy many lives except that new justifications were invented based on Christian doctrine and the effort to convert non-Christians. By 1786 over 12 million slaves had been extracted from Africa and sent to colonial labour camps, with a truly atrocious condition of life26. But they were not the only ones to blame; in Africa internal nations such as the Asantes sold and bought tens of thousands of slaves27.

The abolition of the slave trade was a long and slow process. Until a relatively modern time, even philosophers, religious leaders and those concerned with ethics justified, or ignored, the problem of slavery28. The first abolitionists were always the slaves themselves. Their protests and rebellions caused the industry to become too expensive to continue. After that, it was the economic costs of maintain slave colonies that led the British to reject and then oppose the slave trade globally. Finally, the enlightenment-era thinkers of France encouraged moral and ethical thinking including the declaration of the inherent value of human life and human dignity29. A long-overdue wave of compassionate and conscientious movements swept across the West, eliminating public support for slavery, until the industries and churches that supported it had no choice but to back down.

'Modern slavery' includes forced labour (often of the under-age), debt bondage (especially generational), sexual slavery, chattel slavery and other forms of abuse, some of which can be surprisingly difficult to detect, but often target those fleeing from warzones and the vulnerable.30. Some industries (diamond, clothing, coal) from some countries (Burundi23, Eritrea23, Indonesia31) are a particular concern. The Walk Free Foundation, say that in 2016, 40.3 million people were living in modern slavery32.

The life-destroying practice of slavery is "entrenched in Mauritanian society with slave status being inherited, and deeply rooted in social castes and the wider social system. Those owned by masters often have no freedom to own land, cannot claim dowries from their marriages nor inherit property or possessions from their families"33. In 2015 Mauritania did improve its law, but, the judiciary and the police are reluctant to comply33.

5. Gender Equality

#gender #Mauritania #misogyny #politics #women

Gender Inequality (2015)34
Pos.Lower is better34
1Switzerland0.04
2Denmark0.04
3Netherlands0.04
...
144Benin0.61
145Malawi0.61
146Burkina Faso0.62
147Mauritania0.63
148Gambia0.64
149Central African Rep.0.65
150Liberia0.65
151Sierra Leone0.65
World Avg0.36
q=159.
Year Women Can Vote35
Pos.Lower is better
Year35
1New Zealand1893
2Australia1902
3Finland1906
...
127Gambia1960
128El Salvador1961
129Rwanda1961
130Mauritania1961
131Burundi1961
132Malawi1961
133Paraguay1961
134Sierra Leone1961
World Avg1930
q=189.

Gender inequality is not a necessary part of early human development. Although a separation of roles is almost universal due to different strengths between the genders, this does not have to mean that women are subdued, and, such patriarchialism is not universal in ancient history. Those cultures and peoples who shed, or never developed, the idea that mankind ought to dominate womankind, are better cultures and peoples than those who, even today, cling violently to those mores.

Mauritania is an unequal country, with male rights dominating those of women.

See:

6. Religion and Beliefs

#belief #buddhism #christianity #god #hinduism #islam #judaism #religion

Religiosity (2009)36
Pos.Lower is better
%36
1Estonia16
2Sweden17
3Denmark19
...
102Egypt97
103Morocco97
104Thailand97
105Mauritania98
106Djibouti98
107Somaliland98
108Burundi98
109Sri Lanka99
World Avg75.1
q=114.
Disbelief In God (2007)37
Pos.Higher is better37
1Vietnam81
2Japan65
3Sweden64
...
130Malawi0
131Chad0
132Nepal0
133Morocco0
134Mauritania0
135Mali0
136Senegal0
137Oman0
World Avg9.9
q=137.

Data from the Pew Forum, a professional polling outfit, states that in 2010 the religious makeup of this country was as follows in the table below38:

Christian0.3%
Muslim99%
Hindu0.1%
Buddhist0.1%
Folk Religion0.5%
Jew0.1%
Unaffiliated0.1%

The CIA World Factbook has slightly different data, and states simply: Muslim (official) 100%39.

The International Humanist and Ethical Union produced a report in 2012 entitled "Freedom of Thought" (2012)40, in which they document bias and prejudice at the national level that is based on religion, belief and/or lack of belief. Their entry for Mauritania states:

The constitution and other laws and policies restrict freedom of religion or belief and the 1991 constitution defines the country as an Islamic republic and recognizes Islam as the sole religion of its citizens and the state41. Due to this stance, all non-Muslims are restricted from being citizens of the country, and Mauritanians who leave Islam for another religion or no religion lose their citizenship. In addition, Article 306 of the penal code outlaws apostasy: anyone found guilty of converting from Islam will be given the opportunity to repent within three days and if the person does not repent, the individual will be sentenced to death and the person's property will be confiscated by the Treasury.

