Which Countries Do the Most Research and Development?

#countries #Denmark #Finland #Israel #Japan #Korea,_South #research_and_development #Sweden #Taiwan

R & D
Country% RDP PPP
1Korea, S.4.291
2Israel4.111
3Japan3.581
4Finland3.171
5Sweden3.161
6Denmark3.051
7Taiwan3.011
8Austria3.002
9Switzerland2.963
10Germany2.841

Research and Development is a long-term boost to Human understanding: science improves our knowledge of the world, and new products such as better batteries for devices can improve our quality of lives. The world needs discoveries to help combat climate change, mitigate starvation and fight disease. The ten countries that commit most to Research and Development (as a percent of their GDP PPP) are mostly predictable; Japan, Finland, Sweden and Denmark top most developmental indices of any kind. Also in the list can be found technologically savvy South Korea and Taiwan and a few well-developed European countries. The only surprise (for some) is Israel, sitting 2nd in the list.

The Social and Moral Development Index is a formulaic aggregation of many factors. It concentrates on moral issues and human rights, violence, equality, tolerance, freedom and effectiveness in climate change mitigation and environmentalism. A country scores higher for achieving well in those areas, and for sustaining that achievement in the long term. Those countries towards the top of this index can truly said to be setting good examples and leading humankind onwards into a bright, humane, and free future. See: "What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life" by Vexen Crabtree (2013). This Research and Development data forms one of the inputs into the Social and Moral Development Index calculations.

This data comes from the UN's World Bank (via UNESCO) and from the OECD - I've used whichever data is the latest. Where both institutions produce data for the same countries, their values are generally very similar. In addition, their definitions of R&D are also similar, as below:

Gross domestic spending on R&D is defined as the total expenditure (current and capital) on R&D carried out by all resident companies, research institutes, university and government laboratories, etc., in a country. It includes R&D funded from abroad, but excludes domestic funds for R&D performed outside the domestic economy.

OECD (2016)4

Expenditures for research and development are current and capital expenditures (both public and private) on creative work undertaken systematically to increase knowledge, including knowledge of humanity, culture, and society, and the use of knowledge for new applications. R&D covers basic research, applied research, and experimental development.

World Bank (2012)5

Full results of all countries' Research and Development Expenditure as a Percent of GDP PPP:

Country% RDP PPP
1Korea, S.4.291
2Israel4.111
3Japan3.581
4Finland3.171
5Sweden3.161
6Denmark3.051
7Taiwan3.011
8Austria3.002
9Switzerland2.963
10Germany2.841
11USA2.746
12Belgium2.461
13Slovenia2.391
14France2.261
15Australia2.257
16Czech Rep.2.001
17Singapore2.006
18Netherlands1.971
19Iceland1.891
20Norway1.701
21UK1.701
22Canada1.611
23Ireland1.521
24Estonia1.431
25Hungary1.371
26Italy1.291
27Portugal1.281
28Luxembourg1.261
29Spain1.221
30Russia1.191
31New Zealand1.176
32Brazil1.153
33Malaysia1.133
34Turkey1.011
35Lithuania0.958
36Poland0.941
37Slovakia0.891
38Malta0.898
39Greece0.841
40India0.827
41Croatia0.818
42Kenya0.799
43Ukraine0.768
Country% RDP PPP
44Morocco0.739
45Serbia0.738
46Hong Kong0.733
47S. Africa0.733
48Tunisia0.683
49Egypt0.688
50Belarus0.678
51Mali0.669
52Bulgaria0.658
53Ethiopia0.618
54Latvia0.608
55Argentina0.586
56Gabon0.5810
57Senegal0.549
58Mexico0.541
59UAE0.497
60Uganda0.489
61Cyprus0.488
62Costa Rica0.477
63Cuba0.478
64Qatar0.473
65Puerto Rico0.448
66Macedonia0.448
67Jordan0.4311
68Mozambique0.429
69Thailand0.397
70Chile0.381
71Romania0.381
72Montenegro0.388
73Tanzania0.389
74Ghana0.389
75Moldova0.358
76Ecuador0.347
77Bosnia & Herzegovina0.338
78Iran0.319
79Nepal0.309
80Kuwait0.308
81Pakistan0.298
82Zambia0.2811
83Botswana0.253
84Armenia0.248
85Sudan0.2312
86Mongolia0.238
Country% RDP PPP
87Uruguay0.233
88Bermuda0.238
89Nigeria0.2213
90Togo0.223
91Azerbaijan0.218
92Burkina Faso0.2010
93Vietnam0.197
94Panama0.187
95Mauritius0.183
96Kazakhstan0.178
97Oman0.178
98Kyrgyzstan0.167
99Sri Lanka0.169
100Bolivia0.1610
101Albania0.1511
102Namibia0.149
103Georgia0.1314
104Gambia0.137
105Tajikistan0.128
106Burundi0.127
107Myanmar (Burma)0.1115
108Madagascar0.117
109Philippines0.1113
110Peru0.1012
111Paraguay0.093
112Congo, DR0.0810
113Indonesia0.088
114Saudi Arabia0.0710
115Algeria0.0712
116Cape Verde0.077
117Macau0.058
118Trinidad & Tobago0.053
119Honduras0.0415
120Colombia0.048
121Bahrain0.048
122Guatemala0.043
123China0.038
124El Salvador0.033
125Iraq0.037
126Lesotho0.017

By Vexen Crabtree 2016 Nov 01
http://www.humantruth.info/research_and_development.html
Parent page: Vexing International Issues

References: (What's this?)

Crabtree, Vexen
(2013) "What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life" (2013). Accessed 2016 Nov 01.

OECD
(2016) Research and development (R&D) - Gross domestic spending on R&D. Data from data.oecd.org. Accessed 2016 Sep 28.

UNESCO
Research and Development and a Percent of GDP PPP. Data from unesdoc.unesco.org. Accessed 2016 Sep 30.

World Bank
Research and Development and a Percent of GDP PPP. Data from databank.worldbank.org. Accessed 2016 Sep 29.

Footnotes

  1. OECD (2016) data for year 2014.^
  2. OECD (2016) data for year 2015.^
  3. World Bank data for year 2012.^
  4. OECD (2016) on "Research and development (R&D) - Gross domestic spending on R&D - OECD Data", oecd.org accessed 2016 Sep 28.^
  5. World Bank (2012) on databank.worldbank.org. Accessed 2016 Sep 29.^
  6. OECD (2016) data for year 2013.^
  7. World Bank data for year 2011.^
  8. World Bank data for year 2013.^
  9. World Bank data for year 2010.^
  10. World Bank data for year 2009.^
  11. World Bank data for year 2008.^
  12. UNESCO data for year 2007.^
  13. World Bank data for year 2007.^
  14. World Bank data for year 2014.^
  15. World Bank data for year 2000.^

© 2016 Vexen Crabtree. All rights reserved.