Mauritania (Islamic Republic of Mauritania)

#Islam #Mauritania

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Mauritania
Islamic Republic of Mauritania
StatusIndependent State
Social and Moral Index187th best
CapitalNouakchott
Land Area11 030 700 km2
LocationAfrica
Population23.623 million
Life Expectancy358.922yrs (2012)
GNI3$2 174
ISO3166-1 Codes4MR, MRT, 478
Internet Domain5.mr
Currency6Ouguiya (MRO)
Telephone7+222

1. Overview

#France #Spain

Independent from France in 1960, Mauritania annexed the southern third of the former Spanish Sahara (now Western Sahara) in 1976 but relinquished it after three years of raids by the Polisario guerrilla front seeking independence for the territory. Maaouya Ould Sid Ahmed TAYA seized power in a coup in 1984 and ruled Mauritania with a heavy hand for more than two decades. A series of presidential elections that he held were widely seen as flawed. A bloodless coup in August 2005 deposed President TAYA and ushered in a military council that oversaw a transition to democratic rule. Independent candidate Sidi Ould Cheikh ABDALLAHI was inaugurated in April 2007 as Mauritania's first freely and fairly elected president. His term ended prematurely in August 2008 when a military junta led by General Mohamed Ould Abdel AZIZ deposed him and installed a military council government. AZIZ was subsequently elected president in July 2009 and sworn in the following month. AZIZ sustained injuries from an accidental shooting by his own troops in October 2012, but has continued to maintain his authority. The country continues to experience ethnic tensions among its black population (Afro-Mauritanians) and white and black Moor (Arab-Berber) communities, and is having to confront a growing terrorism threat by al-Qa'ida in the Islamic Maghreb (AQIM).

CIA's The World Factbook (2013)8

2. Mauritania National and Social Development

UN's Human Development Index
Country2012
score
Average
1980-2010
1Norway95.587.3
2Australia93.888.9
3USA93.787.8
...
152Tanzania47.639.2
153Nigeria47.145.4
154Senegal47.038.5
155Mauritania46.738.6
156Papua New Guinea46.639.2
157Nepal46.335.9
158Lesotho46.144.0
159Togo45.938.9
160Yemen45.841.7
161Uganda45.637.1
162Haiti45.640.0
163Zambia44.839.8
164Djibouti44.542.7
Data Source
Social and Moral Development
CountryScore
1Sweden89.1
2Iceland87.6
3Denmark87.2
...
178Ethiopia38.2
179Guinea-Bissau37.5
180Pakistan37.4
181Mali36.8
182Niger36.4
183Yemen35.5
184Chad35.1
185Central African Rep.35.0
186Iraq33.8
187Mauritania33.8
188Congo, DR31.1
189Somalia29.7
190Sudan27.7
191Afghanistan27.4
Data Source

The United Nations produces an annual Human Development Report which includes the Human Development Index. The factors taken into account include life expectancy, education and schooling and Gross National Income (GNI) amongst many others. The values in the chart are factored by 100.

The Social and Moral Development Index is a formulaic aggregation of many factors. It concentrates on moral issues and human rights, violence, equality, tolerance, freedom and effectiveness in climate change mitigation and environmentalism. A country scores higher for achieving well in those areas, and for sustaining that achievement in the long term. Those countries towards the top of this index can truly said to be setting good examples and leading humankind onwards into a bright, humane, and free future. See: "What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life" by Vexen Crabtree (2013).

3. Population and Life Expectancy

Life Expectancy (at birth)
1Japan83.6
2Hong Kong83
3Switzerland82.5
...
156Comoros61.5
157Senegal59.6
158Ethiopia59.7
159Mauritania58.9
160Gambia58.8
161Tanzania58.9
162Djibouti58.3
163Congo, (Brazzaville)57.8
Data Source
Fertility Rate
1Korea, N.2.0
2Brunei2.0
3St Vincent & Grenadines2.0
...
146Eritrea4.3
147Palestine4.3
148Cameroon4.3
149Mauritania4.4
150Congo, (Brazzaville)4.5
151Central African Rep.4.5
152Madagascar4.5
153Iraq4.6
Data Source
Population (m=millions)
CountryPeoplePer km2
1China1 353.6m145
2India1 258.35m423
3USA 315.79m35
...
127Congo, (Brazzaville)4.233m12
128Bosnia & Herzegovina3.744m73
129Panama3.625m49
130Mauritania3.623m4
131Moldova3.519m107
132Uruguay3.391m19
133Lithuania3.292m53
Data Source

Mauritania's population is predicted to rise to 5.2 million by 2030. This country has a fertility rate of 4.40. The fertility rate is, in simple terms, the average amount of children that each woman has. The higher the figure, the quicker the population is growing, although, to calculate the rate you also need to take into account morbidity, i.e., the rate at which people die. If people live healthy and long lives and morbidity is low, then, 2.0 approximates to the replacement rate, which would keep the population stable. If all countries had such a fertility rate, population growth would end. The actual replacement rate in most developed countries is around 2.1.

4. Gender Equality

Female Vote and Stand
1New Zealand1893
2Australia1902
3Finland1906
...
130Sierra Leone1961
131Malawi1961
132Burundi1961
133Mauritania1961
134Rwanda1961
135Zambia1962
136Monaco1962
137Uganda1962
Gender Equality
1Netherlands0.04
2Sweden0.05
3Denmark0.06
...
136Zambia0.62
137Cameroon0.63
138Ivory Coast0.63
139Mauritania0.64
140Sierra Leone0.64
141Mali0.65
142Central African Rep.0.65
143Liberia0.66
Data Source

Gender inequality is not a necessary part of early human development. Although a separation of roles is almost universal due to different strengths between the genders, this does not have to mean that women are subdued, and, such patriarchialism is not universal in ancient history. Those cultures and peoples who shed, or never developed, the idea that mankind ought to dominate womankind, are better cultures and peoples than those who, even today, cling violently to those mores.

Mauritania is an unequal country, with male rights dominating those of women.

See:

5. Religion and Beliefs

#Buddhism #Christianity #Hinduism #Islam #Judaism

Disbelief In God
1Vietnam81%
2Japan65%
3Sweden64%
...
95Benin0%
96Chad0%
97Botswana0%
98Mauritania0%
99Mali0%
100Burkina Faso0%
101Tanzania0%
102Philippines0%
Data Source
How Many Are Religious?
1Estonia16%
2Sweden17%
3Denmark19%
...
103Morocco97%
104Egypt97%
105Somaliland98%
106Mauritania98%
107Djibouti98%
108Burundi98%
109Indonesia99%
110Malawi99%
Data Source

Data from the Pew Forum, a professional polling outfit, states that in 2010 the religious makeup of this country was as follows in the table below9:

Christian0.3%
Muslim99%
Hindu0.1%
Buddhist0.1%
Folk Religion0.5%
Jew0.1%
Unaffiliated0.1%

The CIA World Factbook has slightly different data, and states simply: Muslim (official) 100%10.

The International Humanist and Ethical Union produced a report in 2012 entitled "Freedom of Thought" (2012), in which they document bias and prejudice at the national level that is based on religion, belief and/or lack of belief. Their entry for Mauritania states:

The constitution and other laws and policies restrict freedom of religion or belief and the 1991 constitution defines the country as an Islamic republic and recognizes Islam as the sole religion of its citizens and the state11. Due to this stance, all non-Muslims are restricted from being citizens of the country, and Mauritanians who leave Islam for another religion or no religion lose their citizenship. In addition, Article 306 of the penal code outlaws apostasy: anyone found guilty of converting from Islam will be given the opportunity to repent within three days and if the person does not repent, the individual will be sentenced to death and the person's property will be confiscated by the Treasury.

Sharia (Islamic law) provides legal principles upon which the law and legal procedures are based. The government and citizenry consider Islam to be the essential cohesive element unifying the country's various ethnic groups. There is a cabinet-level Ministry of Islamic Affairs and Traditional Education. The High Council of Islam, consisting of six imams, advised the government on conformance of legislation to Islamic precepts. The judiciary consists of a single system of courts that uses principles of Sharia in matters concerning the family and modern legal principles in all other matters.

The government requires members of the Constitutional Council and the High Council of Magistrates to take an oath of office that includes a promise to God to uphold the law of the land in conformity with Islamic precepts. Both public schools and private Islamic schools include classes on Islam, and attendance at these religious classes is required.

"Freedom of Thought" by IHEU (2012)12

Links:

6. The Internet

IT Security Risks
271USA3.68
270Russia2.42
269India2.10
...
246Armenia1.22
245Belarus1.22
244Azerbaijan1.21
243Mauritania1.19
242Nigeria1.18
241Vietnam1.15
240Italy1.15
239France1.13
Data Source
Internet Users in Population
1Iceland95.64
2Norway93.28
3Netherlands90.70
...
162Bangladesh3.70
163Afghanistan3.65
164Benin3.13
165Mauritania3.00
166Mali2.70
167Ivory Coast2.60
168Iraq2.47
169Guinea-Bissau2.45
Data Source

Internet access has become an essential research tool. It facilitates an endless list of life improvements, from the ability to network and socialize without constraint, to access to a seemingly infinite repository of technical and procedural information on pretty much any task. The universal availability of data has sped up industrial development and personal learning at the national and personal level. Individuals can read any topic they wish regardless of the locality of expert teachers, and, entire nations can develop their technology and understanding of the world simply because they are now exposed to advanced societies and moral discourses online. Like every communications medium, the Internet has issues and causes a small range of problems, but these are insignificant compared to the advantages of having an online populace.

Links:

7. More Charts and Comparisons to Other Countries

Economic Freedom
1Hong Kong9.0
2Singapore8.8
3New Zealand8.4
...
127Lesotho5.8
128Ivory Coast5.7
129Ethiopia5.7
130Mauritania5.6
131Niger5.5
132Togo5.5
133Mozambique5.4
134Burundi5.4
Data Source
Global Peace Index
1Iceland1.11
2New Zealand1.24
3Denmark1.24
...
121Eritrea2.26
122Venezuela2.28
123Guatemala2.29
124Mauritania2.30
125Thailand2.30
126S. Africa2.32
127Iran2.32
128Honduras2.34
Data Source
Average IQ
1Singapore108
2Korea, S.106
3Taiwan105
...
99Sri Lanka79
100Guatemala79
101Nepal78
102Mauritania76
103Uganda73
104Tanzania72
105Kenya72
106S. Africa72
Data Source
Human Rights Treaties
1Argentina24
2Ecuador23
3Germany23
...
122Japan14
123Jordan14
124Kenya14
125Mauritania13
126Sri Lanka13
127Nepal13
128Equatorial Guinea13
129Ivory Coast13
Data Source
Press Freedom Index
1Finland99.0
2Netherlands99.0
3Norway99.0
...
63Croatia99.3
64Central African Rep.99.3
65Tonga99.3
66Mauritania99.3
67Bosnia & Herzegovina99.3
68Guyana99.3
69Tanzania99.3
70Kenya99.3
Data Source
Gross National Income
1Qatar$87 478
2Liechtenstein$84 880
3Kuwait$52 793
...
140Laos$2 435
141Papua New Guinea$2 386
142Djibouti$2 350
143Mauritania$2 174
144Solomon Islands$2 172
145Tajikistan$2 119
146Cameroon$2 114
147Nigeria$2 102
Data Source
Happiness
1Denmark7.8
2Netherlands7.6
3Norway7.6
...
83Malawi5.1
84Mozambique5
85Mongolia5
86Mauritania5
87Romania5
88China5
89Philippines5
90Zambia5
Data Source
Environmental Performance
1Iceland93.5
2Switzerland89.1
3Costa Rica86.4
...
155Mali39.4
156Turkmenistan38.4
157Niger37.6
158Togo36.4
159Angola36.3
160Mauritania33.7
161Central African Rep.33.3
162Sierra Leone32.1
Data Source
Gay Equality
1Netherlands405
2Belgium350
3Canada280
...
198Myanmar (Burma)-200
199Uganda-220
200Malawi-220
201Mauritania-220
202Nigeria-220
203Malaysia-220
204Tanzania-220
205Somaliland-500
Data Source

By Vexen Crabtree 2013 May 01
http://www.humantruth.info/mauritania.html
Parent page: Vexing International Issues

Social Media

References: (What's this?)

CIA
(2013) World Factbook. The USA Government's Central Intelligence Agency (USA CIA) publishes The World Factbook, and the online version is frequently updated.

Crabtree, Vexen
(2013) "What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life" (2013). Accessed 2016 Nov 01.

Gallup
(2009) Religiosity. gallup.com/poll/142727/.... The survey question was "Is religion an important part of your daily life?" and results are charted for those who said "yes". 1000 adults were polled in each of 114 countries.

IHEU. International Humanist and Ethical Union.
(2012) Freedom of Thought. A copy can be found on iheu.org/...Freedom of Thought 2012.pdf, accessed 2013 Oct 28.

Lynn, Harvey & Nyborg
(2009) Average intelligence predicts atheism rates across 137 nations. Richard Lynn, John Harvey and Helmuth Nyborg article "Average intelligence predicts atheism rates across 137 nations" in Intelligence (2009 Jan/Feb) vol. 37 issue 1 pages 11-15. Online at www.sciencedirect.com, accessed 2009 Sep 15.

United Nations
(2011) Human Development Report. This edition had the theme of Sustainability and Equity: A Better Future for All. Published on the United Nation's website at hdr.undp.org/.../HDR_2011_EN_Complete.pdf (accessed throughout 2013, Jan-Mar). UN Development Program: About the Human Development Index.
(2013) Human Development Report. This edition had the theme of The Rise of the South: Human Progress in a Diverse World. Published on the United Nation's HDR website at hdr.undp.org/.../hdr2013/ (accessed throughout 2013). UN Development Program: About the Human Development Index.

Footnotes

  1. World Bank data on data.worldbank.org accessed 2013 Nov 04.^
  2. UN (2011).^
  3. UN (2013).^
  4. International Standards Organisation (ISO) standard ISO3166-1, on www.iso.org, accessed 2013 May 01.^
  5. Top level domains (TLDs) are managed by the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) on www.iana.org.^
  6. According to ISO4217.^
  7. According to ITU-T.^
  8. CIA (2013) https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/mr.html accessed 2014 Apr 27.^
  9. Pew Forum (2012) publication "The Global Religious Landscape: A Report on the Size and Distribution of the World´s Major Religious Groups as of 2010" (2012 Dec 18) accessed 2013 May 01.^
  10. CIA (2013) https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/ar.html accessed 2014 Apr 27.^
  11. 2010 IRF report (US International Religious Freedom report). In IHEU 2012.^
  12. IHEU (2012) Added to this page on 2013 Oct 28.^

© 2016 Vexen Crabtree. All rights reserved.