The Human Truth Foundation

Djibouti (Republic of Djibouti)

By Vexen Crabtree 2013

#atheism #bahá'í_faith #djibouti

Djibouti
Republic of Djibouti
StatusIndependent State
Social and Moral Index154th best
CapitalDjibouti
Land Area 23 180km21
LocationAfrica
Population1.0m2
Life Expectancy62.30yrs (2017)3
GNI$3 216 (2017)4
ISO3166-1 CodesDJ, DJI, 2625
Internet Domain.dj6
CurrencyFranc (DJF)7
Telephone+2538

1. Overview

#france #USA

The French Territory of the Afars and the Issas became Djibouti in 1977. Hassan Gouled APTIDON installed an authoritarian one-party state and proceeded to serve as president until 1999. Unrest among the Afar minority during the 1990s led to a civil war that ended in 2001 with a peace accord between Afar rebels and the Somali Issa-dominated government. In 1999, Djibouti's first multiparty presidential elections resulted in the election of Ismail Omar GUELLEH as president; he was reelected to a second term in 2005 and extended his tenure in office via a constitutional amendment, which allowed him to begin a third term in 2011. Djibouti occupies a strategic geographic location at the intersection of the Red Sea and the Gulf of Aden and serves as an important shipping portal for goods entering and leaving the east African highlands and transshipments between Europe, the Middle East, and Asia. The government holds longstanding ties to France, which maintains a significant military presence in the country, and has strong ties with the United States. Djibouti hosts several thousand members of US armed services at US-run Camp Lemonnier.

CIA's The World Factbook (2013)9

Book CoverDjibouti, a tiny speck of a country, packs a big punch, making up for its diminutive size with austere beauty, other wordly landscapes and geological oddities. Few countries in the world offer such weird landscapes as Djibouti. Think salt lakes, extinct volcanoes, sunken plains, limestone chimneys belching out puffs of steam, basaltic plateaus and majestic canyons. This comes courtesy of Djibouti's location, straddling the intersection of three diverging tectonic plates, on the edge of the Red Sea.

Outdoor adventure comes in many forms here, with superb and challenging hiking opportunities. Then, after extending yourself in the rugged beauty of the interior, there is diving and kitesurfing on the Red Sea - not to mention snorkelling alongside mighty whale sharks in the Gulf of Tadjoura.Barring Djibouti City, the country is refreshingly devoid of large-scale development. It's all about ecotravel, with some great sustainable stays in the hinterland that provide a fascinating glimpse into rural life. Travelling independently around Djibouti may not come cheap, but despite the high cost of living you´ll leave this corner of Africa with new experiences and wonderful memories.

"The World" by Lonely Planet (2014)10

2. Djibouti National and Social Development

#economics #human_development

UN HDI (2016)11
Pos.Lower is better
Rank11
1Norway1
2Australia2
3Switzerland2
...
169Afghanistan169
170Malawi170
171Ivory Coast171
172Djibouti172
173Gambia173
174Ethiopia174
175Mali175
176Congo, DR176
World Avg94.3
q=188.
Gross National Income Per-Capita (2011)12
Pos.Higher is better
PPP $12
1Qatar$129 916
2Singapore$78 162
3Kuwait$76 075
...
147Bangladesh$3 341
148Lesotho$3 319
149Micronesia$3 291
150Djibouti$3 216
151Ivory Coast$3 163
152Kyrgyzstan$3 097
153Cambodia$3 095
154Sao Tome & Principe$3 070
World Avg$17 240
q=193.
Social & Moral
Development Index
13,14
Pos.Lower is better
Avg Rank13,14
1Taiwan30.2
2Denmark30.5
3Norway30.9
...
151Sao Tome & Principe110.8
152Gabon110.9
153Benin110.9
154Djibouti111.0
155San Marino111.0
156Ethiopia111.2
157Cameroon111.3
158Pakistan111.4
World Avg86.4
q=195.

The United Nations produces an annual Human Development Report which includes the Human Development Index. The factors taken into account include life expectancy, education and schooling and Gross National Income (GNI) amongst many others..

