The Human Truth Foundation

Cuba (Republic of Cuba)

By Vexen Crabtree 2013

#cuba

Cuba
Republic of Cuba
StatusIndependent State
Social and Moral Index62nd best
CapitalHavana
Land Area 106 440km21
LocationNorth America, The Americas, The Caribbean
Population11.3m2
Life Expectancy79.57yrs (2017)3
GNI$7 455 (2017)4
ISO3166-1 CodesCU, CUB, 1925
Internet Domain.cu6
CurrencyPeso (CUP)7
Telephone+538

1. Overview

The native Amerindian population of Cuba began to decline after the European discovery of the island by Christopher COLUMBUS in 1492 and following its development as a Spanish colony during the next several centuries. Large numbers of African slaves were imported to work the coffee and sugar plantations, and Havana became the launching point for the annual treasure fleets bound for Spain from Mexico and Peru. Spanish rule eventually provoked an independence movement and occasional rebellions that were harshly suppressed. US intervention during the Spanish-American War in 1898 assisted the Cubans in overthrowing Spanish rule. The Treaty of Paris established Cuban independence from the US in 1902 after which the island experienced a string of governments mostly dominated by the military and corrupt politicians. Fidel CASTRO led a rebel army to victory in 1959; his iron rule held the subsequent regime together for nearly five decades. He stepped down as president in February 2008 in favor of his younger brother Raul CASTRO. Cuba's Communist revolution, with Soviet support, was exported throughout Latin America and Africa during the 1960s, 1970s, and 1980s. The country faced a severe economic downturn in 1990 following the withdrawal of former Soviet subsidies worth $4 billion to $6 billion annually. Cuba at times portrays the US embargo, in place since 1961, as the source if its difficulties. Illicit migration to the US - using homemade rafts, alien smugglers, air flights, or via the US's southwest border - is a continuing problem. The US Coast Guard interdicted 1,275 Cuban nationals attempting to cross the Straits of Florida in 2012.

CIA's The World Factbook (2013)9

Book CoverTrapped in a time-warp, Cuba is like a prince in a poor man´s coat. Behind the sometimes shabby facades of communist but culturally rich Cuba, gold dust lingers. Cuba is a country with no historical precedents: economically poor, but culturally rich; visibly mildewed, but architecturally magnificent; infuriating, yet at the same time, strangely uplifting.

Halfway between the US in the north and Latin America in the south, Cuba has long struggled to work out where it fits in. Yet, as a former Spanish colony liberally colored with French, African, American, Jamaican, and indigenous Taíno influences, there´s no denying the breadth of its historical heritage. When Castro pressed the pause button on economic development in the 1960s, he inadvertently saved many endangered traditions and important historical heirlooms.

It is the Cubans themselves who have kept the country alive as the infrastructure crumbled: survivors and improvisers, poets and dreamers, cynics and sages. It is also they who have ensured that Cuba continues to be the fascinating, perplexing, paradoxical nation it is.

"The World" by Lonely Planet (2014)10

2. Cuba National and Social Development

#economics #human_development

UN HDI (2016)11
Pos.Lower is better
Rank11
1Norway1
2Australia2
3Switzerland2
...
65Trinidad & Tobago65
66Costa Rica66
67Serbia66
68Cuba68
69Iran69
70Georgia70
71Turkey71
72Venezuela71
World Avg94.3
q=188.
Gross National Income Per-Capita (2011)12
Pos.Higher is better
PPP $12
1Qatar$129 916
2Singapore$78 162
3Kuwait$76 075
...
113Paraguay$8 182
114El Salvador$7 732
115Swaziland$7 522
116Cuba$7 455
117Belize$7 375
118Ukraine$7 361
119Morocco$7 195
120Bhutan$7 081
World Avg$17 240
q=193.
Social & Moral
Development Index
13,14
Pos.Lower is better
Avg Rank13,14
1Taiwan30.2
2Denmark30.5
3Norway30.9
...
59Barbados74.5
60Ukraine75.2
61Armenia76.1
62Cuba76.2
63Macedonia76.4
64Trinidad & Tobago76.4
65Tunisia76.9
66Panama76.9
World Avg86.4
q=195.

The United Nations produces an annual Human Development Report which includes the Human Development Index. The factors taken into account include life expectancy, education and schooling and Gross National Income (GNI) amongst many others..

The Social and Moral Development Index concentrates on moral issues and human rights, violence, public health, equality, tolerance, freedom and effectiveness in climate change mitigation and environmentalism, and on some technological issues. A country scores higher for achieving well in those areas, and for sustaining that achievement in the long term. Those countries towards the top of this index can truly said to be setting good examples and leading humankind onwards into a bright, humane, and free future. See: Which are the Best Countries in the World? The Social and Moral Development Index.

3. Cuba's Demographics

#birth_control #demographics #health #immigration #life_expectancy #longevity #migration #overpopulation #population

Population:

Cuba's population is predicted to fall to 10 983 000 by 2030. Developed countries with falling populations face a pension's crises, whereby an incresingly ageing population must be cared for by fewer and fewer workers. Economic stability can be maintained by increasing foreign workers from younger countries. This country has a fertility rate of 1.45. The fertility rate is, in simple terms, the average amount of children that each woman has. The higher the figure, the quicker the population is growing, although, to calculate the rate you also need to take into account morbidity, i.e., the rate at which people die. If people live healthy and long lives and morbidity is low, then, 2.0 approximates to the replacement rate, which would keep the population stable. If all countries had such a fertility rate, population growth would end. The actual replacement rate in most developed countries is around 2.1.

Population (2018)2
Pos.
Population2
1China1.4b
2India1.4b
3USA327.1m
...
77Benin11.5m
78Belgium11.5m
79Bolivia11.4m
80Cuba11.3m
81Burundi11.2m
82Haiti11.1m
83S. Sudan11.0m
84Czechia10.7m
World Avg39.0m
q=195.
Life Expectancy (2015)12
Pos.Higher is better
Years12
1Hong Kong84.16
2Japan83.68
3Italy83.34
...
31Cyprus80.33
32Liechtenstein80.16
33Costa Rica79.61
34Cuba79.57
35Lebanon79.54
36USA79.22
37Brunei79.02
38Czechia78.78
World Avg71.27
q=190.
Fertility Rate (2013)15
Pos.2.0 is best15
1N. Korea2.00
2Brunei1.99
3St Vincent & Grenadines2.01
...
89Italy1.47
90Cyprus1.46
91Moldova1.46
92Cuba1.45
93India2.55
94Germany1.44
95Laos2.58
96Malaysia2.58
World Avg2.81
q=180.
Old-Age Dependency Ratio (2016)16
Pos.Lower is better
Per 10016
1Uganda04.3
2Mali04.5
3Chad04.7
...
156Barbados35.6
157Lithuania36.0
158Czechia36.1
159Cuba36.2
160Poland36.3
161Singapore36.5
162Latvia36.7
163Sweden37.0
World Avg18.3
q=185.

Migration:

Immigrants (2017)17
Pos.
%17
1UAE88.4%
2Kuwait75.5%
3Qatar65.2%
...
188N. Korea0.2%
189Sri Lanka0.2%
190Myanmar (Burma)0.1%
191Madagascar0.1%
192Indonesia0.1%
193Cuba0.1%
194Vietnam0.1%
195China0.1%
World Avg9.4%
q=195.
Emigrants (2010)18
Pos.
%18
1Dominica104.8%
2Palestine68.4%
3Samoa67.3%
...
57Jordan11.3%
58Kyrgyzstan11.2%
59Tajikistan11.2%
60Cuba10.9%
61Mauritius10.9%
62Greece10.8%
63Mexico10.7%
64Andorra10.7%
World Avg11.5%
q=192.

4. Human Rights, Equality & Tolerance

#cuba #human_rights

Cuba is one of those countries where 'compliance with international human rights standards would mean removal of those in power'19. When it comes to press and media freedom, Cuba is one of the worst 5 countries in the world20.

For tables, charts and commentary, see:

5. Cuba's Health

#alcohol #birth_control #Cuba #demographics #health #life_expectancy #longevity #mental_health #obesity #overpopulation #parenting #population #smoking #suicide #vaccines

Health (2020)21,22
Pos.Lower is better
Avg Rank21,22
1Hong Kong18.0
2Singapore41.5
3Maldives43.3
...
34Iceland76.0
35Greece76.1
36Netherlands76.4
37Cuba76.4
38UAE76.6
39Antigua & Barbuda77.7
40Myanmar (Burma)78.3
41Belgium78.4
42Eritrea78.4
World Avg92.3
q=187.

The countries with the best overall approach to public health, in terms of both public policy and individual lifestyle choices, are Hong Kong, Singapore and The Maldives21. These countries are worth emulating. And, although often through no fault of the average citizen, the worst countries are S. Sudan, Nigeria and Equatorial Guinea21.

The data sets used to calculate points for each country are its average life expectancy, its alcohol consumption rate, its fertility rate, its smoking rate, its suicide rate, its food aid and health contributions and WHO compliance, the prevalence of overweight adults, its adolescent birth rate and its immunizations take-up. The regions with the best average results per country are Scandinavia, Asia and Europe21, whereas the worst are Africa, Micronesia and Polynesia21.

Health:

Cuba does relatively well in encouraging good health, compared to many other countries. Cuba comes in the best 20 in its fertility rate15 (the best in The Americas) and in its immunizations take-up23 (one of the highest in The Americas). It does better than average when it comes to its average life expectancy12 and in its alcohol consumption rate24. Cuba does not succeed in everything, however. It does worse than average when it comes to its suicide rate25 (amongst the highest in The Americas), its adolescent birth rate26 (still low for The Americas) and in its smoking rate27 (the highest in The Americas). The prevalence of overweight adults has increased by 14% over the past 40 years.
Life Expectancy (2015)12
Pos.Higher is better
Years12
1Hong Kong84.16
2Japan83.68
3Italy83.34
...
31Cyprus80.33
32Liechtenstein80.16
33Costa Rica79.61
34Cuba79.57
35Lebanon79.54
36USA79.22
37Brunei79.02
38Czechia78.78
World Avg71.27
q=190.
Alcohol Consumption (2016)24
Pos.Lower is better
Per Capita24
1Bangladesh0.0
2Kuwait0.0
3Libya0.0
...
90Haiti5.8
91Colombia5.8
92Nauru6.0
93Cuba6.1
94Kyrgyzstan6.2
95Guyana6.3
96Peru6.3
97Bosnia & Herzegovina6.4
World Avg6.2
q=189.
Fertility Rate (2013)15
Pos.2.0 is best15
1N. Korea2.00
2Brunei1.99
3St Vincent & Grenadines2.01
...
89Italy1.47
90Cyprus1.46
91Moldova1.46
92Cuba1.45
93India2.55
94Germany1.44
95Laos2.58
96Malaysia2.58
World Avg2.81
q=180.
Smoking Rates (2014)27
Pos.Higher is worse27
182Montenegro4 125
181Belarus3 831
180Lebanon3 023
...
148Poland1 396
147Netherlands1 396
146Saudi Arabia1 395
145Cuba1 392
144Georgia1 378
143Denmark1 378
142Argentina1 359
141Israel1 346
World Avg 819
q=182.
Suicide Rate (2013)25
Pos.
Per 100k25
1Haiti0
2Grenada0
3Egypt0.1
...
59Norway23.8
60Denmark23.9
61Germany23.9
62Cuba24.5
63Romania24.5
64Bulgaria25
65Sweden25.5
66Slovakia25.7
World Avg20.93
q=91.
Overweight Adults (2016)28
Pos.Lower is better
%28
1Vietnam18.3
2India19.7
3Bangladesh20.0
...
123Norway58.3
124Poland58.3
125Ukraine58.4
126Cuba58.5
127Italy58.5
128Luxembourg58.7
129Panama58.8
130Suriname58.9
World Avg49.0
q=191.

Children's Health:

Adolescent Birth Rate (2015)26
Pos.Lower is better
Per 100026
1N. Korea0.5
2S. Korea1.6
3Switzerland2.9
...
100Antigua & Barbuda44.8
101Fiji44.8
102S. Africa45.5
103Cuba45.6
104Suriname46.1
105Timor-Leste (E. Timor)46.6
106Chile47.8
107Solomon Islands48.4
World Avg47.9
q=185.
Infant Immunizations 2011-2015 (2015)23
Pos.Higher is better
Avg %23
1Hungary99.0
2China99.0
3Uzbekistan98.9
...
15Luxembourg98.0
16Oman98.0
17Antigua & Barbuda98.0
18Cuba97.9
19Belgium97.8
20Thailand97.8
21Mauritius97.6
22Fiji97.6
World Avg88.3
q=194.

6. Cuba's Modernity and Learning

#education #intelligence #modernity #politics #research #science #technology #the_internet

Modernity and Learning (2020)29
Pos.Lower is better
Avg Rank29
1Finland8.0
2Belgium9.1
3Denmark10.0
...
89Seychelles69.8
90Morocco70.0
91Grenada70.5
92Cuba71.2
93Jordan71.8
94Lebanon71.9
95Mauritius72.0
96Venezuela72.3
97Belize72.7
World Avg69.0
q=180.

Modernity and Education:

Research and Development (2016)
Pos.Higher is better
% RDP PPP
1S. Korea4.2930
2Israel4.1130
3Japan3.5830
...
61Cyprus0.4831
62Costa Rica0.4732
63Qatar0.4733
64Cuba0.4731
65Macedonia0.4431
66Puerto Rico0.4431
67Jordan0.4334
68Mozambique0.4235
World Avg0.84
q=126.
Secondary Education (2018)36
Pos.Higher is better36
1Luxembourg100.0%
2Estonia100.0%
3Austria100.0%
...
47Bahamas88.4%
48Ireland88.3%
49Netherlands88.3%
50Cuba87.4%
51Poland85.3%
52Belgium84.8%
53UK84.5%
54Jordan84.0%
World Avg63.0%
q=169.
Length of Schooling (2018)37
Pos.Higher is better
Years37
1Australia22.1
2Belgium19.7
3Finland19.3
...
68Slovakia14.5
69Fiji14.4
70Brunei14.4
71Cuba14.4
72Tonga14.3
73Mexico14.3
74Romania14.3
75Luxembourg14.2
World Avg13.2
q=193.
IQ (2006)38
Pos.Higher is better38
1Hong Kong108
2Singapore108
3S. Korea106
...
72Yemen85
73Trinidad & Tobago85
74Peru85
75Cuba85
76Venezuela84
77Colombia84
78Jordan84
79Afghanistan84
World Avg85.6
q=138.

Technology and Information:

The government controls virtually all media outlets in Cuba and restricts access to outside information. A small number of [independent] journalists and bloggers... manage to write articles for websites or blogs, or publish tweets. The government routinely blocks access within Cuba to these websites and only a fraction of Cubans can read independent websites and blogs because of the high cost of, and limited access to, the internet. In September 2017, Cuba announced it would gradually extend the home internet service to all the provinces in the country.

"World Report 2018" by Human Rights Watch (2018)39

Internet Users (2016)40
Pos.Higher is better40
1Iceland100%
2Faroe Islands99%
3Norway98%
...
127India35%
128Kyrgyzstan34%
129Egypt33%
130Cuba32%
131Micronesia31%
132Vanuatu31%
133Syria30%
134Sri Lanka29%
World Avg48.1%
q=201.
Freedom On The Internet (2012)41
Pos.Lower is better41
1Estonia10
2USA12
3Germany15
...
40Vietnam73
41Ethiopia75
42Myanmar (Burma)75
43Uzbekistan77
44Syria83
45China85
46Cuba86
47Iran90
World Avg46.7
q=47.
IPv6 Uptake (2017)42
Pos.Higher is better
Ratio42
1Belgium55.4
2Germany41.8
3Switzerland35.1
...
166Lebanon0.0
167St Lucia0.0
168Dominica0.0
169Cuba0.0
170St Vincent & Grenadines0.0
171Montenegro0.0
172Libya0.0
173Jamaica0.0
World Avg3.82
q=176.

7. National Culture

#corruption #politics

Corruption (2012-2016)43
Pos.Higher is better
Avg Score43
1Denmark90.8
2New Zealand90.6
3Finland89.4
...
58Bahrain48.4
59Croatia48.4
60Saudi Arabia47.4
61Cuba46.8
62Oman45.8
63Ghana45.8
64Turkey45.4
65Lesotho45.2
World Avg43.05
q=176.

8. Peace Versus Instability

#human_development #peace #politics

Global Peace Index (2012)44
Pos.Lower is better44
1Iceland1.11
2New Zealand1.24
3Denmark1.24
...
67Albania1.93
68Macedonia1.94
69Guyana1.94
70Cuba1.95
71Ukraine1.95
72Tunisia1.96
73Cyprus1.96
74Gambia1.96
World Avg2.02
q=157.

9. The Natural Environment

#biodiversity #climate_change #over-exploitation #the_environment

Forest Area Change 1990-2015 (2015)45
Pos.Higher is better
%45
1Iceland205.6
2Bahrain144.4
3Uruguay131.3
...
7Vietnam65.6
8Ireland62.2
9Tunisia61.9
10Cuba56.9
11Cape Verde55.7
12Rwanda50.9
13Bhutan34.7
14Azerbaijan34.6
World Avg02.8
q=184.
Environmental Performance (2018)46
Pos.Higher is better46
1Switzerland87.4
2France84.0
3Denmark81.6
...
52Russia63.8
53Brunei63.6
54Morocco63.5
55Cuba63.4
56Panama62.7
57Tonga62.5
58Tunisia62.4
59Azerbaijan62.3
World Avg56.4
q=180.
Convention on Biological Diversity
Pos.Earlier is better
Signed
1China1993 Dec 29
2Guinea1993 Dec 29
3Cook Islands1993 Dec 29
...
48Paraguay1994 May 25
49Hungary1994 May 25
50Brazil1994 May 29
51Cuba1994 Jun 06
52Namibia1997 Aug 14
53Sri Lanka1994 Jun 21
54Ethiopia1994 Jul 04
55Dominica1994 Jul 05
World Avg1899 Dec 30
q=197.

10. Economic Inequality and Poverty

#health #inequality #life_expectancy

Inequality in Life Expectancy (2019)47
Pos.Higher is worse47
184Chad40.90
183Central African Rep.40.10
182Sierra Leone39.00
...
42Latvia5.40
41Bosnia & Herzegovina5.40
40UAE5.20
39Cuba5.10
38Slovakia5.00
37Serbia4.90
36Malta4.60
35Canada4.60
World Avg14.59
q=184.

11. Religion and Beliefs

#belief #buddhism #christianity #god #hinduism #islam #judaism #religion

Disbelief In God (2007)48
Pos.Higher is better
%48
1Vietnam81
2Japan65
3Sweden64
...
9Netherlands42
10Germany42
11UK42
12Cuba40
13Slovenia35
14Bulgaria34
15Hungary32
16Norway31
World Avg9.9
q=137.

Data from the Pew Forum, a professional polling outfit, states that in 2010 the religious makeup of this country was as follows in the table below49:

Christian59.2%
Muslim0.1%
Hindu0.2%
Buddhist0.1%
Folk Religion17.4%
Jew0.1%
Unaffiliated23%

The CIA World Factbook has slightly different data, and states: nominally Roman Catholic 85%, Protestant, Jehovah's Witnesses, Jewish, Santeria. note: prior to CASTRO assuming power50.

Links: