The Human Truth Foundation

Turkey (Republic of Turkey)

By Vexen Crabtree 2013

#cyprus #EU #europe #turkey

Turkey
Republic of Turkey
StatusIndependent State
Social and Moral Index67th best
CapitalAnkara
Land Area 769 630km21
LocationAsia, Europe, The Mediterranean, The Middle East
Population82.3m2
Life Expectancy75.53yrs (2017)3
GNI$18 705 (2017)4
ISO3166-1 CodesTR, TUR, 7925
Internet Domain.tr6
CurrencyLira (TRY)7
Telephone+908

1. Overview

#cyprus #iraq

Modern Turkey was founded in 1923 from the Anatolian remnants of the defeated Ottoman Empire by national hero Mustafa KEMAL, who was later honored with the title Ataturk or "Father of the Turks." Under his authoritarian leadership, the country adopted wide-ranging social, legal, and political reforms. After a period of one-party rule, an experiment with multi-party politics led to the 1950 election victory of the opposition Democratic Party and the peaceful transfer of power. Since then, Turkish political parties have multiplied, but democracy has been fractured by periods of instability and intermittent military coups (1960, 1971, 1980), which in each case eventually resulted in a return of political power to civilians. In 1997, the military again helped engineer the ouster - popularly dubbed a "post-modern coup" - of the then Islamic-oriented government. Turkey intervened militarily on Cyprus in 1974 to prevent a Greek takeover of the island and has since acted as patron state to the "Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus," which only Turkey recognizes. A separatist insurgency begun in 1984 by the Kurdistan Workers' Party (PKK) - now known as the Kurdistan People's Congress or Kongra-Gel (KGK) - has dominated the Turkish military's attention and claimed more than 30,000 lives. After the capture of the group's leader in 1999, the insurgents largely withdrew from Turkey mainly to northern Iraq. In 2004, KGK announced an end to its ceasefire and attacks attributed to the KGK increased. Turkey joined the UN in 1945 and in 1952 it became a member of NATO. In 1964, Turkey became an associate member of the European Community. Over the past decade, it has undertaken many reforms to strengthen its democracy and economy.

CIA's The World Factbook (2013)9

Book CoverTurkey boasts a rich history, some of the best cuisine you will ever taste, one of the world´s greatest cities, and scenery from white-sand beaches to soaring mountains. ... Turkey packs in as many towering minarets and spice-trading bazaars as its Middle Eastern neighbours. This bridge between continents has absorbed the best of Europe and Asia. Travellers can enjoy historical hot spots, mountain outposts, expansive steppes and caravanserai-loads of the exotic, without forgoing comfy beds and buses.

Despite its reputation as a continental meeting point, Turkey can´t be pigeonholed. Cappadocia, a dreamscape dotted with rock formations, is unlike anywhere else on the planet. Likewise, spots like Mt Nemrut, littered with giant stone heads, and Olympos, where Lycian ruins peek from the undergrowth, are quintessentially Turkish mixtures of natural splendour and ancient remains.

The beaches and mountains offer enough activities to impress the fussiest Ottoman sultan. Worldly pleasures include the many historic hotels, the meze to savour on panoramic terraces and, of course, Turkey´s famous kebaps.

"The World" by Lonely Planet (2014)10

An April 2017 referendum, which voters approved by a slim margin, introduced constitutional amendments switching Turkey to a presidential system of governance. [...] The referendum took place under a state of emergency imposed after the July 15, 2016 attempted military coup, and in an environment of heavy media censorship, with many journalists and parliamentarians from the pro-Kurdish opposition in jail.

The new presidential system, which consolidates the incumbent´s hold on power, is a setback for human rights and the rule of law. It lacks sufficient checks and balances against abuse of executive power, greatly diminishing the powers of parliament, and consolidating presidential control over most judicial appointments. [...]

Hundreds of media outlets, associations, foundations, private hospitals, and educational establishments that the government shut down by decree remained closed in 2017, their assets confiscated without compensation.