The Social and Moral Development Index concentrates on moral issues and human rights, violence, public health, equality, tolerance, freedom and effectiveness in climate change mitigation and environmentalism, and on some technological issues. A country scores higher for achieving well in those areas, and for sustaining that achievement in the long term. Those countries towards the top of this index can truly said to be setting good examples and leading humankind onwards into a bright, humane, and free future. See: Which are the Best Countries in the World? The Social and Moral Development Index.

3. Djibouti's Demographics

#birth_control #demographics #health #immigration #life_expectancy #longevity #migration #overpopulation #population

Population:

Djibouti's population is predicted to rise to 1.263 million by 2030. This country has a fertility rate of 3.61. The fertility rate is, in simple terms, the average amount of children that each woman has. The higher the figure, the quicker the population is growing, although, to calculate the rate you also need to take into account morbidity, i.e., the rate at which people die. If people live healthy and long lives and morbidity is low, then, 2.0 approximates to the replacement rate, which would keep the population stable. If all countries had such a fertility rate, population growth would end. The actual replacement rate in most developed countries is around 2.1.

Population (2018)2
Pos.
Population2
1China1.4b
2India1.4b
3USA327.1m
...
155Mauritius1.3m
156Cyprus1.2m
157Swaziland1.1m
158Djibouti1.0m
159Fiji0.9m
160Comoros0.8m
161Guyana0.8m
162Bhutan0.8m
World Avg39.0m
q=195.
Life Expectancy (2015)12
Pos.Higher is better
Years12
1Hong Kong84.16
2Japan83.68
3Italy83.34
...
156Haiti63.12
157Congo, (Brazzaville)62.89
158Papua New Guinea62.77
159Djibouti62.30
160Kenya62.16
161Niger61.94
162Ghana61.53
163Liberia61.19
World Avg71.27
q=190.
Fertility Rate (2013)15
Pos.2.0 is best15
1N. Korea2.00
2Brunei1.99
3St Vincent & Grenadines2.01
...
131Pakistan3.25
132Micronesia3.33
133Sao Tome & Principe3.52
134Djibouti3.61
135Vanuatu3.77
136Samoa3.77
137Tonga3.81
138Papua New Guinea3.83
World Avg2.81
q=180.
Old-Age Dependency Ratio (2016)16
Pos.Lower is better
Per 10016
1Uganda04.3
2Mali04.5
3Chad04.7
...
58Pakistan08.6
59Bahrain08.7
60Syria09.0
61Djibouti09.1
62Tajikistan09.1
63Equatorial Guinea09.4
64Kiribati09.5
65Guatemala09.5
World Avg18.3
q=185.

Migration:

Immigrants (2017)17
Pos.
%17
1UAE88.4%
2Kuwait75.5%
3Qatar65.2%
...
46Libya12.4%
47France12.2%
48Barbados12.1%
49Djibouti12.1%
50Netherlands12.1%
51Slovenia11.8%
52Denmark11.5%
53Belarus11.4%
World Avg9.4%
q=195.
Emigrants (2010)18
Pos.
%18
1Dominica104.8%
2Palestine68.4%
3Samoa67.3%
...
160Libya1.7%
161Gabon1.7%
162Vanuatu1.6%
163Djibouti1.5%
164Timor-Leste (E. Timor)1.4%
165Zambia1.4%
166Cameroon1.4%
167Malawi1.4%
World Avg11.5%
q=192.

4. Djibouti's Human Rights, Equality & Tolerance

#equality #gender_equality #homosexuality #human_rights #international_law #mass_media #morals #politics #prejudice #slavery #tolerance #women

Human Rights, Equality & Tolerance (2020)19,20
Pos.Lower is better
Avg Rank19,20
1Denmark9.7
2Sweden10.0
3Norway16.1
...
184Sudan144.1
185Cook Islands144.5
186Vanuatu145.5
187Djibouti146.2
188Tonga147.7
189Sao Tome & Principe147.8
190St Kitts & Nevis150.3
191Nauru153.3
192Micronesia157.0
World Avg89.8
q=199.

