The Human Truth Foundation

Iran (Islamic Republic of Iran)

By Vexen Crabtree 2013

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#Iran

Iran
Islamic Republic of Iran
StatusIndependent State
Social and Moral Index155th best
CapitalTehran
Land Area11 628 550 km2
LocationAsia, Middle East
Population2 75.61 million
Life Expectancy373.21yrs (2012)
GNI3$10 695
ISO3166-1 Codes4IR, IRN, 364
Internet Domain5.ir
Currency6Rial (IRR)
Telephone7+98

1. Overview

Known as Persia until 1935, Iran became an Islamic republic in 1979 after the ruling monarchy was overthrown and Shah Mohammad Reza PAHLAVI was forced into exile. Conservative clerical forces led by Ayatollah Ruhollah KHOMEINI established a theocratic system of government with ultimate political authority vested in a learned religious scholar referred to commonly as the Supreme Leader who, according to the constitution, is accountable only to the Assembly of Experts - a popularly elected 86-member body of clerics. US-Iranian relations became strained when a group of Iranian students seized the US Embassy in Tehran in November 1979 and held embassy personnel hostages until mid-January 1981. The US cut off diplomatic relations with Iran in April 1980. During the period 1980-88, Iran fought a bloody, indecisive war with Iraq that eventually expanded into the Persian Gulf and led to clashes between US Navy and Iranian military forces. Iran has been designated a state sponsor of terrorism for its activities in Lebanon and elsewhere in the world and remains subject to US, UN, and EU economic sanctions and export controls because of its continued involvement in terrorism and its nuclear weapons ambitions. Following the election of reformer Hojjat ol-Eslam Mohammad KHATAMI as president in 1997 and a reformist Majles (legislature) in 2000, a campaign to foster political reform in response to popular dissatisfaction was initiated. The movement floundered as conservative politicians, through control of unelected institutions, prevented reform measures from being enacted and increased repressive measures. Starting with nationwide municipal elections in 2003 and continuing through Majles elections in 2004, conservatives reestablished control over Iran's elected government institutions, which culminated with the August 2005 inauguration of hardliner Mahmud AHMADI-NEJAD as president. His controversial reelection in June 2009 sparked nationwide protests over allegations of electoral fraud. The UN Security Council has passed a number of resolutions calling for Iran to suspend its uranium enrichment and reprocessing activities and comply with its IAEA obligations and responsibilities. In mid-February 2011, opposition activists conducted the largest antiregime rallies since December 2009, spurred by the success of uprisings in Tunisia and Egypt. Protester turnout probably was at most tens of thousands and security forces were deployed to disperse protesters. Additional protests in March 2011 failed to elicit significant participation largely because of the robust security response, although discontent still smolders. Deteriorating economic conditions due primarily to government mismanagement and international sanctions prompted at least two major economically based protests in July and October 2012.

CIA's The World Factbook (2013)8

2. Iran National and Social Development

UN's Human Development Index
Country2012
score
Average
1980-2010
1Norway95.587.3
2Australia93.888.9
3USA93.787.8
...
73Lebanon74.573.7
74Dominica74.571.1
75Georgia74.572.9
76Iran74.257.9
77Peru74.164.5
78Ukraine74.070.0
79Macedonia74.072.6
80Mauritius73.764.1
81Bosnia & Herzegovina73.573.1
82Azerbaijan73.469.9
83St Vincent & Grenadines73.371.5
84Oman73.170.4
85Jamaica73.066.2
Data Source
Social and Moral Development
CountryScore
1Sweden88.9
2Iceland87.4
3Denmark87.2
...
152Guinea44.5
153Solomon Islands44.4
154Cameroon43.7
155Iran43.7
156Burkina Faso43.6
157Uganda43.6
158Tanzania43.5
159Angola43.1
160Congo, (Brazzaville)43.0
161Nigeria43.0
162Djibouti42.9
163Eritrea42.5
164Senegal42.5
165Ivory Coast42.4
Data Source

The United Nations produces an annual Human Development Report which includes the Human Development Index. The factors taken into account include life expectancy, education and schooling and Gross National Income (GNI) amongst many others. The values in the chart are factored by 100.

The Social and Moral Development Index is a formulaic aggregation of many factors. It concentrates on moral issues and human rights, violence, equality, tolerance, freedom and effectiveness in climate change mitigation and environmentalism. A country scores higher for achieving well in those areas, and for sustaining that achievement in the long term. Those countries towards the top of this index can truly said to be setting good examples and leading humankind onwards into a bright, humane, and free future. See: "What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life" by Vexen Crabtree (2017).

3. Population and Life Expectancy

Life Expectancy (at birth)
1Japan83.6
2Hong Kong83
3Switzerland82.5
...
94Jamaica73.3
95St Kitts & Nevis73.3
96Honduras73.4
97Iran73.2
98Oman73.2
99Palestine73
100Lebanon72.8
101Antigua & Barbuda72.8
Data Source
Fertility Rate
1Korea, N.2.0
2Brunei2.0
3St Vincent & Grenadines2.0
...
55Trinidad & Tobago1.6
56Montenegro1.6
57S. Africa2.4
58Iran1.6
59Venezuela2.4
60Ecuador2.4
61Mauritius1.6
62Panama2.4
Data Source
Population (m=millions)
CountryPeoplePer km2
1China1 353.6m145
2India1 258.35m423
3USA 315.79m35
...
14Ethiopia 86.54m87
15Egypt 83.96m84
16Germany 81.99m235
17Iran 75.61m46
18Turkey 74.51m97
19Thailand 69.89m137
20Congo, DR 69.58m31
Data Source

Iran's population is predicted to rise to 84.44 million by 2030. This rise is despite a low fertility rate, meaning, that this country is helping to alleviate problems with growing population in neighbouring countries by accepting immigrants, very likely as a requirement of maintaining an active workforce. This country has a fertility rate of 1.60.

The fertility rate is, in simple terms, the average amount of children that each woman has. The higher the figure, the quicker the population is growing, although, to calculate the rate you also need to take into account morbidity, i.e., the rate at which people die. If people live healthy and long lives and morbidity is low, then, 2.0 approximates to the replacement rate, which would keep the population stable. If all countries had such a fertility rate, population growth would end. The actual replacement rate in most developed countries is around 2.1.

4. Gender Equality

Female Vote and Stand
1New Zealand1893
2Australia1902
3Finland1906
...
140Equatorial Guinea1963
141Bahamas1963
142Fiji1963
143Iran1963
144Morocco1963
145Kenya1963
146Sudan1964
147Libya1964
Gender Equality
1Netherlands0.04
2Sweden0.05
3Denmark0.06
...
104Guyana0.49
105Gabon0.49
106Indonesia0.49
107Iran0.50
108Panama0.50
109Dominican Rep.0.51
110Uganda0.52
111Bangladesh0.52
Data Source

Gender inequality is not a necessary part of early human development. Although a separation of roles is almost universal due to different strengths between the genders, this does not have to mean that women are subdued, and, such patriarchialism is not universal in ancient history. Those cultures and peoples who shed, or never developed, the idea that mankind ought to dominate womankind, are better cultures and peoples than those who, even today, cling violently to those mores.

Iran is an unequal country, with male rights dominating those of women.

See:

5. Religion and Beliefs

#buddhism #christianity #hinduism #islam #judaism

Disbelief In God
1Vietnam81%
2Japan65%
3Sweden64%
...
57Georgia4%
58Argentina4%
59Romania4%
60Iran4%
61Uzbekistan4%
62Congo, (Brazzaville)3%
63India3%
64Poland3%
Data Source

Data from the Pew Forum, a professional polling outfit, states that in 2010 the religious makeup of this country was as follows in the table below9:

Christian0.2%
Muslim99%
Hindu0.1%
Buddhist0.1%
Folk Religion0.1%
Jew0.1%
Unaffiliated0.1%

By adding up the Pew Forum data for the major monotheistic religions we can see that these make up 99.3% of the population. Yet there are simply too many who disbelieve in God for this to be true (4%). This is due to the so-called 'Census Effect', whereby many put down a religion for cultural reasons rather than because it reflects their beliefs. In highly Christian countries, as many as half of those who say they're a Christian lack any connection to a Church, and do not hold Christian beliefs (such as believing in God!).

The CIA World Factbook has slightly different data, and states: Muslim (official) 98% (Shia 89%, Sunni 9%), other (includes Zoroastrian, Jewish, Christian, and Baha'i) 2%10.

The International Humanist and Ethical Union produced a report in 2012 entitled "Freedom of Thought" (2012), in which they document bias and prejudice at the national level that is based on religion, belief and/or lack of belief. Their entry for Iran states:

There is no freedom of religion or belief in the Islamic Republic of Iran. Iranian law bars any criticism of Islam or deviation from the ruling Islamic standards. Government leaders use these laws to persecute religious minorities and dissidents.

Article 110 of the Constitution lists all the powers granted to the Spiritual Leader (a Muslim religious and political leader), appointed by his peers for an unlimited duration. Among others, the Spiritual Leader exercises his control over the judiciary, the army, the police, the radio, the television, but also over the President and the Parliament, institutions elected by the people. Article 91 of the Constitution establishes a body known as the "Guardian Council" whose function is to examine the compatibility of all legislation enacted by the Islamic Consultative Assembly with "the criteria of Islam and the Constitution"3 and who can therefore veto any and all legislation. Half of the members of the Guardian Council are appointed by the Spiritual Leader and the other half are elected by the Islamic Consultative Assembly from among the Muslim jurists nominated by the Head of the Judicial Power (who is, himself, appointed by the Spiritual Leader).

The Guardian council exercises a double control of any draft legislation, with two different procedures:

  • conformity with the Constitution (all 12 elected members vote, a simple majority recognizes the constitutionality)
  • conformity with Islam (only the six religious leaders elected personally by the Spiritual leader vote, and a simple majority is required to declare the compatibility of a draft legislation with Islam).

Consequently, four religious leaders may block all draft legislation enacted by the Parliament. The Guardian Council and the Supreme Leader therefore and in practice centralize all powers in Iran.

Articles 12 and 13 of the Constitution divides citizens of the Islamic Republic of Iran into four categories: Muslims, Zoroastrians, Jews and Christians. Nonbelievers are effectively left out and aren't afforded any rights or protections. They must declare their faith in one of the four officially recognized religions in order to be able to claim a number of legal rights, such as the possibility to apply for the general examination to enter any university in Iran. Other belief groups outside of the four recognized religions, such as Bahá'ís, also suffer from this discrimination and are actively prevented from attending university.

Only Muslims are able to take part in the Government of the Islamic Republic of Iran and to conduct public affairs at a high level. According to the Constitution, non-Muslims cannot hold the following key decision-making positions:

  • President of the Islamic Republic of Iran, who must be a Shi'a Muslim (Article 1156)
  • Commanders in the Islamic Army (Article 1447)
  • Judges, at any level (Article 163 and law of 1983 on the selection of judges 8)

Moreover, non-Muslims are not eligible to become members of the Parliament (the Islamic Consultative Assembly) through the general elections. Finally, non-Muslims cannot become members of the very influential Guardian Council.

A study of the Penal Code of the Islamic Republic of Iran reveals that, for a number of offences, the punishment differs in function of the religion of the victim and/or the religion of the offender. The fate of Muslim victims and offenders is systematically more favorable than that of non-Muslims, showing that the life and physical integrity of Muslims is given a much higher value than that of non-Muslims. This institutionalized discrimination is particularly blatant for the following crimes:

  1. Adultery: The sanctions for adultery vary widely according to the religion of both members of the couple. A Muslim man who commits adultery with a Muslim woman is punished by 100 lashes (Article 8811). However, a non-Muslim man who commits adultery with a Muslim woman is subject to the death penalty (Article 82-c12). If a Muslim man commits adultery with a non-Muslim woman, the Penal Code does not specify any penalty.
  2. Homosexuality: Likewise, homosexuality "without consummation" between two Muslim men is punished by 100 lashes (Article 12113) but if the "active party" is non-Muslim and the other Muslim, the non-Muslim is subject to the death penalty.
  3. Crimes against the Deceased: Article 49418 stipulates penalties for crimes against a deceased Muslim but the Penal Code does not edict any penalties for the violation of the corpse of a non-Muslim.

Cases of Discrimination

On Jan. 17, 2012, the country's Supreme Court confirmed the previously handed down death sentence for 35-year-old web designer and Canadian resident Saeed Malekpour. Malekpour had returned to Iran in 2008 to visit his dying father and was arrested for "insulting and desecrating Islam" for creating a computer program used by others to download pornography.

"Freedom of Thought" by IHEU (2012)11

Links:

6. The Internet

Internet Freedom
1Estonia10
2USA12
3Germany15
...
40Vietnam73
41Myanmar (Burma)75
42Ethiopia75
43Uzbekistan77
44Syria83
45China85
46Cuba86
47Iran90
Data Source
IT Security Risks
271USA3.68
270Russia2.42
269India2.10
...
230Kuwait0.93
229Spain0.88
228Laos0.86
227Iran0.85
226Ethiopia0.84
225Ivory Coast0.82
224Burkina Faso0.79
223Cameroon0.77
Data Source
Internet Users in Population
1Iceland95.64
2Norway93.28
3Netherlands90.70
...
116Fiji14.83
117Libya14.00
118Bhutan13.60
119Iran13.00
120Rwanda13.00
121Mongolia12.90
122Belize12.65
123Uganda12.50
Data Source

Internet access has become an essential research tool. It facilitates an endless list of life improvements, from the ability to network and socialize without constraint, to access to a seemingly infinite repository of technical and procedural information on pretty much any task. The universal availability of data has sped up industrial development and personal learning at the national and personal level. Individuals can read any topic they wish regardless of the locality of expert teachers, and, entire nations can develop their technology and understanding of the world simply because they are now exposed to advanced societies and moral discourses online. Like every communications medium, the Internet has issues and causes a small range of problems, but these are insignificant compared to the advantages of having an online populace.

Links:

7. More Charts and Comparisons to Other Countries

Personal Charitability (2013-2016)12
CountryValue12
1Myanmar (Burma)1.25
2USA1.5
3New Zealand3.5
...
32Libya29
33Puerto Rico29
34Cyprus31
35Iran32
36Sweden33
37Turkmenistan33.75
38Philippines34.75
39Nigeria35
Economic Freedom
1Hong Kong9.0
2Singapore8.8
3New Zealand8.4
...
109Cameroon6.3
110Nepal6.3
111India6.3
112Iran6.2
113Pakistan6.2
114Guyana6.2
115Benin6.2
116Azerbaijan6.1
Data Source
Global Peace Index
1Iceland1.11
2New Zealand1.24
3Denmark1.24
...
124Mauritania2.30
125Thailand2.30
126S. Africa2.32
127Iran2.32
128Honduras2.34
129Turkey2.34
130Kyrgyzstan2.36
131Azerbaijan2.36
Data Source
Average IQ
1Singapore108
2Korea, S.106
3Taiwan105
...
76Venezuela84
77Paraguay84
78Panama84
79Iran84
80Pakistan84
81UAE84
82Jordan84
83Morocco84
Data Source
Human Rights Treaties
1Argentina24
2Ecuador23
3Germany23
...
164Oman9
165Cook Islands9
166Papua New Guinea9
167Iran9
168Iraq9
169Samoa9
170St Kitts & Nevis9
171Comoros9
Data Source
Press Freedom Index
1Finland99.0
2Netherlands99.0
3Norway99.0
...
170Cuba99.8
171Vietnam99.8
172China99.9
173Iran99.9
174Somalia99.9
175Syria99.9
176Turkmenistan99.9
177Korea, N.100.0
Data Source
R & D Spending
Country% RDP PPP
1Korea, S.4.2913
2Israel4.1113
3Japan3.5813
...
75Moldova0.3514
76Ecuador0.3415
77Bosnia & Herzegovina0.3314
78Iran0.3116
79Nepal0.3016
80Kuwait0.3014
81Pakistan0.2914
82Zambia0.2817
Gross National Income
1Qatar$87 478
2Liechtenstein$84 880
3Kuwait$52 793
...
72Romania$11 011
73Dominica$10 977
74Costa Rica$10 863
75Iran$10 695
76Montenegro$10 471
77Kazakhstan$10 451
78Brazil$10 152
79S. Africa$9 594
Data Source
Happiness
1Denmark7.8
2Netherlands7.6
3Norway7.6
...
98Kyrgyzstan4.9
99Palestine4.8
100Zimbabwe4.8
101Iran4.8
102Nigeria4.8
103S. Africa4.7
104Bosnia & Herzegovina4.7
105Azerbaijan4.7
Data Source
Environmental Performance
1Iceland93.5
2Switzerland89.1
3Costa Rica86.4
...
74Djibouti60.5
75Armenia60.4
76Turkey60.4
77Iran60.0
78Kyrgyzstan59.7
79Laos59.6
80Namibia59.3
81Guyana59.2
Data Source
Gay Equality
1Netherlands405
2Belgium350
3Canada280
...
204Tanzania-220
205Somaliland-500
206Saudi Arabia-520
207Sudan-520
208UAE-520
209Iran-520
210Yemen-520
211Afghanistan-520
Data Source

Current edition: 2013 May 01
http://www.humantruth.info/iran.html
Parent page: Vexing International Issues

Social Media

References: (What's this?)

Charities Aid Foundation
World Giving Index. On www.cafonline.org.

CIA
(2013) World Factbook. The USA Government's Central Intelligence Agency (USA CIA) publishes The World Factbook, and the online version is frequently updated.

Crabtree, Vexen
(2017) "What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life" (2017). Accessed 2017 Feb 20.

IHEU. International Humanist and Ethical Union.
(2012) Freedom of Thought. A copy can be found on iheu.org/...Freedom of Thought 2012.pdf, accessed 2013 Oct 28.

Lynn, Harvey & Nyborg
(2009) Average intelligence predicts atheism rates across 137 nations. Richard Lynn, John Harvey and Helmuth Nyborg article "Average intelligence predicts atheism rates across 137 nations" in Intelligence (2009 Jan/Feb) vol. 37 issue 1 pages 11-15. Online at www.sciencedirect.com, accessed 2009 Sep 15.

OECD
(2016) Research and development (R&D) - Gross domestic spending on R&D. Data from data.oecd.org. Accessed 2016 Sep 28.

United Nations
(2011) Human Development Report. This edition had the theme of Sustainability and Equity: A Better Future for All. Published on the United Nation's website at hdr.undp.org/.../HDR_2011_EN_Complete.pdf (accessed throughout 2013, Jan-Mar). UN Development Program: About the Human Development Index.
(2013) Human Development Report. This edition had the theme of The Rise of the South: Human Progress in a Diverse World. Published on the United Nation's HDR website at hdr.undp.org/.../hdr2013/ (accessed throughout 2013). UN Development Program: About the Human Development Index.

World Bank
Research and Development and a Percent of GDP PPP. Data from databank.worldbank.org. Accessed 2016 Sep 29.

Footnotes

  1. World Bank data on data.worldbank.org accessed 2013 Nov 04.^
  2. UN (2011) .^
  3. UN (2013) .^
  4. International Standards Organisation (ISO) standard ISO3166-1, on www.iso.org, accessed 2013 May 01.^
  5. Top level domains (TLDs) are managed by the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) on www.iana.org.^
  6. According to ISO4217.^
  7. According to ITU-T.^
  8. CIA (2013) https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/ir.html accessed 2014 Apr 27.^
  9. Pew Forum (2012) publication "The Global Religious Landscape: A Report on the Size and Distribution of the World´s Major Religious Groups as of 2010" (2012 Dec 18) accessed 2013 May 01.^
  10. CIA (2013) https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/ar.html accessed 2014 Apr 27.^
  11. IHEU (2012) . Added to this page on 2013 Oct 28.^
  12. Charities Aid Foundation . Average ranking across years 2013-2016. Lower is better.^
  13. OECD (2016) data for year 2014.^
  14. World Bank data for year 2013.^
  15. World Bank data for year 2011.^
  16. World Bank data for year 2010.^
  17. World Bank data for year 2008.^

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