The Human Truth Foundation

Lebanon (Lebanese Republic)

By Vexen Crabtree 2013


Comments:
FB, LJ

#charity #economics #happiness #intelligence #lebanon #morals #the_environment

Lebanon
Lebanese Republic
StatusIndependent State
CapitalBeirut
Land Area 10 230km21
LocationAsia, Mediterranean, Middle East
Population4.3m (2011)2
Life Expectancy79.54yrs (2017)3
GNI$13 312 (2017)4
ISO3166-1 CodesLB, LBN, 4225
Internet Domain.lb6
CurrencyPound (LBP)7
Telephone+9618

1. Overview

Following World War I, France acquired a mandate over the northern portion of the former Ottoman Empire province of Syria. The French separated out the region of Lebanon in 1920, and granted this area independence in 1943. A lengthy civil war (1975-90) devastated the country, but Lebanon has since made progress toward rebuilding its political institutions. Under the Ta'if Accord - the blueprint for national reconciliation - the Lebanese established a more equitable political system, particularly by giving Muslims a greater voice in the political process while institutionalizing sectarian divisions in the government. Since the end of the war, Lebanon has conducted several successful elections. Most militias have been reduced or disbanded, with the exception of Hizballah, designated by the US State Department as a Foreign Terrorist Organization, and Palestinian militant groups. During Lebanon's civil war, the Arab League legitimized in the Ta'if Accord Syria's troop deployment, numbering about 16,000 based mainly east of Beirut and in the Bekaa Valley. Israel's withdrawal from southern Lebanon in May 2000 and the passage in September 2004 of UNSCR 1559 - a resolution calling for Syria to withdraw from Lebanon and end its interference in Lebanese affairs - encouraged some Lebanese groups to demand that Syria withdraw its forces. The assassination of former Prime Minister Rafiq HARIRI and 22 others in February 2005 led to massive demonstrations in Beirut against the Syrian presence ("the Cedar Revolution"), and Syria withdrew the remainder of its military forces in April 2005. In May-June 2005, Lebanon held its first legislative elections since the end of the civil war free of foreign interference, handing a majority to the bloc led by Sa'ad HARIRI, the slain prime minister's son. In July 2006, Hizballah kidnapped two Israeli soldiers leading to a 34-day conflict with Israel in which approximately 1,200 Lebanese civilians were killed. UNSCR 1701 ended the war in August 2006, and Lebanese Armed Forces (LAF) deployed throughout the country for the first time in decades, charged with securing Lebanon's borders against weapons smuggling and maintaining a weapons-free zone in south Lebanon with the help of the UN Interim Force in Lebanon (UNIFIL). The LAF in May-September 2007 battled Sunni extremist group Fatah al-Islam in the Nahr al-Barid Palestinian refugee camp, winning a decisive victory, but destroying the camp and displacing 30,000 Palestinian residents. Lebanese politicians in November 2007 were unable to agree on a successor to Emile LAHUD when he stepped down as president, creating a political vacuum until the election of LAF Commander Gen. Michel SULAYMAN in May 2008 and the formation of a new unity government in July 2008. Legislative elections in June 2009 again produced victory for the bloc led by Sa'ad HARIRI, but a period of prolonged negotiation over the composition of the cabinet ensued. A national unity government was finally formed in November 2009 and approved by the National Assembly the following month. Inspired by the popular revolts that began in late 2010 against dictatorships across the Middle East and North Africa, marches and demonstrations in Lebanon were directed instead against sectarian politics. Although the protests gained some traction, they were limited in size and unsuccessful in changing the system. Opposition politicians collapsed the national unity government under Prime Minister Sa'ad HARIRI in February 2011. After several months in caretaker status, the government named Najib MIQATI Prime Minister.

CIA's The World Factbook (2013)9

Book CoverLebanon is one of the most vibrant and most complicated societies on earth, grafted onto one of the Middle East´s most beautiful regions. Its name is a byword for conflict but Lebanon, the original land of milk and honey, is a friendly, welcoming and culturally rich country with one slipper in the Arab world and one Jimmy Choo planted firmly in the West. Its mosaic of peoples has coexisted here for centuries, often at war, more often at peace. It´s home to a bubbling-hot nightlife in Beirut, a notorious Hezbollah (Party of God) headquarters in backwater Baalbek, a fistful of flash ski resorts, and a dozen cramped Palestinian refugee camps.

Hike the Qadisha Valley and it´s hard to imagine that a conflict has ever existed here; wander past the pockmarked shell of Beirut´s Holiday Inn and you´ll wonder if there will ever be lasting peace. Lebanon is chaotic and fascinating - scarred by decades of civil war, invasions and terrorist attacks, yet blessed with mountain vistas, ancient ruins and a people who are resilient, indomitable and renowned for their hospitality. Heed travel warnings but don´t miss the compelling and confusing wonders of Lebanon.