The best countries in the world at ensuring human rights, fostering equality and promoting tolerance, are Denmark, Sweden and Norway19. These countries are displaying the best traits that humanity has to offer. The worst countries are Tuvalu, The Solomon Islands and Palestine19.

The data sets used to calculate points for each country are statistics on commentary in Human Rights Watch reports, its nominal commitment to Human Rights, speed of uptake of HR treaties, supporting personal, civil & economic freedoms, supporting press freedom, eliminating modern slavery, opposing gender inequality, the year from which women could participate in democracy, its success in fighting anti-semitic prejudice and LGBT equality. The regions with the best average results per country are Scandinavia, Baltic States and Europe19, whereas the worst are Micronesia, Melanesia and Australasia19.

Human Rights & Tolerance:

Nominal Commitment to HR (2009)21
Pos.Higher is better
Treaties21
1Argentina24
2Chile23
3Costa Rica23
...
133Equatorial Guinea13
134Antigua & Barbuda13
135Nepal13
136Djibouti13
137Ethiopia12
138Haiti12
139Dominica12
140Central African Rep.12
World Avg15.1
q=194.
HR Treaties Lag (2019)22
Pos.Lower is better
Avg Yrs/Treaty22
1Ecuador2.15
2Uruguay2.25
3Tunisia3.65
...
167Grenada13.86
168Bahamas13.93
169Zimbabwe13.95
170Djibouti13.99
171St Lucia14.11
172Montenegro14.20
173USA14.23
174Malaysia14.35
World Avg10.02
q=195.
Press Freedom (2013)23
Pos.Lower is better23
1Finland638
2Netherlands648
3Norway652
...
163Uzbekistan6039
164Bahrain6275
165Equatorial Guinea6720
166Djibouti6740
167Laos6799
168Yemen6922
169Sudan7006
170Cuba7164
World Avg3249
q=178.
Slavery (2018)24
Pos.Lower is better
% Victims24
1Japan0.03
2Canada0.05
3Taiwan0.05
...
125Kenya0.69
126Albania0.69
127Malaysia0.69
128Djibouti0.71
129Angola0.72
130Syria0.73
131Liberia0.74
132Guinea-Bissau0.75
World Avg0.65
q=167.

Gender Equality:

See:

Year Women Can Vote
Pos.Lower is better
Year
1New Zealand1893
2Australia1902
3Finland1906
...
176Iraq1980
177Vanuatu1980
178Liechtenstein1984
179Djibouti1986
180Central African Rep.1986
181Namibia1989
182Samoa1990
183Kazakhstan1993
World Avg1930
q=189.

Prejudice:

LGBT Equality (2017)25
Pos.Higher is better
Score25
1Netherlands103
2Belgium90
3Sweden86
...
104Kyrgyzstan15
105Jordan12
106China12
107Djibouti11
108Mali11
109Tajikistan11
110Gabon10
111Bahamas10
World Avg12.6
q=196.

5. Djibouti's Health

#alcohol #birth_control #demographics #Djibouti #health #life_expectancy #longevity #obesity #overpopulation #parenting #population #smoking #vaccines

Health (2020)26,20
Pos.Lower is better
Avg Rank26,20
1Hong Kong18.0
2Singapore41.5
3Maldives43.3
...
105Peru94.6
106Andorra94.8
107Lithuania94.8
108Djibouti94.9
109Indonesia94.9
110Vanuatu95.7
111Paraguay96.3
112Seychelles96.3
113Panama96.5
World Avg92.3
q=187.

The countries with the best overall approach to public health, in terms of both public policy and individual lifestyle choices, are Hong Kong, Singapore and The Maldives26. These countries are worth emulating. And, although often through no fault of the average citizen, the worst countries are S. Sudan, Nigeria and Equatorial Guinea26.