Sharia (Islamic law) provides legal principles upon which the law and legal procedures are based. The government and citizenry consider Islam to be the essential cohesive element unifying the country's various ethnic groups. There is a cabinet-level Ministry of Islamic Affairs and Traditional Education. The High Council of Islam, consisting of six imams, advised the government on conformance of legislation to Islamic precepts. The judiciary consists of a single system of courts that uses principles of Sharia in matters concerning the family and modern legal principles in all other matters.

The government requires members of the Constitutional Council and the High Council of Magistrates to take an oath of office that includes a promise to God to uphold the law of the land in conformity with Islamic precepts. Both public schools and private Islamic schools include classes on Islam, and attendance at these religious classes is required.

"Freedom of Thought" by IHEU (2012)42

Links:

7. The Internet

#internet #it_security #Mauritania #the_internet

Internet Users (2016)43
Pos.Higher is better43
1Iceland100%
2Faroe Islands99%
3Norway98%
...
158Cameroon18%
159Pakistan18%
160Nepal17%
161Mauritania17%
162S. Sudan17%
163Gambia17%
164Laos16%
165Namibia16%
World Avg48.1%
q=201.
IPv6 Uptake (2017)44
Pos.Higher is better
Ratio44
1Belgium55.4
2Germany41.8
3Switzerland35.1
...
140Sao Tome & Principe0.0
141Kiribati0.0
142Ivory Coast0.0
143Mauritania0.0
144Iraq0.0
145Oman0.0
146Papua New Guinea0.0
147French Polynesia0.0
World Avg3.82
q=176.
IT Security (2013)45
Pos.Lower is better45
1Ireland0.11
2Luxembourg0.11
3Belize0.11
...
50Italy1.15
51Vietnam1.15
52Nigeria1.18
53Mauritania1.19
54Azerbaijan1.21
55Belarus1.22
56Armenia1.22
57Malawi1.23
World Avg0.98
q=81.

Internet access has become an essential research tool. It facilitates an endless list of life improvements, from the ability to network and socialize without constraint, to access to a seemingly infinite repository of technical and procedural information on pretty much any task. The universal availability of data has sped up industrial development and personal learning at the national and personal level. Individuals can read any topic they wish regardless of the locality of expert teachers, and, entire nations can develop their technology and understanding of the world simply because they are now exposed to advanced societies and moral discourses online. Like every communications medium, the Internet has issues and causes a small range of problems, but these are insignificant compared to the advantages of having an online populace.

8. Public Health Issues

#alcohol #health #Mauritania #parenting #population #smoking #vaccines

Adolescent Birth Rate (2015)34
Pos.Lower is better
Per 100034
1Korea, N.0.5
2Korea, S.1.6
3Switzerland2.9
...
144Ecuador75.9
145Namibia76.8
146Senegal78.6
147Mauritania78.6
148Venezuela79.4
149Guatemala80.7
150Bangladesh83.0
151Benin83.2
World Avg47.9
q=185.
Alcohol Consumption (2010)46
Pos.Lower is better
Per Capita46
1Libya0.1
2Pakistan0.1
3Kuwait0.1
4Mauritania0.1
5Comoros0.2
6Saudi Arabia0.2
7Bangladesh0.2
8Yemen0.3
9Niger0.3
10Egypt0.4
11Iraq0.5
12Somalia0.5
World Avg6.2
q=191.
Food Aid, Health Contributions & WHO Compliance (2017)47
Pos.Lower is better
Rank47
1Sweden1
2Ireland2
3Denmark3
...
156Libya156
157Papua New Guinea157
158Belize158
159Algeria159
160Senegal160
161Mauritania161
162St Vincent & Grenadines162
163Angola163
World Avg82.0
q=163.

Infant Immunizations 2011-2015 (2015)48
Pos.Higher is better
Avg %48
1Hungary99.0
2China99.0
3Uzbekistan98.9
...
156Benin80.1
157Guinea-Bissau80.1
158Tonga80.0
159Mauritania79.9
160Lebanon79.4
161San Marino79.3
162Gabon78.7
163Micronesia78.2
World Avg88.3
q=194.
Smoking Rates (2014)49
Pos.Lower is better49
1Guinea 15
2Solomon Islands 26
3Kiribati 28
...
29Ghana 121
30Benin 122
31Zimbabwe 134
32Mauritania 135
33Bhutan 155
34Chad 156
35Zambia 165
36Gambia 166
World Avg 819
q=182.

9. More Charts and Comparisons to Other Countries

Personal Charitability
(World Position, 2013-2016)
50
Pos.Lower is better50
1Myanmar (Burma)1.25
2USA1.5
3New Zealand3.5
...
114Albania101.25
115Latvia101.25
116El Salvador101.25
117Mauritania101.25
118Jordan102
119Japan102
120Hungary102
q=156.
Intellectual Endeavours (2017)47
Pos.Lower is better
Rank47
1Ukraine1
2Czechia2
3Hungary3
...
138Congo, DR138
139Ecuador139
140Syria140
141Mauritania141
142Nigeria142
143Mali143
144Congo, (Brazzaville)144
q=163.
Creativity and Culture (2017)47
Pos.Lower is better
Rank47
1Belgium1
2Netherlands2
3Estonia3
...
53UAE53
54Thailand54
55Macedonia55
56Mauritania56
57India57
58Philippines58
59Uruguay59
q=163.
Peacekeeping and Security (2017)47
Pos.Lower is better
Rank47
1Samoa1
2S. Africa2
3Tunisia3
...
92Pakistan92
93Estonia93
94Bahamas94
95Mauritania95
96Nicaragua96
97Peru97
98Czechia98
q=163.
Refugees and UN Treaties (2017)47
Pos.Lower is better
Rank47
1Austria1
2Germany2
3Netherlands3
...
140Haiti140
141Mongolia141
142Syria142
143Mauritania143
144Rwanda144
145Chad145
146Central African Rep.146
q=163.
Open Trading, Aid and Development (2017)47
Pos.Lower is better
Rank47
1Ireland1
2Denmark2
3Sweden3
...
155Grenada155
156Venezuela156
157Bahrain157
158Mauritania158
159Brunei159
160Algeria160
161Papua New Guinea161
q=163.
Life Satisfaction (2011)51
Pos.Higher is better51
1Denmark7.8
2Norway7.6
3Netherlands7.6
...
85Philippines5.0
86Zambia5.0
87Laos5.0
88Mauritania5.0
89Latvia5.0
90Mongolia5.0
91Romania5.0
92Bangladesh5.0
q=150.
Gross National Income Per-Capita (2011)16
Pos.Higher is better
PPP $16
1Qatar$129 916
2Singapore$78 162
3Kuwait$76 075
...
142Marshall Islands$4 412
143Sudan$3 846
144Ghana$3 839
145Mauritania$3 527
146Zambia$3 464
147Bangladesh$3 341
148Lesotho$3 319
149Micronesia$3 291
q=193.
Environmental Performance (2018)52
Pos.Higher is better52
1Switzerland87.4
2France84.0
3Denmark81.6
...
163Djibouti40.0
164Papua New Guinea39.4
165Eritrea39.3
166Mauritania39.2
167Benin38.2
168Afghanistan37.7
169Pakistan37.5
170Angola37.4
q=180.
LGBT Equality (2017)53
Pos.Higher is better
Score53
1Netherlands103
2Belgium90
3Sweden86
...
178Uzbekistan-30
179Tonga-30
180Tuvalu-30
181Mauritania-32
182UAE-34
183Kuwait-37
184Algeria-37
185Tunisia-39
q=196.
IQ (2006)54
Pos.Higher is better54
1Hong Kong108
2Singapore108
3Korea, S.106
...
101Guatemala79
102Sri Lanka79
103Nepal78
104Mauritania76
105Uganda73
106Tanzania72
107Kenya72
108S. Africa72
q=138.

Current edition: 2013 May 01
Last Modified: 2018 Aug 17
http://www.humantruth.info/mauritania.html
Parent page: Compare International Statistics by Region and Continent

All #tags used on this page - click for more:

#alcohol #belief #buddhism #burundi #charity #christianity #corruption #demographics #economics #eritrea #france #freedom #gender #god #happiness #health #hinduism #homosexuality #human_development #human_rights #immigration #indonesia #intelligence #internet #islam #it_security #judaism #life_expectancy #mass_media #Mauritania #misogyny #morals #overpopulation #parenting #peace #politics #population #religion #slavery #smoking #spain #the_environment #the_internet #vaccines #women

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References: (What's this?)

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(2017) Human Development Report. Published by the UN Development Programme. Data for 2015. Available on hdr.undp.org/.

Walk Free Foundation
(2018) Global Slavery Index. Published on www.walkfreefoundation.org/.

World Health Organisation. (WHO)
(2014) Global Status Report on Alcohol and Health. A copy can be found on the WHO website. Accessed 2015 Jan 04. It "presents a comprehensive perspective on the global, regional and country consumption of alcohol, patterns of drinking, health consequences and policy responses in Member States" and was published in Geneva on 2014 May 12.

Footnotes

  1. World Bank data on data.worldbank.org accessed 2013 Nov 04.^
  2. UN (2011) .^
  3. UN (2017). Table 1.^
  4. UN (2017). Gross National Income, per person. Table 1.^
  5. International Standards Organisation (ISO) standard ISO3166-1, on www.iso.org, accessed 2013 May 01.^
  6. Top level domains (TLDs) are managed by the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) on www.iana.org.^
  7. According to ISO4217.^
  8. According to ITU-T.^
  9. CIA (2013). Https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/mr.html accessed 2014 Apr 27.^
  10. Lonely Planet (2014). Chapter "Mauritania".^
  11. UN (2017). Table 1. Lower is better.^
  12. "What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life" by Vexen Crabtree (2018)^
  13. UN (2017). Dashboard 2. Higher is worse. Old-age is counted as 65+, and ratio is of these to people ages 15-64. Projections are for 2030 based on medium-fertility variant of growth.^
  14. UN (2013). Table 11.^
  15. UN (2013). Table 14. Births per woman (2012), expressed as deviance (positive or negative) from the value of 2.0.^
  16. UN (2017). Table 1. Higher is better.^^
  17. UN (2013). Table 14.^
  18. Transparency International Corruption Perceptions Index (2017). Accessed 2017 Dec 30. The scores given are the TI average for the years 2012-2016.^
  19. ^
  20. Max possible=24. Total amount of treaties ratified. Nominal Commitment to Human Rights report published by UCL School of Public Policy, London, UK, at ucl.ac.uk/spp/research/research-projects/nchr accessed 2011 Apr 30.^
  21. Fraser Institute, the (2016). Covers data for 2014.^
  22. Reporters Without Borders Report "2013 World Press Freedom Index: Dashed hopes after spring" at fr.rsf.org/.../classement_2013_gb-bd.pdf accessed 2013 Feb.^
  23. Walk Free Foundation (2018) .^
  24. Thomson (1993). P28.^
  25. McCall (1979). P180.^
  26. Thomson (1993). P166.^
  27. Casely-Hayford (2012). P253.^
  28. Thomson (1993). P31.^
  29. Thomson (1993). P199.^
  30. Thomson (1993). P28-29.^
  31. Klein (2004) .^
  32. Walk Free Foundation (2018). P2.^
  33. Walk Free Foundation (2018). P29.^
  34. UN (2017). Table 5. Lower is better.^^
  35. "What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life: 2.6. Women Stand for Election & Vote" by Vexen Crabtree (2018)^
  36. Gallup (2009) .^
  37. Zuckerman, P. (2007). Atheism: contemporary numbers and patterns. In M.Martin (Ed.), The Cambridge Companion to Atheism. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. In "Average intelligence predicts atheism rates across 137 nations" by Lynn et al. (2009)54.^
  38. Pew Forum (2012) publication "The Global Religious Landscape: A Report on the Size and Distribution of the World´s Major Religious Groups as of 2010" (2012 Dec 18) accessed 2013 May 01.^
  39. CIA (2013). Https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/ar.html accessed 2014 Apr 27.^
  40. IHEU (2012) .^
  41. 2010 IRF report (US International Religious Freedom report). In IHEU 2012.^
  42. IHEU (2012) .Added to this page on 2013 Oct 28.^
  43. internetlivestats.com/internet-users-by-country accessed 2017 Mar 10.^
  44. % of internet access via native IPv6 compared to IPv4. As of 2017 Jun 20, from http://www.cidr-report.org. Accessed 2017 Jun 20.^
  45. "What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life: 3.4. Malware and Email Spam" by Vexen Crabtree (2018)^
  46. WHO (2014). Appendix 1. Alcohol Per Capita Consumption in liters of pure alcohol, 15+ years age population, consumed in 2010. Lower is better.^
  47. The Good Country Index (2017) .^^
  48. World Health Organisation data for 2011-2015 from 7 data series accessed 2017 May 21. Details in "Immunizations: International Statistics on Vaccines and the Autism Scare: 3. World Health Organisation Statistics" by Vexen Crabtree (2017).^
  49. Annual Cigarette Consumption Per Adult (age 15 and above) - compustible cigarettes. Euromonitor International (2014), via tobaccoatlas.org/topic/cigarette-use-globally/ . Accessed 2017 Jun 20.^
  50. Charities Aid Foundation. Average ranking across years 2013-2016. Lower is better.^
  51. UN (2013). Table 9. Higher is better. Table 9. The UN's data is the latest available from a range of data from 2007-2011.^
  52. Yale University Center for Environmental Law & Policy 2018 EPI.^
  53. Sources:^
  54. Lynn, Harvey & Nyborg (2009) .^

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