The Human Truth Foundation

Iran (Islamic Republic of Iran)

By Vexen Crabtree 2013

#bahá'í_faith #iran #judaism

Iran
Islamic Republic of Iran
StatusIndependent State
Social and Moral Index125th best
CapitalTehran
Land Area1 628 550km21
LocationAsia, The Middle East
Population81.8m2
Life Expectancy75.58yrs (2017)3
GNI$16 395 (2017)4
ISO3166-1 CodesIR, IRN, 3645
Internet Domain.ir6
CurrencyRial (IRR)7
Telephone+988

1. Overview

Known as Persia until 1935, Iran became an Islamic republic in 1979 after the ruling monarchy was overthrown and Shah Mohammad Reza PAHLAVI was forced into exile. Conservative clerical forces led by Ayatollah Ruhollah KHOMEINI established a theocratic system of government with ultimate political authority vested in a learned religious scholar referred to commonly as the Supreme Leader who, according to the constitution, is accountable only to the Assembly of Experts - a popularly elected 86-member body of clerics. US-Iranian relations became strained when a group of Iranian students seized the US Embassy in Tehran in November 1979 and held embassy personnel hostages until mid-January 1981. The US cut off diplomatic relations with Iran in April 1980. During the period 1980-88, Iran fought a bloody, indecisive war with Iraq that eventually expanded into the Persian Gulf and led to clashes between US Navy and Iranian military forces. Iran has been designated a state sponsor of terrorism for its activities in Lebanon and elsewhere in the world and remains subject to US, UN, and EU economic sanctions and export controls because of its continued involvement in terrorism and its nuclear weapons ambitions. Following the election of reformer Hojjat ol-Eslam Mohammad KHATAMI as president in 1997 and a reformist Majles (legislature) in 2000, a campaign to foster political reform in response to popular dissatisfaction was initiated. The movement floundered as conservative politicians, through control of unelected institutions, prevented reform measures from being enacted and increased repressive measures. Starting with nationwide municipal elections in 2003 and continuing through Majles elections in 2004, conservatives reestablished control over Iran's elected government institutions, which culminated with the August 2005 inauguration of hardliner Mahmud AHMADI-NEJAD as president. His controversial reelection in June 2009 sparked nationwide protests over allegations of electoral fraud. The UN Security Council has passed a number of resolutions calling for Iran to suspend its uranium enrichment and reprocessing activities and comply with its IAEA obligations and responsibilities. In mid-February 2011, opposition activists conducted the largest antiregime rallies since December 2009, spurred by the success of uprisings in Tunisia and Egypt. Protester turnout probably was at most tens of thousands and security forces were deployed to disperse protesters. Additional protests in March 2011 failed to elicit significant participation largely because of the robust security response, although discontent still smolders. Deteriorating economic conditions due primarily to government mismanagement and international sanctions prompted at least two major economically based protests in July and October 2012.

CIA's The World Factbook (2013)9

Book CoverIf travel is most rewarding when it surprises, then Iran, with its bazaars, mighty deserts and sublime architecture, might just be the most rewarding destination on Earth. Before you come to Iran, you might be thinking the main reasons to visit are because it´s a bit adventurous and there´s a lot to see from the years when Persia was a great world power. At some levels you´d be right.

Iran´s sights will put you in the footsteps of some of history´s most outstanding figures. And certainly you won´t find yourself crowded out of any sights, which is fun.

The highlights, together with the atmospheric teahouses, bustling bazaars, deserts punctuated by historic oases and rugged mountain ranges, give Iran more than its fair share of fantastic places to see. But to think of Iran only in terms of `sights´ is to miss the real story.

If you like people, you´ll like Iran. The Iranians, a nation made up of numerous ethnic groups and influenced over thousands of years by Greek, Arab, Turkic and Mongol occupiers, are endlessly welcoming and eager to show off and explain their intricate culture.