The data sets used to calculate points for each country are its average life expectancy, its alcohol consumption rate, its fertility rate, its smoking rate, its suicide rate, its food aid and health contributions and WHO compliance, the prevalence of overweight adults, its adolescent birth rate and its immunizations take-up. The regions with the best average results per country are Scandinavia, Asia and Europe26, whereas the worst are Africa, Micronesia and Polynesia26.

Health:

Djibouti has some poor policies and cultural issues which cause some public health problems. Djibouti comes in the best 20 in its alcohol consumption rate27. It does better than average when it comes to its adolescent birth rate28 and in its smoking rate29 (but bad for Africa). Djibouti does not succeed in everything, however. It does worse than average when it comes to its fertility rate15 (still low for Africa), its immunizations take-up30 and in its average life expectancy12. The prevalence of overweight adults has increased by 14% over the last 40 years.
Life Expectancy (2015)12
Pos.Higher is better
Years12
1Hong Kong84.16
2Japan83.68
3Italy83.34
...
156Haiti63.12
157Congo, (Brazzaville)62.89
158Papua New Guinea62.77
159Djibouti62.30
160Kenya62.16
161Niger61.94
162Ghana61.53
163Liberia61.19
World Avg71.27
q=190.
Alcohol Consumption (2016)27
Pos.Lower is better
Per Capita27
1Bangladesh0.0
2Kuwait0.0
3Libya0.0
...
12Iraq0.4
13Brunei0.4
14Egypt0.4
15Djibouti0.5
16Niger0.5
17Sudan0.5
18Bhutan0.6
19Morocco0.6
World Avg6.2
q=189.
Fertility Rate (2013)15
Pos.2.0 is best15
1N. Korea2.00
2Brunei1.99
3St Vincent & Grenadines2.01
...
131Pakistan3.25
132Micronesia3.33
133Sao Tome & Principe3.52
134Djibouti3.61
135Vanuatu3.77
136Samoa3.77
137Tonga3.81
138Papua New Guinea3.83
World Avg2.81
q=180.
Smoking Rates (2014)29
Pos.Higher is worse29
182Montenegro4 125
181Belarus3 831
180Lebanon3 023
...
80Angola 489
79Nicaragua 488
78Ivory Coast 477
77Djibouti 476
76Syria 459
75Botswana 449
74Costa Rica 432
73Sudan 428
World Avg 819
q=182.
Overweight Adults (2016)31
Pos.Lower is better
%31
1Vietnam18.3
2India19.7
3Bangladesh20.0
...
61Seychelles36.8
62Zimbabwe38.2
63Swaziland38.4
64Djibouti38.6
65Lesotho38.7
66Gabon40.2
67Namibia40.6
68Brunei41.2
World Avg49.0
q=191.

Children's Health:

Adolescent Birth Rate (2015)28
Pos.Lower is better
Per 100028
1N. Korea0.5
2S. Korea1.6
3Switzerland2.9
...
62Slovakia20.2
63Brunei21.0
64Bhutan21.4
65Djibouti21.5
66Albania21.7
67Moldova22.6
68USA22.6
69Armenia23.0
World Avg47.9
q=185.
Infant Immunizations 2011-2015 (2015)30
Pos.Higher is better
Avg %30
1Hungary99.0
2China99.0
3Uzbekistan98.9
...
146Congo, (Brazzaville)83.6
147Cameroon83.3
148Laos83.3
149Djibouti82.6
150Uganda82.5
151Comoros81.8
152Marshall Islands81.8
153Mozambique81.4
World Avg88.3
q=194.

6. Djibouti's Modernity and Learning

#education #it_security #modernity #religion #technology #the_internet

Modernity and Learning (2020)32
Pos.Lower is better
Avg Rank32
1Finland8.0
2Belgium9.1
3Denmark10.0
...
172Chad118.6
173Papua New Guinea119.2
174Haiti119.5
175Niger124.0
176Timor-Leste (E. Timor)127.8
177Sierra Leone128.3
178Djibouti129.2
179Madagascar141.0
180Equatorial Guinea150.0
World Avg69.0
q=180.

