The Human Truth Foundation

Iran (Islamic Republic of Iran)

By Vexen Crabtree 2013


Comments:
FB, LJ

#bahá'í_faith #charity #economics #happiness #intelligence #iran #judaism #morals #research #science #the_environment

Iran
Islamic Republic of Iran
StatusIndependent State
CapitalTehran
Land Area1 628 550km21
LocationAsia, Middle East
Population75.6m (2011)2
Life Expectancy75.58yrs (2017)3
GNI$16 395 (2017)4
ISO3166-1 CodesIR, IRN, 3645
Internet Domain.ir6
CurrencyRial (IRR)7
Telephone+988

1. Overview

Known as Persia until 1935, Iran became an Islamic republic in 1979 after the ruling monarchy was overthrown and Shah Mohammad Reza PAHLAVI was forced into exile. Conservative clerical forces led by Ayatollah Ruhollah KHOMEINI established a theocratic system of government with ultimate political authority vested in a learned religious scholar referred to commonly as the Supreme Leader who, according to the constitution, is accountable only to the Assembly of Experts - a popularly elected 86-member body of clerics. US-Iranian relations became strained when a group of Iranian students seized the US Embassy in Tehran in November 1979 and held embassy personnel hostages until mid-January 1981. The US cut off diplomatic relations with Iran in April 1980. During the period 1980-88, Iran fought a bloody, indecisive war with Iraq that eventually expanded into the Persian Gulf and led to clashes between US Navy and Iranian military forces. Iran has been designated a state sponsor of terrorism for its activities in Lebanon and elsewhere in the world and remains subject to US, UN, and EU economic sanctions and export controls because of its continued involvement in terrorism and its nuclear weapons ambitions. Following the election of reformer Hojjat ol-Eslam Mohammad KHATAMI as president in 1997 and a reformist Majles (legislature) in 2000, a campaign to foster political reform in response to popular dissatisfaction was initiated. The movement floundered as conservative politicians, through control of unelected institutions, prevented reform measures from being enacted and increased repressive measures. Starting with nationwide municipal elections in 2003 and continuing through Majles elections in 2004, conservatives reestablished control over Iran's elected government institutions, which culminated with the August 2005 inauguration of hardliner Mahmud AHMADI-NEJAD as president. His controversial reelection in June 2009 sparked nationwide protests over allegations of electoral fraud. The UN Security Council has passed a number of resolutions calling for Iran to suspend its uranium enrichment and reprocessing activities and comply with its IAEA obligations and responsibilities. In mid-February 2011, opposition activists conducted the largest antiregime rallies since December 2009, spurred by the success of uprisings in Tunisia and Egypt. Protester turnout probably was at most tens of thousands and security forces were deployed to disperse protesters. Additional protests in March 2011 failed to elicit significant participation largely because of the robust security response, although discontent still smolders. Deteriorating economic conditions due primarily to government mismanagement and international sanctions prompted at least two major economically based protests in July and October 2012.

CIA's The World Factbook (2013)9

Book CoverIf travel is most rewarding when it surprises, then Iran, with its bazaars, mighty deserts and sublime architecture, might just be the most rewarding destination on Earth. Before you come to Iran, you might be thinking the main reasons to visit are because it´s a bit adventurous and there´s a lot to see from the years when Persia was a great world power. At some levels you´d be right.

Iran´s sights will put you in the footsteps of some of history´s most outstanding figures. And certainly you won´t find yourself crowded out of any sights, which is fun.

The highlights, together with the atmospheric teahouses, bustling bazaars, deserts punctuated by historic oases and rugged mountain ranges, give Iran more than its fair share of fantastic places to see. But to think of Iran only in terms of `sights´ is to miss the real story.

If you like people, you´ll like Iran. The Iranians, a nation made up of numerous ethnic groups and influenced over thousands of years by Greek, Arab, Turkic and Mongol occupiers, are endlessly welcoming and eager to show off and explain their intricate culture.

"The World" by Lonely Planet (2014)10

2. Iran National and Social Development

#human_development

UN HDI (2016)11
Pos.Lower is better
Rank11
1Norway1
2Australia2
3Switzerland2
...
66Costa Rica66
67Serbia66
68Cuba68
69Iran69
70Georgia70
71Turkey71
72Venezuela71
73Sri Lanka73
World Avg94.3
q=188.
Social & Moral
Development Index
12
Pos.Higher is better
Points12
1Denmark84.0
2Sweden83.9
3Finland83.5
...
158Togo44.1
159Madagascar44.1
160Ethiopia44.0
161Iran43.9
162Cameroon43.8
163Guinea-Bissau43.8
164Zambia43.7
165Cambodia43.5
World Avg53.8
q=198.

The United Nations produces an annual Human Development Report which includes the Human Development Index. The factors taken into account include life expectancy, education and schooling and Gross National Income (GNI) amongst many others..

The Social and Moral Development Index concentrates on moral issues and human rights, violence, public health, equality, tolerance, freedom and effectiveness in climate change mitigation and environmentalism, and on some technological issues. A country scores higher for achieving well in those areas, and for sustaining that achievement in the long term. Those countries towards the top of this index can truly said to be setting good examples and leading humankind onwards into a bright, humane, and free future. See: What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life.

3. Population and Demographics

#demographics #health #immigration #Iran #life_expectancy #overpopulation #population

Old-Age Dependency Ratio (2016)13
Pos.Lower is better
Per 10013
1Uganda04.3
2Mali04.5
3Chad04.7
...
89Bolivia12.7
90Nicaragua13.1
91Paraguay13.2
92Iran13.4
93Samoa13.7
94Algeria14.0
95Malaysia14.5
96Guyana15.0
World Avg18.3
q=185.
Emigrants (2010)14
Pos.
%14
1Dominica104.8
2Palestine68.4
3Samoa67.3
...
156Serbia2.0
157Venezuela1.8
158S. Africa1.7
159Iran1.7
160Libya1.7
161Gabon1.7
162Vanuatu1.6
163Djibouti1.5
World Avg11.5
q=192.
Fertility Rate (2013)15
Pos.2.0 is best15
1N. Korea2.00
2Brunei1.99
3St Vincent & Grenadines2.01
...
55Trinidad & Tobago1.63
56Montenegro1.63
57S. Africa2.39
58Iran1.60
59Venezuela2.41
60Ecuador2.41
61Mauritius1.59
62Panama2.42
World Avg2.81
q=180.

Immigrants (2010)14
Pos.
%14
1Qatar86.5
2Monaco71.6
3UAE70.0
...
103Mauritania2.9
104Zimbabwe2.9
105Ecuador2.9
106Iran2.8
107Albania2.8
108Togo2.7
109Marshall Islands2.7
110Trinidad & Tobago2.6
World Avg9.2
q=192.
Life Expectancy (2015)16
Pos.Higher is better
Years16
1Hong Kong84.16
2Japan83.68
3Italy83.34
...
59Vietnam75.94
60Jamaica75.82
61Barbados75.77
62Iran75.58
63Bahamas75.56
64Macedonia75.53
65Turkey75.53
66Hungary75.31
World Avg71.27
q=190.
Population (2012)17
Pos.The Overpopulation of the Earth17
1China1.4b
2India1.3b
3USA315.8m
...
14Ethiopia86.5m
15Egypt84.0m
16Germany82.0m
17Iran75.6m
18Turkey74.5m
19Thailand69.9m
20Congo, DR69.6m
21France63.5m
World Avg36.0m
q=195.

Iran's population is predicted to rise to 84.44 million by 2030. This rise is despite a low fertility rate, meaning, that this country is helping to alleviate problems with growing population in neighbouring countries by accepting immigrants, very likely as a requirement of maintaining an active workforce. This country has a fertility rate of 1.60. The fertility rate is, in simple terms, the average amount of children that each woman has. The higher the figure, the quicker the population is growing, although, to calculate the rate you also need to take into account morbidity, i.e., the rate at which people die. If people live healthy and long lives and morbidity is low, then, 2.0 approximates to the replacement rate, which would keep the population stable. If all countries had such a fertility rate, population growth would end. The actual replacement rate in most developed countries is around 2.1.

4. Human Rights, Equality and Freedom

#equality #freedom #human_rights #iran #politics #tolerance

Iran is amongst the very worst places in the world at ensuring any human rights and freedoms, and it has severe cultural issues when it comes to tolerance and equality. Iran does worse than average in opposing gender inequality18, its Global Peace Index rating19, fighting corruption20, LGBT equality21 and in its nominal commitment to Human Rights22. And finally, it falls into the bottom 20 in fighting anti-semitic opinions23, commentary from Human Rights Watch24, supporting personal, civil & economic freedoms25, eliminating modern slavery26 and in supporting press freedom27. "Authorities [in 2017] continued to target journalists, online media activists, and human rights defenders in an ongoing crackdown"28. There is no religious freedom, or freedom of thought, in Iran29,28, with minorities being heavily persecuted, and broadcasted attacks on all religious groups that are not Shia Muslim, "with the Bahá'ís and Jews being the most frequent targets"30.

For tables, charts and commentary, see:

5. Religion and Beliefs

#bahá'í_faith #belief #buddhism #christianity #god #hinduism #iran #islam #judaism #religion

Disbelief In God (2007)31
Pos.Higher is better31
1Vietnam81
2Japan65
3Sweden64
...
52Mozambique5
53Zimbabwe4
54Namibia4
55Iran4
56Mexico4
57Portugal4
58Romania4
59Argentina4
World Avg9.9
q=137.

Data from the Pew Forum, a professional polling outfit, states that in 2010 the religious makeup of this country was as follows in the table below32:

Christian0.2%
Muslim99%
Hindu0.1%
Buddhist0.1%
Folk Religion0.1%
Jew0.1%
Unaffiliated0.1%

The CIA World Factbook has slightly different data, and states: Muslim (official) 98% (Shia 89%, Sunni 9%), other (includes Zoroastrian, Jewish, Christian, and Baha'i) 2%33.

Freedom of Religion and Belief: There is no religious freedom, or freedom of thought, in Iran29,28. When it comes to religious freedom and persecution, sociologists Grim & Finke place Iran into the worst category, along with just 13 other countries. Minorities are heavily persecuted and attacks against all religious communities that are not Shia Muslim are broadcasted on government-affiliated outlets, "with the Bahá'ís and Jews being the most frequent targets"30. The International Humanist and Ethical Union in 2012 documented the worst-possible forms of bias and prejudice, stemming from religious dogma and governmental intolerance of dissent.

Links:

6. The Internet

#internet #Iran #it_security #politics #the_internet

Freedom On The Internet (2012)34
Pos.Lower is better34
1Estonia10
2USA12
3Germany15
...
40Vietnam73
41Ethiopia75
42Myanmar (Burma)75
43Uzbekistan77
44Syria83
45China85
46Cuba86
47Iran90
World Avg46.7
q=47.
Internet Users (2016)35
Pos.Higher is better35
1Iceland100%
2Faroe Islands99%
3Norway98%
...
97Dominican Rep.52%
98Uzbekistan51%
99Armenia50%
100Iran49%
101Tunisia48%
102Moldova48%
103Paraguay47%
104Fiji47%
World Avg48.1%
q=201.
IPv6 Uptake (2017)36
Pos.Higher is better
Ratio36
1Belgium55.4
2Germany41.8
3Switzerland35.1
...
71Ukraine0.1
72Lithuania0.1
73Vanuatu0.1
74Iran0.1
75Zambia0.1
76Panama0.1
77Croatia0.1
78Costa Rica0.1
World Avg3.82
q=176.

IT Security (2013)37
Pos.Lower is better37
1Ireland0.11
2Luxembourg0.11
3Belize0.11
...
34Burkina Faso0.79
35Ivory Coast0.82
36Ethiopia0.84
37Iran0.85
38Laos0.86
39Spain0.88
40Kuwait0.93
41Saudi Arabia0.93
World Avg0.98
q=81.

Internet access has become an essential research tool. It facilitates an endless list of life improvements, from the ability to network and socialize without constraint, to access to a seemingly infinite repository of technical and procedural information on pretty much any task. The universal availability of data has sped up industrial development and personal learning at the national and personal level. Individuals can read any topic they wish regardless of the locality of expert teachers, and, entire nations can develop their technology and understanding of the world simply because they are now exposed to advanced societies and moral discourses online. Like every communications medium, the Internet has issues and causes a small range of problems, but these are insignificant compared to the advantages of having an online populace.

7. Public Health Issues

#alcohol #health #Iran #parenting #population #smoking #vaccines

Adolescent Birth Rate (2015)18
Pos.Lower is better
Per 100018
1N. Korea0.5
2S. Korea1.6
3Switzerland2.9
...
74India24.5
75Samoa25.0
76Rwanda26.3
77Iran26.7
78Turkey27.6
79Kazakhstan27.9
80Burundi28.3
81Mauritius28.5
World Avg47.9
q=185.
Alcohol Consumption (2010)38
Pos.Lower is better
Per Capita38
1Libya0.1
2Pakistan0.1
3Kuwait0.1
...
21Oman0.9
22Morocco0.9
23Brunei0.9
24Iran1.0
25Algeria1.0
26Eritrea1.1
27Mali1.1
28Syria1.2
World Avg6.2
q=191.
Food Aid, Health Contributions & WHO Compliance (2017)39
Pos.Lower is better
Rank39
1Sweden1
2Ireland2
3Denmark3
...
115Haiti115
116Malawi116
117Swaziland117
118Iran118
119Yemen119
120Seychelles120
121Guinea-Bissau121
122Argentina122
World Avg82.0
q=163.

Infant Immunizations 2011-2015 (2015)40
Pos.Higher is better
Avg %40
1Hungary99.0
2China99.0
3Uzbekistan98.9
...
9Sri Lanka98.4
10St Lucia98.2
11Bahrain98.2
12Iran98.1
13Finland98.1
14Saudi Arabia98.0
15Luxembourg98.0
16Oman98.0
World Avg88.3
q=194.
Smoking Rates (2014)41
Pos.Lower is better41
1Guinea 15
2Solomon Islands 26
3Kiribati 28
...
110UK 827
111Sweden 831
112Laos 836
113Iran 869
114Thailand 895
115Turkmenistan 925
116Chile 930
117Ireland 954
World Avg 819
q=182.

8. More Charts and Comparisons to Other Countries

Personal Charitability
(World Position, 2013-2016)
42
Pos.Lower is better42
1Myanmar (Burma)1.25
2USA1.5
3New Zealand3.5
...
32Libya29
33Puerto Rico29
34Cyprus31
35Iran32
36Sweden33
37Turkmenistan33.75
38Philippines34.75
q=156.
Intellectual Endeavours (2017)39
Pos.Lower is better
Rank39
1Ukraine1
2Czechia2
3Hungary3
...
87Benin87
88Pakistan88
89Seychelles89
90Iran90
91Antigua & Barbuda91
92Burkina Faso92
93Trinidad & Tobago93
q=163.
Creativity and Culture (2017)39
Pos.Lower is better
Rank39
1Belgium1
2Netherlands2
3Estonia3
...
154Venezuela154
155Yemen155
156Iraq156
157Iran157
158Gabon158
159Central African Rep.159
160Burundi160
q=163.
Peacekeeping and Security (2017)39
Pos.Lower is better
Rank39
1Samoa1
2S. Africa2
3Tunisia3
...
80Albania80
81Gabon81
82Russia82
83Iran83
84Serbia84
85Mexico85
86Cambodia86
q=163.
Refugees and UN Treaties (2017)39
Pos.Lower is better
Rank39
1Austria1
2Germany2
3Netherlands3
...
65Mozambique65
66Burkina Faso66
67Kyrgyzstan66
68Iran68
69Malawi69
70Latvia70
71Guatemala71
q=163.
Open Trading, Aid and Development (2017)39
Pos.Lower is better
Rank39
1Ireland1
2Denmark2
3Sweden3
...
145Samoa145
146Jamaica146
147Syria147
148Iran148
149India149
150Cameroon150
151Suriname151
q=163.
Research and Development (2016)
Pos.Higher is better
% RDP PPP
1S. Korea4.29
2Israel4.11
3Japan3.58
...
75Moldova0.35
76Ecuador0.34
77Bosnia & Herzegovina0.33
78Iran0.31
79Nepal0.30
80Kuwait0.30
81Pakistan0.29
82Zambia0.28
q=126.
Life Satisfaction (2011)43
Pos.Higher is better43
1Denmark7.8
2Norway7.6
3Netherlands7.6
...
98Libya4.9
99Palestine4.8
100Zimbabwe4.8
101Iran4.8
102Nigeria4.8
103Dominican Rep.4.7
104Tunisia4.7
105Azerbaijan4.7
q=150.
Gross National Income Per-Capita (2011)16
Pos.Higher is better
PPP $16
1Qatar$129 916
2Singapore$78 162
3Kuwait$76 075
...
64Turkey$18 705
65Mauritius$17 948
66Azerbaijan$16 413
67Iran$16 395
68Mexico$16 383
69Bulgaria$16 261
70Suriname$16 018
71Belarus$15 629
q=193.
Environmental Performance (2018)44
Pos.Higher is better44
1Switzerland87.4
2France84.0
3Denmark81.6
...
77UAE58.9
78Jamaica58.6
79Namibia58.5
80Iran58.2
81Belize57.8
82Philippines57.7
83Mongolia57.5
84Serbia57.5
q=180.
IQ (2006)45
Pos.Higher is better45
1Hong Kong108
2Singapore108
3S. Korea106
...
78Jordan84
79Afghanistan84
80UAE84
81Iran84
82Pakistan84
83Panama84
84Paraguay84
85Morocco84
q=138.

Current edition: 2013 May 01
Last Modified: 2018 Dec 30
http://www.humantruth.info/iran.html
Parent page: Compare International Statistics by Region and Continent

All #tags used on this page - click for more:

#alcohol #bahá'í_faith #belief #buddhism #charity #christianity #demographics #economics #equality #freedom #god #happiness #health #hinduism #human_development #human_rights #immigration #intelligence #internet #Iran #islam #it_security #judaism #life_expectancy #morals #overpopulation #parenting #politics #population #religion #research #science #smoking #the_environment #the_internet #tolerance #vaccines

Social Media

References: (What's this?)

Book Cover

The Good Country Index. Published by The Good Country Inc., New York, USA. Website: goodcountry.org. The Good Country Index gauges how well countries are doing in helping international development. Edition 1.2 (2017) has 35 criteria.

Anti-Defamation League. (ADL)
(2014) ADL Global 100, Executive Summary. Accessed on global100.adl.org on 2017 Jan 02. The numbers given are of those who state that racist stereotyped statements about Jews are true; they have to agree to 6 or more of the 11 statements to be counted. An example statements is "Jews are hated because of the way they behave". The data was collected from 53,100 interviews across 101 countries plus the West Bank and Gaza. The global average is 26%.

Charities Aid Foundation
World Giving Index. On www.cafonline.org.

CIA
(2013) World Factbook. The USA Government's Central Intelligence Agency (USA CIA) publishes The World Factbook, and the online version is frequently updated.

Crabtree, Vexen
(2019) "What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life" (2019). Accessed 2019 Jan 13.

The Fraser Institute
(2016) The Human Freedom Index. Published by The Cato Institute, The Fraser Institute and the Friedrich Naumann Foundation for Freedom. Covers data up to 2014. On www.fraserinstitute.org/.../human-freedom-index-2016.

Grim & Finke. Dr Grim is senior researcher in religion and world affairs at the Pew Research Center, Washington, D.C, USA. Finke is Professor of Sociology and Religious Studies at the Pennsylvania State University.
(2011) The Price of Freedom Denied. Subtitled: "Religious Persecution and Conflict in the Twenty-First Century". Amazon Kindle digital edition. Published by Cambridge University Press, UK. An e-book.

Human Rights Watch
(2018) World Report 2018. Covering the events of 2017.

IHEU. International Humanist and Ethical Union.
(2012) Freedom of Thought. A copy can be found on iheu.org/...Freedom of Thought 2012.pdf, accessed 2013 Oct 28.

Lonely Planet
(2014) The World. Subtitled: "A Traveller's Guide to the Planet". Published by Lonely Planet, London, UK. Each chapter is devoted to a specific country and includes a list of the most interesting places to visit and a few other cultural notes.

Lynn, Harvey & Nyborg
(2009) Average intelligence predicts atheism rates across 137 nations. Richard Lynn, John Harvey and Helmuth Nyborg. Published in Intelligence (2009 Jan/Feb) vol. 37 issue 1 pages 11-15. Online at www.sciencedirect.com, accessed 2009 Sep 15.

United Nations
(2011) Human Development Report. Published by the UN Development Programme. This edition had the theme of Sustainability and Equity: A Better Future for All. Available on hdr.undp.org/... UN Development Program: About the Human Development Index.
(2013) Human Development Report. Published by the UN Development Programme. This edition had the theme of The Rise of the South: Human Progress in a Diverse World. Available on hdr.undp.org/... UN Development Program: About the Human Development Index.
(2017) Human Development Report. Published by the UN Development Programme. Data for 2015. Available on hdr.undp.org/.

Walk Free Foundation
(2018) Global Slavery Index. Published on www.walkfreefoundation.org/.

World Health Organisation. (WHO)
(2014) Global Status Report on Alcohol and Health. A copy can be found on the WHO website. Accessed 2015 Jan 04. It "presents a comprehensive perspective on the global, regional and country consumption of alcohol, patterns of drinking, health consequences and policy responses in Member States" and was published in Geneva on 2014 May 12.

Footnotes

  1. World Bank data on data.worldbank.org accessed 2013 Nov 04.^
  2. UN (2011) .^
  3. UN (2017). Table 1.^
  4. UN (2017). Gross National Income, per person. Table 1.^
  5. International Standards Organisation (ISO) standard ISO3166-1, on www.iso.org, accessed 2013 May 01.^
  6. Top level domains (TLDs) are managed by the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) on www.iana.org.^
  7. According to ISO4217.^
  8. According to ITU-T.^
  9. CIA (2013). Https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/ir.html accessed 2014 Apr 27.^
  10. Lonely Planet (2014). Chapter "Iran".^
  11. UN (2017). Table 1. Lower is better.^
  12. "What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life" by Vexen Crabtree (2019)^
  13. UN (2017). Dashboard 2. Higher is worse. Old-age is counted as 65+, and ratio is of these to people ages 15-64. Projections are for 2030 based on medium-fertility variant of growth.^
  14. UN (2013). Table 11.^
  15. UN (2013). Table 14. Births per woman (2012), expressed as deviance (positive or negative) from the value of 2.0.^
  16. UN (2017). Table 1. Higher is better.^^
  17. UN (2013). Table 14.^
  18. UN (2017). Table 5. Lower is better.^^
  19. ^
  20. Transparency International Corruption Perceptions Index (2017). Accessed 2017 Dec 30. The scores given are the TI average for the years 2012-2016.^
  21. Sources:^
  22. Max possible=24. Total amount of treaties ratified. Nominal Commitment to Human Rights report published by UCL School of Public Policy, London, UK, at ucl.ac.uk/spp/research/research-projects/nchr accessed 2011 Apr 30.^
  23. ADL (2014). Lower is better.^
  24. Human Rights Watch (2018). Negative and positive comments have been added to create a score for each country covered in the report.^
  25. Fraser Institute, the (2016). Covers data for 2014.^
  26. Walk Free Foundation (2018) .^
  27. Reporters Without Borders Report "2013 World Press Freedom Index: Dashed hopes after spring" at fr.rsf.org/.../classement_2013_gb-bd.pdf accessed 2013 Feb.^
  28. Human Rights Watch (2018). p277-283.^^
  29. IHEU (2012) .^^
  30. Grim & Finke (2011). Chapter 5 "A Closer Look China, India, and Iran" digital location 3633.^^
  31. Zuckerman, P. (2007). Atheism: contemporary numbers and patterns. In M.Martin (Ed.), The Cambridge Companion to Atheism. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. In "Average intelligence predicts atheism rates across 137 nations" by Lynn et al. (2009)45.^
  32. Pew Forum (2012) publication "The Global Religious Landscape: A Report on the Size and Distribution of the World´s Major Religious Groups as of 2010" (2012 Dec 18) accessed 2013 May 01.^
  33. CIA (2013). Https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/ar.html accessed 2014 Apr 27.^
  34. Freedom House publication "Freedom on the Net 2012" at www.freedomhouse.org/.../FOTN%202012%20-%20Tables%20and%20Charts%20FINAL.pdf accessed 2013 Feb 05.^
  35. internetlivestats.com/internet-users-by-country accessed 2017 Mar 10.^
  36. % of internet access via native IPv6 compared to IPv4. As of 2017 Jun 20, from http://www.cidr-report.org. Accessed 2017 Jun 20.^
  37. "What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life: 3.4. Malware and Email Spam" by Vexen Crabtree (2019)^
  38. WHO (2014). Appendix 1. Alcohol Per Capita Consumption in liters of pure alcohol, 15+ years age population, consumed in 2010. Lower is better.^
  39. The Good Country Index (2017) .^^
  40. World Health Organisation data for 2011-2015 from 7 data series accessed 2017 May 21. Details in "Immunizations: International Statistics on Vaccines and the Autism Scare: 3. World Health Organisation Statistics" by Vexen Crabtree (2017).^
  41. Annual Cigarette Consumption Per Adult (age 15 and above) - compustible cigarettes. Euromonitor International (2014), via tobaccoatlas.org/topic/cigarette-use-globally/ . Accessed 2017 Jun 20.^
  42. Charities Aid Foundation. Average ranking across years 2013-2016. Lower is better.^
  43. UN (2013). Table 9. Higher is better. Table 9. The UN's data is the latest available from a range of data from 2007-2011.^
  44. Yale University Center for Environmental Law & Policy 2018 EPI.^
  45. Lynn, Harvey & Nyborg (2009) .^

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