"The World" by Lonely Planet (2014)10

2. Iran National and Social Development

#economics #human_development

UN HDI (2016)11
Pos.Lower is better
Rank11
1Norway1
2Australia2
3Switzerland2
...
66Costa Rica66
67Serbia66
68Cuba68
69Iran69
70Georgia70
71Turkey71
72Venezuela71
73Sri Lanka73
World Avg94.3
q=188.
Gross National Income Per-Capita (2011)12
Pos.Higher is better
PPP $12
1Qatar$129 916
2Singapore$78 162
3Kuwait$76 075
...
64Turkey$18 705
65Mauritius$17 948
66Azerbaijan$16 413
67Iran$16 395
68Mexico$16 383
69Bulgaria$16 261
70Suriname$16 018
71Belarus$15 629
World Avg$17 240
q=193.
Social & Moral
Development Index
13,14
Pos.Lower is better
Avg Rank13,14
1Taiwan30.2
2Denmark30.5
3Norway30.9
...
122Cape Verde97.1
123Suriname97.2
124Algeria97.2
125Iran97.8
126Honduras97.9
127Burkina Faso97.9
128Uganda99.3
129Bangladesh99.3
World Avg86.4
q=195.

The United Nations produces an annual Human Development Report which includes the Human Development Index. The factors taken into account include life expectancy, education and schooling and Gross National Income (GNI) amongst many others..

The Social and Moral Development Index concentrates on moral issues and human rights, violence, public health, equality, tolerance, freedom and effectiveness in climate change mitigation and environmentalism, and on some technological issues. A country scores higher for achieving well in those areas, and for sustaining that achievement in the long term. Those countries towards the top of this index can truly said to be setting good examples and leading humankind onwards into a bright, humane, and free future. See: Which are the Best Countries in the World? The Social and Moral Development Index.

3. Iran's Demographics

#birth_control #demographics #health #immigration #life_expectancy #longevity #migration #overpopulation #population

Population:

Iran's population is predicted to rise to 84.44 million by 2030. This rise is despite a low fertility rate, meaning, that this country is helping to alleviate problems with growing population in neighbouring countries by accepting immigrants, very likely as a requirement of maintaining an active workforce. This country has a fertility rate of 1.60. The fertility rate is, in simple terms, the average amount of children that each woman has. The higher the figure, the quicker the population is growing, although, to calculate the rate you also need to take into account morbidity, i.e., the rate at which people die. If people live healthy and long lives and morbidity is low, then, 2.0 approximates to the replacement rate, which would keep the population stable. If all countries had such a fertility rate, population growth would end. The actual replacement rate in most developed countries is around 2.1.

Population (2018)2
Pos.
Population2
1China1.4b
2India1.4b
3USA327.1m
...
16Congo, DR84.1m
17Germany83.1m
18Turkey82.3m
19Iran81.8m
20Thailand69.4m
21UK67.1m
22France65.0m
23Italy60.6m
World Avg39.0m
q=195.
Life Expectancy (2015)12
Pos.Higher is better
Years12
1Hong Kong84.16
2Japan83.68
3Italy83.34
...
59Vietnam75.94
60Jamaica75.82
61Barbados75.77
62Iran75.58
63Bahamas75.56
64Macedonia75.53
65Turkey75.53
66Hungary75.31
World Avg71.27
q=190.
Fertility Rate (2013)15
Pos.2.0 is best15
1N. Korea2.00
2Brunei1.99
3St Vincent & Grenadines2.01
...
55Trinidad & Tobago1.63
56Montenegro1.63
57S. Africa2.39
58Iran1.60
59Venezuela2.41
60Ecuador2.41
61Mauritius1.59
62Panama2.42
World Avg2.81
q=180.
Old-Age Dependency Ratio (2016)16
Pos.Lower is better
Per 10016
1Uganda04.3
2Mali04.5
3Chad04.7
...
89Bolivia12.7
90Nicaragua13.1
91Paraguay13.2
92Iran13.4
93Samoa13.7
94Algeria14.0
95Malaysia14.5
96Guyana15.0
World Avg18.3
q=185.

Migration:

Immigrants (2017)17
Pos.
%17
1UAE88.4%
2Kuwait75.5%
3Qatar65.2%
...
101Moldova3.5%
102Slovakia3.4%
103Turkmenistan3.4%
104Iran3.3%
105Kyrgyzstan3.3%
106Chad3.3%
107Tajikistan3.1%
108Cape Verde2.8%
World Avg9.4%
q=195.
Emigrants (2010)18
Pos.
%18
1Dominica104.8%
2Palestine68.4%
3Samoa67.3%
...
156Serbia2.0%
157Venezuela1.8%
158S. Africa1.7%
159Iran1.7%
160Libya1.7%
161Gabon1.7%
162Vanuatu1.6%
163Djibouti1.5%
World Avg11.5%
q=192.

4. Human Rights, Equality & Tolerance

#equality #freedom #human_rights #iran #politics #tolerance

Iran is amongst the worst places in the world at ensuring human rights and freedom, and it has severe cultural issues when it comes to tolerance and equality. Iran does worse than average in terms of speed of uptake of HR treaties19, opposing gender inequality20, LGBT equality21 and in its nominal commitment to Human Rights22. And finally, it falls into the worst 20 in its success in fighting anti-semitic prejudice23, commentary in Human Rights Watch reports24, supporting personal, civil & economic freedoms25 (one of the highest in Asia) and in supporting press freedom26 (one of the worst in Asia). "Authorities [in 2017] continued to target journalists, online media activists, and human rights defenders in an ongoing crackdown"27. There is no religious freedom, or freedom of thought, in Iran28,27, with minorities being heavily persecuted, and broadcasted attacks on all religious groups that are not Shia Muslim, "with the Bahá'ís and Jews being the most frequent targets"29.

For tables, charts and commentary, see:

5. Iran's Health

#alcohol #birth_control #demographics #health #Iran #life_expectancy #longevity #obesity #overpopulation #parenting #population #smoking #vaccines

Health (2020)30,31
Pos.Lower is better
Avg Rank30,31
1Hong Kong18.0
2Singapore41.5
3Maldives43.3
...
26Germany73.3
27Saudi Arabia73.4
28Austria73.9
29Iran74.4
30Denmark74.9
31Morocco75.1
32Sweden75.6
33Armenia76.0
34Iceland76.0
World Avg92.3
q=187.

The countries with the best overall approach to public health, in terms of both public policy and individual lifestyle choices, are Hong Kong, Singapore and The Maldives30. These countries are worth emulating. And, although often through no fault of the average citizen, the worst countries are S. Sudan, Nigeria and Equatorial Guinea30.

The data sets used to calculate points for each country are its average life expectancy, its alcohol consumption rate, its fertility rate, its smoking rate, its suicide rate, its food aid and health contributions and WHO compliance, the prevalence of overweight adults, its adolescent birth rate and its immunizations take-up. The regions with the best average results per country are Scandinavia, Asia and Europe30, whereas the worst are Africa, Micronesia and Polynesia30.

Health:

Iran does relatively well in encouraging good health, compared to many other countries. Iran comes in the best 20 for its immunizations take-up32. It does better than average for its alcohol consumption rate33, its fertility rate15, its average life expectancy12 and in its adolescent birth rate20. Iran does not succeed in everything, however. It does worse than average when it comes to its smoking rate34 and in its food aid and health contributions and WHO compliance35. The number of overweight adults has increased by 14% during the past 40 years.
Life Expectancy (2015)12
Pos.Higher is better
Years12
1Hong Kong84.16
2Japan83.68
3Italy83.34
...
59Vietnam75.94
60Jamaica75.82
61Barbados75.77
62Iran75.58
63Bahamas75.56
64Macedonia75.53
65Turkey75.53
66Hungary75.31
World Avg71.27
q=190.
Alcohol Consumption (2016)33
Pos.Lower is better
Per Capita33
1Bangladesh0.0
2Kuwait0.0
3Libya0.0
...
25Algeria0.9
26Malaysia0.9
27Comoros0.9
28Iran1.0
29Vanuatu1.0
30Papua New Guinea1.2
31Eritrea1.3
32Guinea1.3
World Avg6.2
q=189.
Fertility Rate (2013)15
Pos.2.0 is best15
1N. Korea2.00
2Brunei1.99
3St Vincent & Grenadines2.01
...
55Trinidad & Tobago1.63
56Montenegro1.63
57S. Africa2.39
58Iran1.60
59Venezuela2.41
60Ecuador2.41
61Mauritius1.59
62Panama2.42
World Avg2.81
q=180.
Smoking Rates (2014)34
Pos.Higher is worse34
182Montenegro4 125
181Belarus3 831
180Lebanon3 023
...
116Chile 930
115Turkmenistan 92536
114Thailand 895
113Iran 869
112Laos 836
111Sweden 831
110UK 827
109Papua New Guinea 826
World Avg 819
q=182.
Food Aid, Health Contributions & WHO Compliance (2017)35
Pos.Lower is better
Rank35
1Sweden1
2Ireland2
3Denmark3
...
115Haiti115
116Malawi116
117Swaziland117
118Iran118
119Yemen119
120Seychelles120
121Guinea-Bissau121
122Argentina122
World Avg82.0
q=163.
Overweight Adults (2016)37
Pos.Lower is better
%37
1Vietnam18.3
2India19.7
3Bangladesh20.0
...
147Hungary61.6
148Costa Rica61.6
149Tunisia61.6
150Iran61.6
151Bulgaria61.7
152Algeria62.0
153Greece62.3
154Czechia62.3
World Avg49.0
q=191.

Children's Health:

Adolescent Birth Rate (2015)20
Pos.Lower is better
Per 100020
1N. Korea0.5
2S. Korea1.6
3Switzerland2.9
...
74India24.5
75Samoa25.0
76Rwanda26.3
77Iran26.7
78Turkey27.6
79Kazakhstan27.9
80Burundi28.3
81Mauritius28.5
World Avg47.9
q=185.
Infant Immunizations 2011-2015 (2015)32
Pos.Higher is better
Avg %32
1Hungary99.0
2China99.0
3Uzbekistan98.9
...
9Sri Lanka98.4
10St Lucia98.2
11Bahrain98.2
12Iran98.1
13Finland98.1
14Saudi Arabia98.0
15Luxembourg98.0
16Oman98.0
World Avg88.3
q=194.

6. Iran's Modernity and Learning

#education #intelligence #it_security #modernity #politics #research #science #technology #the_internet

Modernity and Learning (2020)38
Pos.Lower is better
Avg Rank38
1Finland8.0
2Belgium9.1
3Denmark10.0
...
63India59.3
64Moldova60.1
65Uzbekistan60.1
66Iran60.9
67China61.4
68Kazakhstan61.4
69Tunisia62.3
70Peru62.3
71Colombia62.4
World Avg69.0
q=180.

Modernity and Education:

Research and Development (2016)
Pos.Higher is better
% RDP PPP
1S. Korea4.2939
2Israel4.1139
3Japan3.5839
...
75Moldova0.3540
76Ecuador0.3441
77Bosnia & Herzegovina0.3340
78Iran0.3142
79Nepal0.3042
80Kuwait0.3040
81Pakistan0.2940
82Zambia0.2843
World Avg0.84
q=126.
Secondary Education (2018)44
Pos.Higher is better44
1Luxembourg100.0%
2Estonia100.0%
3Austria100.0%
...
75Panama72.2%
76UAE70.7%
77Brunei70.1%
78Iran69.8%
79Vietnam69.4%
80Venezuela69.2%
81Qatar67.5%
82Mauritius66.9%
World Avg63.0%
q=169.
Length of Schooling (2018)45
Pos.Higher is better
Years45
1Australia22.1
2Belgium19.7
3Finland19.3
...
58Ecuador14.9
59Bulgaria14.8
60Serbia14.8
61Iran14.7
62Liechtenstein14.7
63Algeria14.7
64Cyprus14.7
65Oman14.7
World Avg13.2
q=193.
Intellectual Endeavours (2017)35
Pos.Lower is better
Rank35
1Ukraine1
2Czechia2
3Hungary3
...
87Benin87
88Pakistan88
89Seychelles89
90Iran90
91Antigua & Barbuda91
92Burkina Faso92
93Trinidad & Tobago93
94Malawi94
World Avg82.0
q=163.
IQ (2006)46
Pos.Higher is better46
1Hong Kong108
2Singapore108
3S. Korea106
...
78Jordan84
79Afghanistan84
80UAE84
81Iran84
82Pakistan84
83Panama84
84Paraguay84
85Morocco84
World Avg85.6
q=138.

Technology and Information:

Internet Users (2016)47
Pos.Higher is better47
1Iceland100%
2Faroe Islands99%
3Norway98%
...
97Dominican Rep.52%
98Uzbekistan51%
99Armenia50%
100Iran49%
101Tunisia48%
102Moldova48%
103Paraguay47%
104Fiji47%
World Avg48.1%
q=201.
Freedom On The Internet (2012)48
Pos.Lower is better48
1Estonia10
2USA12
3Germany15
...
40Vietnam73
41Ethiopia75
42Myanmar (Burma)75
43Uzbekistan77
44Syria83
45China85
46Cuba86
47Iran90
World Avg46.7
q=47.
IT Security (2013)49
Pos.Lower is better49
1Ireland0.11
2Luxembourg0.11
3Belize0.11
...
34Burkina Faso0.79
35Ivory Coast0.82
36Ethiopia0.84
37Iran0.85
38Laos0.86
39Spain0.88
40Kuwait0.93
41Saudi Arabia0.93
World Avg0.98
q=81.
IPv6 Uptake (2017)50
Pos.Higher is better
Ratio50
1Belgium55.4
2Germany41.8
3Switzerland35.1
...
71Ukraine0.1
72Lithuania0.1
73Vanuatu0.1
74Iran0.1
75Zambia0.1
76Panama0.1
77Croatia0.1
78Costa Rica0.1
World Avg3.82
q=176.

7. National Culture

#charity #corruption #happiness #morals #politics

Personal Charitability
(World Position, 2013-2016)
51
Pos.Lower is better51
1Myanmar (Burma)1.25
2USA1.5
3New Zealand3.5
...
32Libya29
33Puerto Rico29
34Cyprus31
35Iran32
36Sweden33
37Turkmenistan33.75
38Philippines34.75
39Nigeria35
World Avg68.1185897435897
q=156.
Corruption (2012-2016)52
Pos.Higher is better
Avg Score52
1Denmark90.8
2New Zealand90.6
3Finland89.4
...
136Russia28.2
137Kazakhstan28.0
138Nicaragua27.6
139Iran27.2
140Nigeria26.6
141Ukraine26.6
142Comoros26.4
143Cameroon26.2
World Avg43.05
q=176.
Happiness (2018)53
Pos.Higher is better53
1Finland7.6
2Norway7.6
3Denmark7.6
...
103Gabon4.8
104Palestine4.7
105S. Africa4.7
106Iran4.7
107Ivory Coast4.7
108Ghana4.7
109Senegal4.6
110Laos4.6
World Avg5.38
q=156.
Creativity and Culture (2017)35
Pos.Lower is better
Rank35
1Belgium1
2Netherlands2
3Estonia3
...
154Venezuela154
155Yemen155
156Iraq156
157Iran157
158Gabon158
159Central African Rep.159
160Burundi160
161Rwanda161
World Avg82.0
q=163.
Open Trading, Aid and Development (2017)35
Pos.Lower is better
Rank35
1Ireland1
2Denmark2
3Sweden3
...
145Samoa145
146Jamaica146
147Syria147
148Iran148
149India149
150Cameroon150
151Suriname151
152Gabon152
World Avg82.0
q=163.

8. Peace Versus Instability

#extremism #human_development #peace #politics #religious_violence #terrorism

Global Peace Index (2012)54
Pos.Lower is better54
1Iceland1.11
2New Zealand1.24
3Denmark1.24
...
124Mauritania2.30
125Thailand2.30
126S. Africa2.32
127Iran2.32
128Honduras2.34
129Turkey2.34
130Kyrgyzstan2.36
131Azerbaijan2.36
World Avg2.02
q=157.
Peacekeeping and Security (2017)35
Pos.Lower is better
Rank35
1Samoa1
2S. Africa2
3Tunisia3
...
80Albania80
81Gabon81
82Russia82
83Iran83
84Serbia84
85Mexico85
86Cambodia86
87Bangladesh87
World Avg82.0
q=163.
Refugees and UN Treaties (2017)35
Pos.Lower is better
Rank35
1Austria1
2Germany2
3Netherlands3
...
65Mozambique65
66Burkina Faso66
67Kyrgyzstan66
68Iran68
69Malawi69
70Latvia70
71Guatemala71
72Estonia72
World Avg82.0
q=163.
Impact of Terrorism (2019)55
Pos.Lower is better
Score55
1Togo0.00
2Mongolia0.00
3Swaziland0.00
...
109China4.47
110S. Africa4.51
111Israel4.53
112Iran4.72
113Chad4.76
114Russia4.90
115France5.01
116Indonesia5.07
World Avg2.78
q=150.

9. The Natural Environment

#biodiversity #climate_change #over-exploitation #the_environment

Forest Area Change 1990-2015 (2015)56
Pos.Higher is better
%56
1Iceland205.6
2Bahrain144.4
3Uruguay131.3
...
26Lesotho22.5
27Italy22.5
28Turkey21.8
29Iran17.8
30France17.7
31Algeria17.3
32Bulgaria17.1
33Thailand17.1
World Avg02.8
q=184.
Environmental Performance (2018)57
Pos.Higher is better57
1Switzerland87.4
2France84.0
3Denmark81.6
...
77UAE58.9
78Jamaica58.6
79Namibia58.5
80Iran58.2
81Belize57.8
82Philippines57.7
83Mongolia57.5
84Serbia57.5
World Avg56.4
q=180.
Energy to GDP Efficiency (2014)58
Pos.Higher is better58
1Hong Kong26.32
2Sri Lanka20.00
3Panama17.86
...
97Canada05.56
98China05.52
99Nepal05.35
100Iran05.32
101Kenya05.24
102Kazakhstan05.10
103Moldova05.03
104Ivory Coast04.85
World Avg09.29
q=119.
Convention on Biological Diversity
Pos.Earlier is better
Signed
1China1993 Dec 29
2Guinea1993 Dec 29
3Cook Islands1993 Dec 29
...
153Trinidad & Tobago1996 Oct 30
154Congo, (Brazzaville)1996 Oct 30
155Kyrgyzstan1996 Nov 04
156Iran1996 Nov 04
157S. Sudan2014 May 18
158Mauritania1996 Nov 14
159Qatar1996 Nov 19
160Bahrain1996 Nov 28
World Avg1899 Dec 30
q=197.
Rational Beliefs on the Environment (2011)59
Pos.Higher is better
%59
1Argentina78.3%
2Greece77.6%
3Brazil77.1%
...
42Italy49.6%
43Vietnam49.1%
44Honduras48.1%
45Iran47.9%
46Turkey47.4%
47Sudan46.9%
48Malaysia46.6%
49Mozambique46.5%
World Avg39.9%
q=145.

10. Economic Inequality and Poverty

#capitalism #economics #health #inequality #life_expectancy #social_development

Inequality in Life Expectancy (2019)60
Pos.Higher is worse60
184Chad40.90
183Central African Rep.40.10
182Sierra Leone39.00
...
78Moldova9.60
77Seychelles9.60
76Mauritius9.40
75Iran9.20
74Libya9.10
73Tunisia9.00
72Turkey9.00
71Armenia8.70
World Avg14.59
q=184.
Income Inequality (Gini Coefficient) (2017)61
Pos.Lower is better
%61
1Ukraine25.0
2Belarus25.4
3Slovenia25.4
...
95Morocco39.5
96Uruguay39.5
97Sri Lanka39.8
98Iran40.0
99Micronesia40.1
100Philippines40.1
101Senegal40.3
102Argentina40.6
World Avg38.1
q=152.

11. Religion and Beliefs

#bahá'í_faith #belief #buddhism #christianity #god #hinduism #iran #islam #judaism #religion

Disbelief In God (2007)62
Pos.Higher is better
%62
1Vietnam81
2Japan65
3Sweden64
...
52Mozambique5
53Zimbabwe4
54Namibia4
55Iran4
56Mexico4
57Portugal4
58Romania4
59Argentina4
World Avg9.9
q=137.

Data from the Pew Forum, a professional polling outfit, states that in 2010 the religious makeup of this country was as follows in the table below63:

Christian0.2%
Muslim99%
Hindu0.1%
Buddhist0.1%
Folk Religion0.1%
Jew0.1%
Unaffiliated0.1%

The CIA World Factbook has slightly different data, and states: Muslim (official) 98% (Shia 89%, Sunni 9%), other (includes Zoroastrian, Jewish, Christian, and Baha'i) 2%64.

Freedom of Religion and Belief: There is no religious freedom, or freedom of thought, in Iran28,27. When it comes to religious freedom and persecution, sociologists Grim & Finke place Iran into the worst category, along with just 13 other countries. Minorities are heavily persecuted and attacks against all religious communities that are not Shia Muslim are broadcasted on government-affiliated outlets, "with the Bahá'ís and Jews being the most frequent targets"29. The International Humanist and Ethical Union in 2012 documented the worst-possible forms of bias and prejudice, stemming from religious dogma and governmental intolerance of dissent.

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