Modernity and Education:

Length of Schooling (2018)33
Pos.Higher is better
Years33
1Australia22.1
2Belgium19.7
3Finland19.3
...
186Sudan7.7
187Mali7.6
188Central African Rep.7.6
189Chad7.5
190Djibouti6.5
191Niger6.5
192Eritrea5.0
193S. Sudan5.0
World Avg13.2
q=193.
Religiosity (2009)34
Pos.Lower is better
%34
1Estonia16
2Sweden17
3Denmark19
...
103Morocco97
104Thailand97
105Mauritania98
106Djibouti98
107Somaliland98
108Burundi98
109Sri Lanka99
110Malawi99
World Avg75.1
q=114.

Technology and Information:

Internet Users (2016)35
Pos.Higher is better35
1Iceland100%
2Faroe Islands99%
3Norway98%
...
171Mali12%
172Haiti12%
173Papua New Guinea12%
174Djibouti12%
175Cambodia11%
176Gabon10%
177Burkina Faso10%
178Solomon Islands10%
World Avg48.1%
q=201.
IT Security (2013)36
Pos.Lower is better36
1Ireland0.11
2Luxembourg0.11
3Belize0.11
...
57Malawi1.23
58Turkmenistan1.23
59Kazakhstan1.23
60Djibouti1.29
61UK1.34
62Mongolia1.42
63Uganda1.44
64Ukraine1.44
World Avg0.98
q=81.
IPv6 Uptake (2017)37
Pos.Higher is better
Ratio37
1Belgium55.4
2Germany41.8
3Switzerland35.1
...
125Albania0.0
126Micronesia0.0
127Algeria0.0
128Djibouti0.0
129Guyana0.0
130Namibia0.0
131Tonga0.0
132Myanmar (Burma)0.0
World Avg3.82
q=176.

7. National Culture

#corruption #politics

Corruption (2012-2016)38
Pos.Higher is better
Avg Score38
1Denmark90.8
2New Zealand90.6
3Finland89.4
...
105Argentina34.2
106Niger34.2
107Indonesia34.2
108Djibouti34.0
109Bolivia34.0
110Malawi33.8
111Kosovo33.8
112Moldova33.8
World Avg43.05
q=176.

8. Peace Versus Instability

#extremism #human_development #peace #politics #religious_violence #terrorism

Global Peace Index (2012)39
Pos.Lower is better39
1Iceland1.11
2New Zealand1.24
3Denmark1.24
...
54Morocco1.87
55Tanzania1.87
56Burkina Faso1.88
57Djibouti1.88
58Mongolia1.88
59Oman1.89
60Malawi1.89
61Panama1.90
World Avg2.02
q=157.
Impact of Terrorism (2019)40
Pos.Lower is better
Score40
1Togo0.00
2Mongolia0.00
3Swaziland0.00
...
35S. Korea0.30
36Macedonia0.30
37Zambia0.31
38Djibouti0.32
39Bulgaria0.37
40Albania0.42
41Cyprus0.42
42Lithuania0.46
World Avg2.78
q=150.

9. The Natural Environment

#biodiversity #climate_change #over-exploitation #the_environment

Forest Area Change 1990-2015 (2015)41
Pos.Higher is better
%41
1Iceland205.6
2Bahrain144.4
3Uruguay131.3
...
86Maldives00.0
87Vanuatu00.0
88Turkmenistan00.0
89Djibouti00.0
90S. Africa00.0
91Kiribati00.0
92Andorra00.0
93Malta00.0
World Avg02.8
q=184.
Environmental Performance (2018)42
Pos.Higher is better42
1Switzerland87.4
2France84.0
3Denmark81.6
...
160Liberia41.6
161Cameroon40.8
162Swaziland40.3
163Djibouti40.0
164Papua New Guinea39.4
165Eritrea39.3
166Mauritania39.2
167Benin38.2
World Avg56.4
q=180.
Convention on Biological Diversity
Pos.Earlier is better
Signed
1China1993 Dec 29
2Guinea1993 Dec 29
3Cook Islands1993 Dec 29
...
81Nigeria1994 Nov 27
82Guyana1994 Nov 27
83Ghana1994 Nov 27
84Djibouti1994 Nov 30
85Kazakhstan1994 Dec 05
86El Salvador1994 Dec 07
87Chile1994 Dec 08
88Iceland1994 Dec 11
World Avg1899 Dec 30
q=197.
Rational Beliefs on the Environment (2011)43
Pos.Higher is better
%43
1Argentina78.3%
2Greece77.6%
3Brazil77.1%
...
55Congo, (Brazzaville)44.0%
56Yemen43.2%
57Sri Lanka43.1%
58Djibouti42.8%
59Burundi42.0%
60Zambia41.9%
61Singapore41.6%
62Ukraine41.5%
World Avg39.9%
q=145.

10. Economic Inequality and Poverty

#capitalism #economics #health #inequality #life_expectancy #social_development

Inequality in Life Expectancy (2019)44
Pos.Higher is worse44
184Chad40.90
183Central African Rep.40.10
182Sierra Leone39.00
...
146Ghana24.20
145Papua New Guinea24.10
144Turkmenistan23.40
143Djibouti23.40
142Gabon22.80
141Myanmar (Burma)22.80
140Congo, (Brazzaville)22.80
139Laos22.60
World Avg14.59
q=184.
Income Inequality (Gini Coefficient) (2017)45
Pos.Lower is better
%45
1Ukraine25.0
2Belarus25.4
3Slovenia25.4
...
105Haiti41.1
106USA41.5
107Ivory Coast41.5
108Djibouti41.6
109Papua New Guinea41.9
110Turkey41.9
111Congo, DR42.1
112Madagascar42.6
World Avg38.1
q=152.

11. Religion and Beliefs

#buddhism #christianity #hinduism #islam #judaism #religion

Religiosity (2009)34
Pos.Lower is better
%34
1Estonia16
2Sweden17
3Denmark19
...
103Morocco97
104Thailand97
105Mauritania98
106Djibouti98
107Somaliland98
108Burundi98
109Sri Lanka99
110Malawi99
World Avg75.1
q=114.

Data from the Pew Forum, a professional polling outfit, states that in 2010 the religious makeup of this country was as follows in the table below46:

Christian2.3%
Muslim96.9%
Hindu0.1%
Buddhist0.1%
Folk Religion0.3%
Jew0.2%
Unaffiliated0.2%

The CIA World Factbook has slightly different data, and states simply: Muslim 94%, Christian 6%47.

The International Humanist and Ethical Union produced a report in 2012 entitled "Freedom of Thought" (2012)48, in which they document bias and prejudice at the national level that is based on religion, belief and/or lack of belief. Their entry for Djibouti states:

Although the constitution and other laws and policies protect freedom of religion or belief, Islam is the state religion and the president and other government employees, including magistrates, are required to take religious oaths49. More than 99% of the population identifies as Sunni Muslim. Citizens officially are considered Muslims if they do not specifically identify with a faith; there are no figures available on the number of atheists in the country. Muslims are required to marry in an Islamic ceremony. Non-Muslims - who are known to include Roman Catholics, Protestants, Copts, and Bahá'ís - must marry in accordance with the rites of the religion with which they are registered. The government allows civil marriage only for non-Muslim foreign residents; so if there were atheist Djibouti who wanted to marry, they would not be able to do so (unless they hid their atheism and registered with a religion). A non-Muslim man may marry a Muslim woman only after converting to Islam49. According to the family code, "impediment to a marriage occurs when a Muslim woman marries a non-Muslim."

The president is required to take a religious oath at inauguration; other government employees are also required to do so, such as magistrates, the presidents of Constitutional Court, Supreme Court, Chamber of Accounts, and the inspector general of state. While there is no penalty established by law, it remains an official custom written in the Constitution for the president of the country and required by law for others. No legal provision exists for opposite practice.

"Freedom of Thought" by IHEU (2012)50

Links: