The Human Truth Foundation

Turkey (Republic of Turkey)

By Vexen Crabtree 2013


Comments:
FB, LJ

#charity #cyprus #economics #EU #europe #happiness #morals #research #science #the_environment #turkey

Turkey
Republic of Turkey
StatusIndependent State
CapitalAnkara
Land Area 769 630km21
LocationAsia, Europe, Mediterranean, Middle East
Population74.5m (2011)2
Life Expectancy75.53yrs (2017)3
GNI$18 705 (2017)4
ISO3166-1 CodesTR, TUR, 7925
Internet Domain.tr6
CurrencyLira (TRY)7
Telephone+908

1. Overview

#cyprus #iraq

Modern Turkey was founded in 1923 from the Anatolian remnants of the defeated Ottoman Empire by national hero Mustafa KEMAL, who was later honored with the title Ataturk or "Father of the Turks." Under his authoritarian leadership, the country adopted wide-ranging social, legal, and political reforms. After a period of one-party rule, an experiment with multi-party politics led to the 1950 election victory of the opposition Democratic Party and the peaceful transfer of power. Since then, Turkish political parties have multiplied, but democracy has been fractured by periods of instability and intermittent military coups (1960, 1971, 1980), which in each case eventually resulted in a return of political power to civilians. In 1997, the military again helped engineer the ouster - popularly dubbed a "post-modern coup" - of the then Islamic-oriented government. Turkey intervened militarily on Cyprus in 1974 to prevent a Greek takeover of the island and has since acted as patron state to the "Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus," which only Turkey recognizes. A separatist insurgency begun in 1984 by the Kurdistan Workers' Party (PKK) - now known as the Kurdistan People's Congress or Kongra-Gel (KGK) - has dominated the Turkish military's attention and claimed more than 30,000 lives. After the capture of the group's leader in 1999, the insurgents largely withdrew from Turkey mainly to northern Iraq. In 2004, KGK announced an end to its ceasefire and attacks attributed to the KGK increased. Turkey joined the UN in 1945 and in 1952 it became a member of NATO. In 1964, Turkey became an associate member of the European Community. Over the past decade, it has undertaken many reforms to strengthen its democracy and economy.

CIA's The World Factbook (2013)9

Book CoverTurkey boasts a rich history, some of the best cuisine you will ever taste, one of the world´s greatest cities, and scenery from white-sand beaches to soaring mountains. ... Turkey packs in as many towering minarets and spice-trading bazaars as its Middle Eastern neighbours. This bridge between continents has absorbed the best of Europe and Asia. Travellers can enjoy historical hot spots, mountain outposts, expansive steppes and caravanserai-loads of the exotic, without forgoing comfy beds and buses.

Despite its reputation as a continental meeting point, Turkey can´t be pigeonholed. Cappadocia, a dreamscape dotted with rock formations, is unlike anywhere else on the planet. Likewise, spots like Mt Nemrut, littered with giant stone heads, and Olympos, where Lycian ruins peek from the undergrowth, are quintessentially Turkish mixtures of natural splendour and ancient remains.

The beaches and mountains offer enough activities to impress the fussiest Ottoman sultan. Worldly pleasures include the many historic hotels, the meze to savour on panoramic terraces and, of course, Turkey´s famous kebaps.

"The World" by Lonely Planet (2014)10

An April 2017 referendum, which voters approved by a slim margin, introduced constitutional amendments switching Turkey to a presidential system of governance. [...] The referendum took place under a state of emergency imposed after the July 15, 2016 attempted military coup, and in an environment of heavy media censorship, with many journalists and parliamentarians from the pro-Kurdish opposition in jail.

The new presidential system, which consolidates the incumbent´s hold on power, is a setback for human rights and the rule of law. It lacks sufficient checks and balances against abuse of executive power, greatly diminishing the powers of parliament, and consolidating presidential control over most judicial appointments. [...]

Hundreds of media outlets, associations, foundations, private hospitals, and educational establishments that the government shut down by decree remained closed in 2017, their assets confiscated without compensation.

"World Report 2018" by Human Rights Watch (2018)11

2. Turkey National and Social Development

#human_development

UN HDI (2016)12
Pos.Lower is better
Rank12
1Norway1
2Australia2
3Switzerland2
...
68Cuba68
69Iran69
70Georgia70
71Turkey71
72Venezuela71
73Sri Lanka73
74St Kitts & Nevis74
75Albania75
World Avg94.3
q=188.
Social & Moral
Development Index
13
Pos.Higher is better
Points13
1Denmark84.0
2Sweden83.9
3Finland83.5
...
58UAE57.3
59Jamaica57.2
60Fiji57.2
61Turkey57.1
62Macedonia57.0
63Moldova57.0
64Brunei56.9
65Mongolia56.9
World Avg53.8
q=198.

The United Nations produces an annual Human Development Report which includes the Human Development Index. The factors taken into account include life expectancy, education and schooling and Gross National Income (GNI) amongst many others..

The Social and Moral Development Index concentrates on moral issues and human rights, violence, public health, equality, tolerance, freedom and effectiveness in climate change mitigation and environmentalism, and on some technological issues. A country scores higher for achieving well in those areas, and for sustaining that achievement in the long term. Those countries towards the top of this index can truly said to be setting good examples and leading humankind onwards into a bright, humane, and free future. See: What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life.

3. Population and Demographics

#demographics #health #immigration #life_expectancy #overpopulation #population #Turkey

Old-Age Dependency Ratio (2016)14
Pos.Lower is better
Per 10014
1Uganda04.3
2Mali04.5
3Chad04.7
...
108El Salvador17.3
109Panama17.7
110N. Korea17.8
111Turkey18.0
112Vietnam18.3
113Tunisia18.6
114Azerbaijan18.7
115Colombia18.8
World Avg18.3
q=185.
Emigrants (2010)15
Pos.
%15
1Dominica104.8
2Palestine68.4
3Samoa67.3
...
99Italy5.8
100Benin5.8
101Laos5.7
102Turkey5.6
103Comoros5.6
104Congo, (Brazzaville)5.6
105Togo5.4
106Ivory Coast5.4
World Avg11.5
q=192.
Fertility Rate (2013)16
Pos.2.0 is best16
1N. Korea2.00
2Brunei1.99
3St Vincent & Grenadines2.01
4France1.99
5Turkey2.04
6Australia1.96
7Uruguay2.05
8Norway1.95
9Myanmar (Burma)1.95
10Indonesia2.07
11Sweden1.93
12Tunisia1.93
World Avg2.81
q=180.

Immigrants (2010)15
Pos.
%15
1Qatar86.5
2Monaco71.6
3UAE70.0
...
126Mozambique1.9
127Uganda1.9
128Chile1.9
129Turkey1.9
130Sierra Leone1.8
131Central African Rep.1.8
132Zambia1.8
133Malawi1.8
World Avg9.2
q=192.
Life Expectancy (2015)17
Pos.Higher is better
Years17
1Hong Kong84.16
2Japan83.68
3Italy83.34
...
62Iran75.58
63Bahamas75.56
64Macedonia75.53
65Turkey75.53
66Hungary75.31
67Nicaragua75.21
68St Lucia75.20
69Serbia75.05
World Avg71.27
q=190.
Population (2012)18
Pos.The Overpopulation of the Earth18
1China1.4b
2India1.3b
3USA315.8m
...
15Egypt84.0m
16Germany82.0m
17Iran75.6m
18Turkey74.5m
19Thailand69.9m
20Congo, DR69.6m
21France63.5m
22UK62.8m
World Avg36.0m
q=195.

Turkey's population is predicted to rise to 86.67 million by 2030. These millions of extra people will all need space to live, food to eat, energy to consume, and will increase the burden on the planet's resources. This country has a fertility rate of 2.04. The fertility rate is, in simple terms, the average amount of children that each woman has. The higher the figure, the quicker the population is growing, although, to calculate the rate you also need to take into account morbidity, i.e., the rate at which people die. If people live healthy and long lives and morbidity is low, then, 2.0 approximates to the replacement rate, which would keep the population stable. If all countries had such a fertility rate, population growth would end. The actual replacement rate in most developed countries is around 2.1.

4. Human Rights, Equality and Freedom

#equality #freedom #human_rights #politics #tolerance #turkey

Turkey is generally poor at ensuring human rights and freedom compared to the rest of the world. Turkey does better than average in commentary from Human Rights Watch19, fighting corruption20, LGBT equality21, opposing gender inequality22, supporting personal, civil & economic freedoms23 and in its nominal commitment to Human Rights24. Turkey does not succeed in everything, however. It does worse than average in eliminating modern slavery25, its Global Peace Index rating26 and in supporting press freedom27. And finally, it falls into the bottom 20 in fighting anti-semitic opinions28. A new era of censorship has begun, with websites, media outlets and journalists being blocked and persecuted; Human Rights Watch states that "Turkey is the world leader in jailing journalists and media workers as they face criminal investigations and trials"11. President Recep Tayyip Erdogan espouses misogynistic and backwards opinions on women, actively holding back any chance of progress on women's rights and retarding family life and family planning services29. Turkey has also gone backwards on its stance against torture, with a raft of reports from 2017 emanating from those in police custody describing torture and ill-treatment11.

For tables, charts and commentary, see:

5. Religion and Beliefs

#afterlife #buddhism #christianity #heaven #hell #hinduism #islam #judaism #religion #turkey

Religiosity (2009)30
Pos.Lower is better
%30
1Estonia16
2Sweden17
3Denmark19
...
47Costa Rica79
48Turkmenistan80
49Georgia81
50Turkey82
51Ecuador82
52Colombia83
53El Salvador83
54Romania84
World Avg75.1
q=114.

Data from the Pew Forum, a professional polling outfit, states that in 2010 the religious makeup of this country was as follows in the table below31:

Christian0.4%
Muslim98%
Hindu0.1%
Buddhist0.1%
Folk Religion0.1%
Jew0.1%
Unaffiliated1.2%

It appears that when asked "What religion are you" many give pollsters the 'correct' answer despite how they actually feel, and despite what they actually believe. Although 98.8% of the populace say they belong to a religion, only 82% say that they are religious when the question is phrased as "Is religion an important part of your daily life?".

For more on this phenomenon, see:

The CIA World Factbook has slightly different data, and states: Muslim 99.8% (mostly Sunni), other 0.2% (mostly Christians and Jews)32.

The Afterlife: Ipsos-NA in 2011 gathered some statistics on Turkey33. Despite the large numbers of Muslims, not many have traditional beliefs in the afterlife - just 52%. Some people don't know what to believe (14%). Some believe that upon death, you simply cease to exist (5%). 2% believe in reincarnation.

Freedom of Religion and Belief:

Links:

6. The Internet

#internet #it_security #politics #the_internet #Turkey

Freedom On The Internet (2012)34
Pos.Lower is better34
1Estonia10
2USA12
3Germany15
...
22Libya43
23Malaysia43
24Jordan45
25Turkey46
26Tunisia46
27Venezuela48
28Azerbaijan50
29Rwanda51
World Avg46.7
q=47.
Internet Users (2016)35
Pos.Higher is better35
1Iceland100%
2Faroe Islands99%
3Norway98%
...
79St Vincent & Grenadines60%
80St Lucia59%
81Bulgaria59%
82Turkey58%
83Romania58%
84Venezuela58%
85Seychelles58%
86Morocco58%
World Avg48.1%
q=201.
IPv6 Uptake (2017)36
Pos.Higher is better
Ratio36
1Belgium55.4
2Germany41.8
3Switzerland35.1
...
58Bhutan0.4
59China0.3
60Iceland0.3
61Turkey0.3
62Uruguay0.3
63Moldova0.3
64UAE0.3
65Seychelles0.2
World Avg3.82
q=176.

IT Security (2013)37
Pos.Lower is better37
1Ireland0.11
2Luxembourg0.11
3Belize0.11
...
17Taiwan0.44
18Sweden0.44
19Romania0.52
20Turkey0.52
21Poland0.55
22Switzerland0.55
23S. Korea0.56
24Australia0.63
World Avg0.98
q=81.

Internet access has become an essential research tool. It facilitates an endless list of life improvements, from the ability to network and socialize without constraint, to access to a seemingly infinite repository of technical and procedural information on pretty much any task. The universal availability of data has sped up industrial development and personal learning at the national and personal level. Individuals can read any topic they wish regardless of the locality of expert teachers, and, entire nations can develop their technology and understanding of the world simply because they are now exposed to advanced societies and moral discourses online. Like every communications medium, the Internet has issues and causes a small range of problems, but these are insignificant compared to the advantages of having an online populace.

7. Public Health Issues

#alcohol #health #parenting #population #smoking #Turkey #vaccines

Adolescent Birth Rate (2015)22
Pos.Lower is better
Per 100022
1N. Korea0.5
2S. Korea1.6
3Switzerland2.9
...
75Samoa25.0
76Rwanda26.3
77Iran26.7
78Turkey27.6
79Kazakhstan27.9
80Burundi28.3
81Mauritius28.5
82Bahamas29.6
World Avg47.9
q=185.
Alcohol Consumption (2010)38
Pos.Lower is better
Per Capita38
1Libya0.1
2Pakistan0.1
3Kuwait0.1
...
37Solomon Islands1.7
38Madagascar1.8
39Singapore2.0
40Turkey2.0
41Bahrain2.1
42Benin2.1
43Nepal2.2
44Azerbaijan2.3
World Avg6.2
q=191.
Food Aid, Health Contributions & WHO Compliance (2017)39
Pos.Lower is better
Rank39
1Sweden1
2Ireland2
3Denmark3
...
41Iceland41
42El Salvador42
43Russia43
44Turkey44
45Mexico45
46Malaysia46
47Czechia47
48China48
World Avg82.0
q=163.

Infant Immunizations 2011-2015 (2015)40
Pos.Higher is better
Avg %40
1Hungary99.0
2China99.0
3Uzbekistan98.9
...
57Armenia95.6
58Uruguay95.6
59Bhutan95.6
60Turkey95.5
61Malta95.5
62Botswana95.4
63Gambia95.4
64Cyprus95.3
World Avg88.3
q=194.
Smoking Rates (2014)41
Pos.Lower is better41
1Guinea 15
2Solomon Islands 26
3Kiribati 28
...
151Bulgaria1 505
152Kuwait1 517
153Armenia1 545
154Turkey1 581
155Slovakia1 618
156Romania1 620
157Tunisia1 628
158Switzerland1 634
World Avg 819
q=182.

8. More Charts and Comparisons to Other Countries

Personal Charitability
(World Position, 2013-2016)
42
Pos.Lower is better42
1Myanmar (Burma)1.25
2USA1.5
3New Zealand3.5
...
148Lithuania126.25
149Armenia126.25
150Congo, DR126.5
151Turkey128
152Greece133
153Palestine135
154Yemen136.25
q=156.
Intellectual Endeavours (2017)39
Pos.Lower is better
Rank39
1Ukraine1
2Czechia2
3Hungary3
...
52Malaysia52
53Russia53
54St Lucia54
55Turkey55
56Armenia56
57Guinea-Bissau57
58Central African Rep.58
q=163.
Creativity and Culture (2017)39
Pos.Lower is better
Rank39
1Belgium1
2Netherlands2
3Estonia3
...
72Botswana72
73Dominica73
74Antigua & Barbuda74
75Turkey75
76Kyrgyzstan76
77Togo77
78Albania78
q=163.
Peacekeeping and Security (2017)39
Pos.Lower is better
Rank39
1Samoa1
2S. Africa2
3Tunisia3
...
75Guyana75
76Fiji76
77Iceland77
78Turkey78
79Georgia79
80Albania80
81Gabon81
q=163.
Refugees and UN Treaties (2017)39
Pos.Lower is better
Rank39
1Austria1
2Germany2
3Netherlands3
...
36Romania36
37Uruguay37
38Liberia38
39Turkey39
40Malaysia40
41Montenegro41
42Iceland42
q=163.
Open Trading, Aid and Development (2017)39
Pos.Lower is better
Rank39
1Ireland1
2Denmark2
3Sweden3
...
37Estonia37
38Cyprus38
39Bulgaria39
40Turkey40
41Marshall Islands41
42Malta42
43Morocco43
q=163.
Research and Development (2016)
Pos.Higher is better
% RDP PPP
1S. Korea4.29
2Israel4.11
3Japan3.58
...
31New Zealand1.17
32Brazil1.15
33Malaysia1.13
34Turkey1.01
35Lithuania0.95
36Poland0.94
37Slovakia0.89
38Malta0.89
q=126.
Life Satisfaction (2011)43
Pos.Higher is better43
1Denmark7.8
2Norway7.6
3Netherlands7.6
...
69Russia5.4
70Greece5.4
71Lithuania5.4
72Turkey5.3
73Albania5.3
74Pakistan5.3
75Lebanon5.2
76Indonesia5.2
q=150.
Gross National Income Per-Capita (2011)17
Pos.Higher is better
PPP $17
1Qatar$129 916
2Singapore$78 162
3Kuwait$76 075
...
61Romania$19 428
62Uruguay$19 148
63Gabon$19 044
64Turkey$18 705
65Mauritius$17 948
66Azerbaijan$16 413
67Iran$16 395
68Mexico$16 383
q=193.
Environmental Performance (2018)44
Pos.Higher is better44
1Switzerland87.4
2France84.0
3Denmark81.6
...
105Paraguay53.9
106El Salvador53.9
107Fiji53.1
108Turkey53.0
109Ukraine52.9
110Guatemala52.3
111Maldives52.1
112Moldova52.0
q=180.

9. Accession to the European Union45

#france #germany #islam #turkey #UK

Turkey began the formal process for joining the European Union (EU) in 1987, when it was still called the European Economic Community. Most political commentators think that the required Turkish reform have made so little progress that there is little willpower to embrace democratic free-market capitalism. The Turkish president Recep Tayyip Erdogan has already been mentioned on this page for resisting human rights, and in 2016 May he said to the EU "We´ll go our way, you go yours"46 and "it is clear, then, that Ankara is marching rapidly away from the EU"46. Despite this, the UK Conservative government under Prime Minister David Cameron has consistently argued in favour of Turkey joining the EU, and Turkey was one of the first countries to join the Council of Europe, founded by the UK in 1949 to bring Europe together after WW2. But under the sway of political Islam, Turkey has strayed from the international fold.

A country has to adopt and enforce all the current EU rules before it can be admitted to the bloc. EU rules are divided into 35 policy areas and in 10 years Turkey only managed to adopt the rules on one: science and research. In most other areas it has not even made a start. [...]

A 2015 Commission report on Turkey highlighted many areas of difficulty. These include concerns about Turkey's human rights record, new limits to freedom of expression and its state of public administration.

Perhaps most importantly, the Commission said there had been "no progress on normalising bilateral relations with the Republic of Cyprus". Turkey is the only country that recognises the self-declared Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus. The EU and the United Nations only recognise the Greek Cypriot government as the legitimate government of the whole island. [...]

The UK government's formal position is to support Turkey joining the EU and over the years it has sounded enthusiastic. In July 2010, on a visit to Turkey, David Cameron warned France and Germany not to shut Turkey "out of the club

BBC News (2016)47

There are some arguments for keeping Turkey hopeful. After all, Recep Tayyip Erdogan cannot remain in power forever. The lure of the EU used to pull Turkey towards the embrace of democracy and human rights, but the statements against Turkey by European leaders "play directly into the hands of hardliners"46. Although there are politicians in Turkey who still want their country to embrace the modern world, they are often isolated by the actions of other Westerners.

When Ms Merkel allows German comedians to be sued for insulting the Turkish president, she is sending the message that Turkey´s democrats are all alone. [...] Pushing Turkey away from Europe is easy - it is already happening. But all this will do is strengthen the anti-democratic forces there.

Turkish novelist Elif Shafak46

Current edition: 2013 May 01
Last Modified: 2019 Jan 01
http://www.humantruth.info/turkey.html
Parent page: Compare International Statistics by Region and Continent

All #tags used on this page - click for more:

#afterlife #alcohol #buddhism #charity #christianity #cyprus #demographics #economics #equality #EU #europe #france #freedom #germany #happiness #health #heaven #hell #hinduism #human_development #human_rights #immigration #internet #iraq #islam #it_security #judaism #life_expectancy #morals #overpopulation #parenting #politics #population #religion #research #science #smoking #the_environment #the_internet #tolerance #turkey #UK #vaccines

Social Media

References: (What's this?)

The Good Country Index. Published by The Good Country Inc., New York, USA. Website: goodcountry.org. The Good Country Index gauges how well countries are doing in helping international development. Edition 1.2 (2017) has 35 criteria.

i Newspaper. UK newspaper. See Which are the Best and Worst Newspapers in the UK?. Published by Independent Print Limited, London, UK. Respectable daily news paper.

Anti-Defamation League. (ADL)
(2014) ADL Global 100, Executive Summary. Accessed on global100.adl.org on 2017 Jan 02. The numbers given are of those who state that racist stereotyped statements about Jews are true; they have to agree to 6 or more of the 11 statements to be counted. An example statements is "Jews are hated because of the way they behave". The data was collected from 53,100 interviews across 101 countries plus the West Bank and Gaza. The global average is 26%.

Charities Aid Foundation
World Giving Index. On www.cafonline.org.

CIA
(2013) World Factbook. The USA Government's Central Intelligence Agency (USA CIA) publishes The World Factbook, and the online version is frequently updated.

Crabtree, Vexen
(2019) "What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life" (2019). Accessed 2019 Jan 14.

The Fraser Institute
(2016) The Human Freedom Index. Published by The Cato Institute, The Fraser Institute and the Friedrich Naumann Foundation for Freedom. Covers data up to 2014. On www.fraserinstitute.org/.../human-freedom-index-2016.

Gallup
(2009) Religiosity. gallup.com/poll/142727/.... The survey question was "Is religion an important part of your daily life?" and results are charted for those who said "yes". 1000 adults were polled in each of 114 countries.

Human Rights Watch
(2018) World Report 2018. Covering the events of 2017.

Ipsos-NA. Ipsos-North America.
(2011) Supreme Being(s), the Afterlife and Evolution. Ipsos press release page, link to raw data. Accessed 2017 May 29. The poll was conducted in 23 developed and mostly rich countries - it would be unwise to use their irresponsibly extrapolated data on "global beliefs", but their data on individual countries is still good.

Lonely Planet
(2014) The World. Subtitled: "A Traveller's Guide to the Planet". Published by Lonely Planet, London, UK. Each chapter is devoted to a specific country and includes a list of the most interesting places to visit and a few other cultural notes.

United Nations
(2011) Human Development Report. Published by the UN Development Programme. This edition had the theme of Sustainability and Equity: A Better Future for All. Available on hdr.undp.org/... UN Development Program: About the Human Development Index.
(2013) Human Development Report. Published by the UN Development Programme. This edition had the theme of The Rise of the South: Human Progress in a Diverse World. Available on hdr.undp.org/... UN Development Program: About the Human Development Index.
(2017) Human Development Report. Published by the UN Development Programme. Data for 2015. Available on hdr.undp.org/.

Walk Free Foundation
(2018) Global Slavery Index. Published on www.walkfreefoundation.org/.

World Health Organisation. (WHO)
(2014) Global Status Report on Alcohol and Health. A copy can be found on the WHO website. Accessed 2015 Jan 04. It "presents a comprehensive perspective on the global, regional and country consumption of alcohol, patterns of drinking, health consequences and policy responses in Member States" and was published in Geneva on 2014 May 12.

Footnotes

  1. World Bank data on data.worldbank.org accessed 2013 Nov 04.^
  2. UN (2011) .^
  3. UN (2017). Table 1.^
  4. UN (2017). Gross National Income, per person. Table 1.^
  5. International Standards Organisation (ISO) standard ISO3166-1, on www.iso.org, accessed 2013 May 01.^
  6. Top level domains (TLDs) are managed by the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) on www.iana.org.^
  7. According to ISO4217.^
  8. According to ITU-T.^
  9. CIA (2013). Https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/tu.html accessed 2014 Apr 27.^
  10. Lonely Planet (2014). Chapter "Turkey".^
  11. Human Rights Watch (2018). p560-567.^^
  12. UN (2017). Table 1. Lower is better.^
  13. "What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life" by Vexen Crabtree (2019)^
  14. UN (2017). Dashboard 2. Higher is worse. Old-age is counted as 65+, and ratio is of these to people ages 15-64. Projections are for 2030 based on medium-fertility variant of growth.^
  15. UN (2013). Table 11.^
  16. UN (2013). Table 14. Births per woman (2012), expressed as deviance (positive or negative) from the value of 2.0.^
  17. UN (2017). Table 1. Higher is better.^^
  18. UN (2013). Table 14.^
  19. Human Rights Watch (2018). Negative and positive comments have been added to create a score for each country covered in the report.^
  20. Transparency International Corruption Perceptions Index (2017). Accessed 2017 Dec 30. The scores given are the TI average for the years 2012-2016.^
  21. Sources:^
  22. UN (2017). Table 5. Lower is better.^^
  23. Fraser Institute, the (2016). Covers data for 2014.^
  24. Max possible=24. Total amount of treaties ratified. Nominal Commitment to Human Rights report published by UCL School of Public Policy, London, UK, at ucl.ac.uk/spp/research/research-projects/nchr accessed 2011 Apr 30.^
  25. Walk Free Foundation (2018) .^
  26. ^
  27. Reporters Without Borders Report "2013 World Press Freedom Index: Dashed hopes after spring" at fr.rsf.org/.../classement_2013_gb-bd.pdf accessed 2013 Feb.^
  28. ADL (2014). Lower is better.^
  29. i Newspaper (2016 Mar 09). Article "Turkey: 'A woman is above all else a mother'".^
  30. Gallup (2009) .^
  31. Pew Forum (2012) publication "The Global Religious Landscape: A Report on the Size and Distribution of the World´s Major Religious Groups as of 2010" (2012 Dec 18) accessed 2013 May 01.^
  32. CIA (2013). Https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/ar.html accessed 2014 Apr 27.^
  33. Ipsos (2011) .^
  34. Freedom House publication "Freedom on the Net 2012" at www.freedomhouse.org/.../FOTN%202012%20-%20Tables%20and%20Charts%20FINAL.pdf accessed 2013 Feb 05.^
  35. internetlivestats.com/internet-users-by-country accessed 2017 Mar 10.^
  36. % of internet access via native IPv6 compared to IPv4. As of 2017 Jun 20, from http://www.cidr-report.org. Accessed 2017 Jun 20.^
  37. "What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life: 3.4. Malware and Email Spam" by Vexen Crabtree (2019)^
  38. WHO (2014). Appendix 1. Alcohol Per Capita Consumption in liters of pure alcohol, 15+ years age population, consumed in 2010. Lower is better.^
  39. The Good Country Index (2017) .^^
  40. World Health Organisation data for 2011-2015 from 7 data series accessed 2017 May 21. Details in "Immunizations: International Statistics on Vaccines and the Autism Scare: 3. World Health Organisation Statistics" by Vexen Crabtree (2017).^
  41. Annual Cigarette Consumption Per Adult (age 15 and above) - compustible cigarettes. Euromonitor International (2014), via tobaccoatlas.org/topic/cigarette-use-globally/ . Accessed 2017 Jun 20.^
  42. Charities Aid Foundation. Average ranking across years 2013-2016. Lower is better.^
  43. UN (2013). Table 9. Higher is better. Table 9. The UN's data is the latest available from a range of data from 2007-2011.^
  44. Yale University Center for Environmental Law & Policy 2018 EPI.^
  45. Added to this page on 2016 Jun 04.^
  46. Turkish novelist Elif Shafak article "Turkey Wants to be Less European, Not More" in the Financial Times (2016 Jun 03). Accessed 2016 Jun 04.^
  47. BBC News article How soon can Turkey join the EU? (2016 Mar 17). Accessed 201605604.^

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