"World Report 2018" by Human Rights Watch (2018)11

2. Turkey National and Social Development

#economics #human_development

UN HDI (2016)12
Pos.Lower is better
Rank12
1Norway1
2Australia2
3Switzerland2
...
68Cuba68
69Iran69
70Georgia70
71Turkey71
72Venezuela71
73Sri Lanka73
74St Kitts & Nevis74
75Albania75
World Avg94.3
q=188.
Gross National Income Per-Capita (2011)13
Pos.Higher is better
PPP $13
1Qatar$129 916
2Singapore$78 162
3Kuwait$76 075
...
61Romania$19 428
62Uruguay$19 148
63Gabon$19 044
64Turkey$18 705
65Mauritius$17 948
66Azerbaijan$16 413
67Iran$16 395
68Mexico$16 383
World Avg$17 240
q=193.
Social & Moral
Development Index
14,15
Pos.Lower is better
Avg Rank14,15
1Taiwan30.2
2Denmark30.5
3Norway30.9
...
64Trinidad & Tobago76.4
65Tunisia76.9
66Panama76.9
67Turkey77.4
68Ecuador77.4
69Montenegro77.4
70Belarus77.4
71Georgia77.7
World Avg86.4
q=195.

The United Nations produces an annual Human Development Report which includes the Human Development Index. The factors taken into account include life expectancy, education and schooling and Gross National Income (GNI) amongst many others..

The Social and Moral Development Index concentrates on moral issues and human rights, violence, public health, equality, tolerance, freedom and effectiveness in climate change mitigation and environmentalism, and on some technological issues. A country scores higher for achieving well in those areas, and for sustaining that achievement in the long term. Those countries towards the top of this index can truly said to be setting good examples and leading humankind onwards into a bright, humane, and free future. See: Which are the Best Countries in the World? The Social and Moral Development Index.

3. Turkey's Demographics

#birth_control #demographics #health #immigration #life_expectancy #longevity #migration #overpopulation #population

Population:

Turkey's population is predicted to rise to 86.67 million by 2030. These millions of extra people will all need space to live, food to eat, energy to consume, and will increase the burden on the planet's resources. This country has a fertility rate of 2.04. The fertility rate is, in simple terms, the average amount of children that each woman has. The higher the figure, the quicker the population is growing, although, to calculate the rate you also need to take into account morbidity, i.e., the rate at which people die. If people live healthy and long lives and morbidity is low, then, 2.0 approximates to the replacement rate, which would keep the population stable. If all countries had such a fertility rate, population growth would end. The actual replacement rate in most developed countries is around 2.1.

Population (2018)2
Pos.
Population2
1China1.4b
2India1.4b
3USA327.1m
...
15Vietnam95.5m
16Congo, DR84.1m
17Germany83.1m
18Turkey82.3m
19Iran81.8m
20Thailand69.4m
21UK67.1m
22France65.0m
World Avg39.0m
q=195.
Life Expectancy (2015)13
Pos.Higher is better
Years13
1Hong Kong84.16
2Japan83.68
3Italy83.34
...
62Iran75.58
63Bahamas75.56
64Macedonia75.53
65Turkey75.53
66Hungary75.31
67Nicaragua75.21
68St Lucia75.20
69Serbia75.05
World Avg71.27
q=190.
Fertility Rate (2013)16
Pos.2.0 is best16
1N. Korea2.00
2Brunei1.99
3St Vincent & Grenadines2.01
4France1.99
5Turkey2.04
6Australia1.96
7Uruguay2.05
8Norway1.95
9Myanmar (Burma)1.95
10Indonesia2.07
11Sweden1.93
12Tunisia1.93
World Avg2.81
q=180.
Old-Age Dependency Ratio (2016)17
Pos.Lower is better
Per 10017
1Uganda04.3
2Mali04.5
3Chad04.7
...
108El Salvador17.3
109Panama17.7
110N. Korea17.8
111Turkey18.0
112Vietnam18.3
113Tunisia18.6
114Azerbaijan18.7
115Colombia18.8
World Avg18.3
q=185.

Migration:

Immigrants (2017)18
Pos.
%18
1UAE88.4%
2Kuwait75.5%
3Qatar65.2%
...
77Macedonia6.3%
78Finland6.2%
79Marshall Islands6.2%
80Turkey6.0%
81Syria5.5%
82Thailand5.2%
83Hungary5.2%
84Palestine5.2%
World Avg9.4%
q=195.
Emigrants (2010)19
Pos.
%19
1Dominica104.8%
2Palestine68.4%
3Samoa67.3%
...
99Italy5.8%
100Benin5.8%
101Laos5.7%
102Turkey5.6%
103Comoros5.6%
104Congo, (Brazzaville)5.6%
105Togo5.4%
106Ivory Coast5.4%
World Avg11.5%
q=192.

4. Human Rights, Equality & Tolerance

#equality #freedom #human_rights #politics #tolerance #turkey

Turkey is generally poor at ensuring human rights and freedom compared to the rest of the world. Turkey does better than average in commentary in Human Rights Watch reports20, LGBT equality21, opposing gender inequality22, supporting personal, civil & economic freedoms23, its nominal commitment to Human Rights24 and in speed of uptake of HR treaties25. Turkey does not succeed in everything, however. It does worse than average in supporting press freedom26. And finally, it sits amongst the bottom 20 for its success in fighting anti-semitic prejudice27. But progress is always going to be difficult in a country where the richest 1% hold 23% of the country's entire income28, and the wealthy dominate the poor. A new era of censorship has begun, with websites, media outlets and journalists being blocked and persecuted; Human Rights Watch states that "Turkey is the world leader in jailing journalists and media workers as they face criminal investigations and trials"11. President Recep Tayyip Erdogan espouses misogynistic and backwards opinions on women, actively holding back any chance of progress on women's rights and retarding family life and family planning services29. Turkey has also gone backwards on its stance against torture, with a raft of reports from 2017 emanating from those in police custody describing torture and ill-treatment11.

For tables, charts and commentary, see:

5. Turkey's Health

#alcohol #birth_control #demographics #health #life_expectancy #longevity #obesity #overpopulation #parenting #population #smoking #Turkey #vaccines

Health (2020)30,31
Pos.Lower is better
Avg Rank30,31
1Hong Kong18.0
2Singapore41.5
3Maldives43.3
...
66Turkmenistan85.1
67Australia85.3
68Estonia85.3
69Turkey85.6
70Tajikistan86.4
71Guyana86.5
72Nicaragua86.8
73Barbados87.1
74Bahamas87.5
World Avg92.3
q=187.

The countries with the best overall approach to public health, in terms of both public policy and individual lifestyle choices, are Hong Kong, Singapore and The Maldives30. These countries are worth emulating. And, although often through no fault of the average citizen, the worst countries are S. Sudan, Nigeria and Equatorial Guinea30.

The data sets used to calculate points for each country are its average life expectancy, its alcohol consumption rate, its fertility rate, its smoking rate, its suicide rate, its food aid and health contributions and WHO compliance, the prevalence of overweight adults, its adolescent birth rate and its immunizations take-up. The regions with the best average results per country are Scandinavia, Asia and Europe30, whereas the worst are Africa, Micronesia and Polynesia30.

Health:

Turkey does relatively well in encouraging good health, compared to many other countries. Turkey does better than average in terms of its alcohol consumption rate32, its food aid and health contributions and WHO compliance33, its immunizations take-up34, its average life expectancy13, its fertility rate16 and in its adolescent birth rate22. Turkey does not succeed in everything, however. It does worse than average in terms of its smoking rate35. The number of overweight adults has increased by 14% during the last 40 years.
Life Expectancy (2015)13
Pos.Higher is better
Years13
1Hong Kong84.16
2Japan83.68
3Italy83.34
...
62Iran75.58
63Bahamas75.56
64Macedonia75.53
65Turkey75.53
66Hungary75.31
67Nicaragua75.21
68St Lucia75.20
69Serbia75.05
World Avg71.27
q=190.
Alcohol Consumption (2016)32
Pos.Lower is better
Per Capita32
1Bangladesh0.0
2Kuwait0.0
3Libya0.0
...
42Qatar2.0
43Nepal2.0
44Singapore2.0
45Turkey2.0
46Timor-Leste (E. Timor)2.1
47Mozambique2.4
48Samoa2.5
49Micronesia2.5
World Avg6.2
q=189.
Fertility Rate (2013)16
Pos.2.0 is best16
1N. Korea2.00
2Brunei1.99
3St Vincent & Grenadines2.01
4France1.99
5Turkey2.04
6Australia1.96
7Uruguay2.05
8Norway1.95
9Myanmar (Burma)1.95
10Indonesia2.07
11Sweden1.93
12Tunisia1.93
World Avg2.81
q=180.
Smoking Rates (2014)35
Pos.Higher is worse35
182Montenegro4 125
181Belarus3 831
180Lebanon3 023
...
157Tunisia1 628
156Romania1 620
155Slovakia1 618
154Turkey1 581
153Armenia1 545
152Kuwait1 517
151Bulgaria1 505
150Germany1 480
World Avg 819
q=182.
Food Aid, Health Contributions & WHO Compliance (2017)33
Pos.Lower is better
Rank33
1Sweden1
2Ireland2
3Denmark3
...
41Iceland41
42El Salvador42
43Russia43
44Turkey44
45Mexico45
46Malaysia46
47Czechia47
48China48
World Avg82.0
q=163.
Overweight Adults (2016)36
Pos.Lower is better
%36
1Vietnam18.3
2India19.7
3Bangladesh20.0
...
170New Zealand65.6
171Bahrain65.8
172Malta66.4
173Turkey66.8
174Libya66.8
175UAE67.8
176Lebanon67.9
177USA67.9
World Avg49.0
q=191.

Children's Health:

Adolescent Birth Rate (2015)22
Pos.Lower is better
Per 100022
1N. Korea0.5
2S. Korea1.6
3Switzerland2.9
...
75Samoa25.0
76Rwanda26.3
77Iran26.7
78Turkey27.6
79Kazakhstan27.9
80Burundi28.3
81Mauritius28.5
82Bahamas29.6
World Avg47.9
q=185.
Infant Immunizations 2011-2015 (2015)34
Pos.Higher is better
Avg %34
1Hungary99.0
2China99.0
3Uzbekistan98.9
...
57Armenia95.6
58Uruguay95.6
59Bhutan95.6
60Turkey95.5
61Malta95.5
62Botswana95.4
63Gambia95.4
64Cyprus95.3
World Avg88.3
q=194.

6. Turkey's Modernity and Learning

#education #english #it_security #maths #modernity #politics #religion #research #science #technology #the_internet

Modernity and Learning (2020)37
Pos.Lower is better
Avg Rank37
1Finland8.0
2Belgium9.1
3Denmark10.0
...
35Argentina33.7
36Russia37.1
37Slovakia38.9
38Turkey40.0
39Croatia40.0
40Ukraine41.9
41Bulgaria42.7
42Chile43.3
43S. Africa43.7
World Avg69.0
q=180.

Modernity and Education:

Research and Development (2016)
Pos.Higher is better
% RDP PPP
1S. Korea4.2938
2Israel4.1138
3Japan3.5838
...
31New Zealand1.1739
32Brazil1.1540
33Malaysia1.1340
34Turkey1.0138
35Lithuania0.9541
36Poland0.9438
37Slovakia0.8938
38Malta0.8941
World Avg0.84
q=126.
Secondary Education (2018)42
Pos.Higher is better42
1Luxembourg100.0%
2Estonia100.0%
3Austria100.0%
...
101Uruguay56.0%
102Lebanon54.9%
103Portugal54.2%
104Turkey53.1%
105Costa Rica52.9%
106Colombia52.0%
107Ecuador51.9%
108Tunisia51.8%
World Avg63.0%
q=169.
Length of Schooling (2018)43
Pos.Higher is better
Years43
1Australia22.1
2Belgium19.7
3Finland19.3
...
20Chile16.5
21Hong Kong16.5
22Lithuania16.5
23Turkey16.4
24Poland16.4
25S. Korea16.4
26Uruguay16.3
27Singapore16.3
World Avg13.2
q=193.
Intellectual Endeavours (2017)33
Pos.Lower is better
Rank33
1Ukraine1
2Czechia2
3Hungary3
...
52Malaysia52
53Russia53
54St Lucia54
55Turkey55
56Armenia56
57Guinea-Bissau57
58Central African Rep.58
59Kenya59
World Avg82.0
q=163.
Maths, Science & Reading (2015)44
Pos.Higher is better
Score44
1Singapore1655
2Hong Kong1598
3Japan1586
...
47Cyprus1313
48UAE1298
49Uruguay1290
50Turkey1273
51Trinidad & Tobago1269
52Moldova1264
53Montenegro1256
54Costa Rica1247
World Avg1389
q=70.
Religiosity (2009)45
Pos.Lower is better
%45
1Estonia16
2Sweden17
3Denmark19
...
47Costa Rica79
48Turkmenistan80
49Georgia81
50Turkey82
51Ecuador82
52Colombia83
53El Salvador83
54Romania84
World Avg75.1
q=114.

Technology and Information:

Internet Users (2016)46
Pos.Higher is better46
1Iceland100%
2Faroe Islands99%
3Norway98%
...
79St Vincent & Grenadines60%
80St Lucia59%
81Bulgaria59%
82Turkey58%
83Romania58%
84Venezuela58%
85Seychelles58%
86Morocco58%
World Avg48.1%
q=201.
Freedom On The Internet (2012)47
Pos.Lower is better47
1Estonia10
2USA12
3Germany15
...
22Libya43
23Malaysia43
24Jordan45
25Turkey46
26Tunisia46
27Venezuela48
28Azerbaijan50
29Rwanda51
World Avg46.7
q=47.
IT Security (2013)48
Pos.Lower is better48
1Ireland0.11
2Luxembourg0.11
3Belize0.11
...
17Taiwan0.44
18Sweden0.44
19Romania0.52
20Turkey0.52
21Poland0.55
22Switzerland0.55
23S. Korea0.56
24Australia0.63
World Avg0.98
q=81.
IPv6 Uptake (2017)49
Pos.Higher is better
Ratio49
1Belgium55.4
2Germany41.8
3Switzerland35.1
...
58Bhutan0.4
59China0.3
60Iceland0.3
61Turkey0.3
62Uruguay0.3
63Moldova0.3
64UAE0.3
65Seychelles0.2
World Avg3.82
q=176.

7. National Culture

#charity #corruption #happiness #morals #politics

Personal Charitability
(World Position, 2013-2016)
50
Pos.Lower is better50
1Myanmar (Burma)1.25
2USA1.5
3New Zealand3.5
...
148Lithuania126.25
149Armenia126.25
150Congo, DR126.5
151Turkey128
152Greece133
153Palestine135
154Yemen136.25
155China136.25
World Avg68.1185897435897
q=156.
Corruption (2012-2016)51
Pos.Higher is better
Avg Score51
1Denmark90.8
2New Zealand90.6
3Finland89.4
...
61Cuba46.8
62Oman45.8
63Ghana45.8
64Turkey45.4
65Lesotho45.2
66Romania44.8
67Kuwait44.2
68Italy43.8
World Avg43.05
q=176.
Happiness (2018)52
Pos.Higher is better52
1Finland7.6
2Norway7.6
3Denmark7.6
...
70Libya5.6
71Philippines5.5
72Honduras5.5
73Turkey5.5
74Belarus5.5
75Pakistan5.5
76Hong Kong5.4
77Portugal5.4
World Avg5.38
q=156.
Creativity and Culture (2017)33
Pos.Lower is better
Rank33
1Belgium1
2Netherlands2
3Estonia3
...
72Botswana72
73Dominica73
74Antigua & Barbuda74
75Turkey75
76Kyrgyzstan76
77Togo77
78Albania78
79Brunei79
World Avg82.0
q=163.
Open Trading, Aid and Development (2017)33
Pos.Lower is better
Rank33
1Ireland1
2Denmark2
3Sweden3
...
37Estonia37
38Cyprus38
39Bulgaria39
40Turkey40
41Marshall Islands41
42Malta42
43Morocco43
44Fiji44
World Avg82.0
q=163.

8. Peace Versus Instability

#extremism #human_development #peace #politics #religious_violence #terrorism

Global Peace Index (2012)53
Pos.Lower is better53
1Iceland1.11
2New Zealand1.24
3Denmark1.24
...
126S. Africa2.32
127Iran2.32
128Honduras2.34
129Turkey2.34
130Kyrgyzstan2.36
131Azerbaijan2.36
132Philippines2.42
133Ivory Coast2.42
World Avg2.02
q=157.
Peacekeeping and Security (2017)33
Pos.Lower is better
Rank33
1Samoa1
2S. Africa2
3Tunisia3
...
75Guyana75
76Fiji76
77Iceland77
78Turkey78
79Georgia79
80Albania80
81Gabon81
82Russia82
World Avg82.0
q=163.
Refugees and UN Treaties (2017)33
Pos.Lower is better
Rank33
1Austria1
2Germany2
3Netherlands3
...
36Romania36
37Uruguay37
38Liberia38
39Turkey39
40Malaysia40
41Montenegro41
42Iceland42
43Hungary43
World Avg82.0
q=163.
Impact of Terrorism (2019)54
Pos.Lower is better
Score54
1Togo0.00
2Mongolia0.00
3Swaziland0.00
...
132Colombia5.91
133Thailand6.03
134S. Sudan6.32
135Turkey6.53
136Cameroon6.62
137Central African Rep.6.62
138Mali6.65
139Libya6.77
World Avg2.78
q=150.

9. The Natural Environment

#biodiversity #climate_change #over-exploitation #the_environment

Forest Area Change 1990-2015 (2015)55
Pos.Higher is better
%55
1Iceland205.6
2Bahrain144.4
3Uruguay131.3
...
25Philippines22.7
26Lesotho22.5
27Italy22.5
28Turkey21.8
29Iran17.8
30France17.7
31Algeria17.3
32Bulgaria17.1
World Avg02.8
q=184.
Environmental Performance (2018)56
Pos.Higher is better56
1Switzerland87.4
2France84.0
3Denmark81.6
...
105Paraguay53.9
106El Salvador53.9
107Fiji53.1
108Turkey53.0
109Ukraine52.9
110Guatemala52.3
111Maldives52.1
112Moldova52.0
World Avg56.4
q=180.
Energy to GDP Efficiency (2014)57
Pos.Higher is better57
1Hong Kong26.32
2Sri Lanka20.00
3Panama17.86
...
35Tunisia11.24
36Indonesia11.11
37Israel11.11
38Turkey11.11
39Azerbaijan10.87
40Netherlands10.75
41Mexico10.64
42Paraguay10.53
World Avg09.29
q=119.
Convention on Biological Diversity
Pos.Earlier is better
Signed
1China1993 Dec 29
2Guinea1993 Dec 29
3Cook Islands1993 Dec 29
...
164Croatia1997 Jan 05
165Belgium1997 Feb 20
166Dominican Rep.1997 Feb 23
167Turkey1997 May 15
168Gabon1997 Jun 12
169Burundi1997 Jul 14
170Tajikistan1998 Jan 27
171Liechtenstein1998 Feb 17
World Avg1899 Dec 30
q=197.
Rational Beliefs on the Environment (2011)58
Pos.Higher is better
%58
1Argentina78.3%
2Greece77.6%
3Brazil77.1%
...
43Vietnam49.1%
44Honduras48.1%
45Iran47.9%
46Turkey47.4%
47Sudan46.9%
48Malaysia46.6%
49Mozambique46.5%
50Laos45.3%
World Avg39.9%
q=145.

10. Economic Inequality and Poverty

#capitalism #economics #health #inequality #life_expectancy #social_development

Inequality in Life Expectancy (2019)59
Pos.Higher is worse59
184Chad40.90
183Central African Rep.40.10
182Sierra Leone39.00
...
75Iran9.20
74Libya9.10
73Tunisia9.00
72Turkey9.00
71Armenia8.70
70Barbados8.70
69Argentina8.60
68China7.90
World Avg14.59
q=184.
Income Inequality (Gini Coefficient) (2017)60
Pos.Lower is better
%60
1Ukraine25.0
2Belarus25.4
3Slovenia25.4
...
107Ivory Coast41.5
108Djibouti41.6
109Papua New Guinea41.9
110Turkey41.9
111Congo, DR42.1
112Madagascar42.6
113Angola42.7
114Uganda42.8
World Avg38.1
q=152.

11. Religion and Beliefs

#afterlife #buddhism #christianity #heaven #hell #hinduism #islam #judaism #religion #turkey

Religiosity (2009)45
Pos.Lower is better
%45
1Estonia16
2Sweden17
3Denmark19
...
47Costa Rica79
48Turkmenistan80
49Georgia81
50Turkey82
51Ecuador82
52Colombia83
53El Salvador83
54Romania84
World Avg75.1
q=114.

Data from the Pew Forum, a professional polling outfit, states that in 2010 the religious makeup of this country was as follows in the table below61:

Christian0.4%
Muslim98%
Hindu0.1%
Buddhist0.1%
Folk Religion0.1%
Jew0.1%
Unaffiliated1.2%

It appears that when asked "What religion are you" many give pollsters the 'correct' answer despite how they actually feel, and despite what they actually believe. Although 98.8% of the populace say they belong to a religion, only 82% say that they are religious when the question is phrased as "Is religion an important part of your daily life?".

For more on this phenomenon, see:

The CIA World Factbook has slightly different data, and states: Muslim 99.8% (mostly Sunni), other 0.2% (mostly Christians and Jews)62.

The Afterlife: Ipsos-NA in 2011 gathered some statistics on Turkey63. Despite the large numbers of Muslims, not many have traditional beliefs in the afterlife - just 52%. Some people don't know what to believe (14%). Some believe that upon death, you simply cease to exist (5%). 2% believe in reincarnation.

Freedom of Religion and Belief:

Links:

12. Accession to the European Union64

#france #germany #islam #turkey #UK

Turkey began the formal process for joining the European Union (EU) in 1987, when it was still called the European Economic Community. Most political commentators think that the required Turkish reform have made so little progress that there is little willpower to embrace democratic free-market capitalism. The Turkish president Recep Tayyip Erdogan has already been mentioned on this page for resisting human rights, and in 2016 May he said to the EU "We´ll go our way, you go yours"65 and "it is clear, then, that Ankara is marching rapidly away from the EU"65. Despite this, the UK Conservative government under Prime Minister David Cameron has consistently argued in favour of Turkey joining the EU, and Turkey was one of the first countries to join the Council of Europe, founded by the UK in 1949 to bring Europe together after WW2. But under the sway of political Islam, Turkey has strayed from the international fold.

A country has to adopt and enforce all the current EU rules before it can be admitted to the bloc. EU rules are divided into 35 policy areas and in 10 years Turkey only managed to adopt the rules on one: science and research. In most other areas it has not even made a start. [...]

A 2015 Commission report on Turkey highlighted many areas of difficulty. These include concerns about Turkey's human rights record, new limits to freedom of expression and its state of public administration.

Perhaps most importantly, the Commission said there had been "no progress on normalising bilateral relations with the Republic of Cyprus". Turkey is the only country that recognises the self-declared Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus. The EU and the United Nations only recognise the Greek Cypriot government as the legitimate government of the whole island. [...]

The UK government's formal position is to support Turkey joining the EU and over the years it has sounded enthusiastic. In July 2010, on a visit to Turkey, David Cameron warned France and Germany not to shut Turkey "out of the club

BBC News (2016)66

There are some arguments for keeping Turkey hopeful. After all, Recep Tayyip Erdogan cannot remain in power forever. The lure of the EU used to pull Turkey towards the embrace of democracy and human rights, but the statements against Turkey by European leaders "play directly into the hands of hardliners"65. Although there are politicians in Turkey who still want their country to embrace the modern world, they are often isolated by the actions of other Westerners.

When Ms Merkel allows German comedians to be sued for insulting the Turkish president, she is sending the message that Turkey´s democrats are all alone. [...] Pushing Turkey away from Europe is easy - it is already happening. But all this will do is strengthen the anti-democratic forces there.

Turkish novelist Elif Shafak65