"The World" by Lonely Planet (2014)10

2. Lebanon National and Social Development

#human_development

UN HDI (2016)11
Pos.Lower is better
Rank11
1Norway1
2Australia2
3Switzerland2
...
73Sri Lanka73
74St Kitts & Nevis74
75Albania75
76Lebanon76
77Mexico77
78Azerbaijan78
79Brazil79
80Grenada79
World Avg94.3
q=188.
Social & Moral
Development Index
12
Pos.Higher is better
Points12
1Denmark84.0
2Sweden83.9
3Finland83.5
...
106China50.5
107India50.5
108Cape Verde50.4
109Lebanon50.1
110Bahrain50.0
111Paraguay49.8
112Senegal49.6
113Ghana49.6
World Avg53.8
q=198.

The United Nations produces an annual Human Development Report which includes the Human Development Index. The factors taken into account include life expectancy, education and schooling and Gross National Income (GNI) amongst many others..

The Social and Moral Development Index concentrates on moral issues and human rights, violence, public health, equality, tolerance, freedom and effectiveness in climate change mitigation and environmentalism, and on some technological issues. A country scores higher for achieving well in those areas, and for sustaining that achievement in the long term. Those countries towards the top of this index can truly said to be setting good examples and leading humankind onwards into a bright, humane, and free future. See: What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life.

3. Population and Demographics

#demographics #health #immigration #Lebanon #life_expectancy #overpopulation #population

Old-Age Dependency Ratio (2016)13
Pos.Lower is better
Per 10013
1Uganda04.3
2Mali04.5
3Chad04.7
...
120Brazil19.9
121Argentina20.3
122Jamaica21.0
123Lebanon21.1
124Trinidad & Tobago21.9
125Bahamas22.4
126Costa Rica22.6
127Israel22.9
World Avg18.3
q=185.
Emigrants (2010)14
Pos.
%14
1Dominica104.8
2Palestine68.4
3Samoa67.3
...
39Belize16.1
40Azerbaijan16.0
41Bulgaria16.0
42Lebanon15.6
43Equatorial Guinea14.9
44Seychelles14.6
45New Zealand14.5
46Ukraine14.4
World Avg11.5
q=192.
Fertility Rate (2013)15
Pos.2.0 is best15
1N. Korea2.00
2Brunei1.99
3St Vincent & Grenadines2.01
...
35Guyana2.21
36Netherlands1.79
37Vietnam1.77
38Lebanon1.77
39Mexico2.25
40Sri Lanka2.26
41Armenia1.74
42Kuwait2.27
World Avg2.81
q=180.

Immigrants (2010)14
Pos.
%14
1Qatar86.5
2Monaco71.6
3UAE70.0
...
24Ireland19.6
25Kazakhstan19.5
26Gabon18.9
27Lebanon17.8
28Cyprus17.5
29Gambia16.6
30Croatia15.9
31Austria15.6
World Avg9.2
q=192.
Life Expectancy (2015)16
Pos.Higher is better
Years16
1Hong Kong84.16
2Japan83.68
3Italy83.34
...
32Liechtenstein80.16
33Costa Rica79.61
34Cuba79.57
35Lebanon79.54
36USA79.22
37Brunei79.02
38Czechia78.78
39Qatar78.32
World Avg71.27
q=190.
Population (2012)17
Pos.The Overpopulation of the Earth17
1China1.4b
2India1.3b
3USA315.8m
...
121New Zealand4.5m
122Croatia4.4m
123Georgia4.3m
124Lebanon4.3m
125Palestine4.3m
126Liberia4.2m
127Congo, (Brazzaville)4.2m
128Bosnia & Herzegovina3.7m
World Avg36.0m
q=195.

Lebanon's population is predicted to rise to 4.701 million by 2030. This rise is despite a low fertility rate, meaning, that this country is helping to alleviate problems with growing population in neighbouring countries by accepting immigrants, very likely as a requirement of maintaining an active workforce. This country has a fertility rate of 1.77. The fertility rate is, in simple terms, the average amount of children that each woman has. The higher the figure, the quicker the population is growing, although, to calculate the rate you also need to take into account morbidity, i.e., the rate at which people die. If people live healthy and long lives and morbidity is low, then, 2.0 approximates to the replacement rate, which would keep the population stable. If all countries had such a fertility rate, population growth would end. The actual replacement rate in most developed countries is around 2.1.

4. Human Rights, Equality and Freedom

#equality #freedom #human_rights #lebanon #politics #tolerance

Lebanon is very poor at ensuring human rights and freedom compared to the rest of the world, and it has cultural issues when it comes to tolerance and equality. Lebanon comes in the top 20 in eliminating modern slavery18. But unfortunately Lebanon gets most other things wrong. It does worse than average in commentary from Human Rights Watch19, opposing gender inequality20, supporting press freedom21, supporting personal, civil & economic freedoms22, fighting corruption23, its Global Peace Index rating24, its nominal commitment to Human Rights25 and in LGBT equality26. And finally, it falls into the bottom 20 in fighting anti-semitic opinions27. "Lebanese authorities continue to prosecute individuals for peaceful use of freespeech"; in 2017 soldiers beat up protestors28. The Armed Forces and Security Forces use torture.

For tables, charts and commentary, see:

5. Religion and Beliefs

#belief #buddhism #christianity #god #hinduism #islam #judaism #religion

Religiosity (2009)29
Pos.Lower is better
%29
1Estonia16
2Sweden17
3Denmark19
...
61Malta86
62Dominican Rep.87
63Brazil87
64Lebanon87
65Ivory Coast88
66Guatemala88
67Zimbabwe88
68Panama88
World Avg75.1
q=114.
Disbelief In God (2007)30
Pos.Higher is better30
1Vietnam81
2Japan65
3Sweden64
...
59Argentina4
60Georgia4
61Uzbekistan4
62Lebanon3
63Congo, (Brazzaville)3
64Poland3
65Jamaica3
66India3
World Avg9.9
q=137.

Data from the Pew Forum, a professional polling outfit, states that in 2010 the religious makeup of this country was as follows in the table below31:

Christian38.3%
Muslim61.3%
Hindu0.1%
Buddhist0.2%
Folk Religion0.1%
Jew0.1%
Unaffiliated0.3%

The CIA World Factbook has slightly different data, and states: Muslim 59.7% (Shia, Sunni, Druze, Isma'ilite, Alawite or Nusayri), Christian 39% (Maronite Catholic, Greek Orthodox, Melkite Catholic, Armenian Orthodox, Syrian Catholic, Armenian Catholic, Syrian Orthodox, Roman Catholic, Chaldean, Assyrian, Coptic, Protestant), other 1.3%. note: 17 religious sects recognized32.

Links:

6. The Internet

#internet #Lebanon #the_internet

Internet Users (2016)33
Pos.Higher is better33
1Iceland100%
2Faroe Islands99%
3Norway98%
...
41Chile78%
42Lithuania77%
43Latvia76%
44Lebanon76%
45Croatia74%
46Hong Kong74%
47Cayman Islands74%
48Macau73%
World Avg48.1%
q=201.
IPv6 Uptake (2017)34
Pos.Higher is better
Ratio34
1Belgium55.4
2Germany41.8
3Switzerland35.1
...
163Suriname0.0
164Grenada0.0
165Gabon0.0
166Lebanon0.0
167St Lucia0.0
168Dominica0.0
169Cuba0.0
170St Vincent & Grenadines0.0
World Avg3.82
q=176.

Internet access has become an essential research tool. It facilitates an endless list of life improvements, from the ability to network and socialize without constraint, to access to a seemingly infinite repository of technical and procedural information on pretty much any task. The universal availability of data has sped up industrial development and personal learning at the national and personal level. Individuals can read any topic they wish regardless of the locality of expert teachers, and, entire nations can develop their technology and understanding of the world simply because they are now exposed to advanced societies and moral discourses online. Like every communications medium, the Internet has issues and causes a small range of problems, but these are insignificant compared to the advantages of having an online populace.

7. Public Health Issues

#alcohol #health #Lebanon #parenting #population #smoking #vaccines

Adolescent Birth Rate (2015)20
Pos.Lower is better
Per 100020
1N. Korea0.5
2S. Korea1.6
3Switzerland2.9
...
38Qatar10.7
39Lithuania11.0
40Montenegro12.2
41Lebanon12.4
42Estonia13.1
43Poland13.4
44Bahrain13.5
45Malaysia13.6
World Avg47.9
q=185.
Alcohol Consumption (2010)35
Pos.Lower is better
Per Capita35
1Libya0.1
2Pakistan0.1
3Kuwait0.1
...
44Azerbaijan2.3
45Mozambique2.3
46Togo2.3
47Lebanon2.4
48Malawi2.5
49Sudan2.7
50Israel2.8
51Tajikistan2.8
World Avg6.2
q=191.
Food Aid, Health Contributions & WHO Compliance (2017)36
Pos.Lower is better
Rank36
1Sweden1
2Ireland2
3Denmark3
...
60Guinea60
61Sierra Leone61
62Honduras62
63Lebanon63
64Lithuania64
65Cambodia65
66Georgia66
67Belarus67
World Avg82.0
q=163.

Infant Immunizations 2011-2015 (2015)37
Pos.Higher is better
Avg %37
1Hungary99.0
2China99.0
3Uzbekistan98.9
...
157Guinea-Bissau80.1
158Tonga80.0
159Mauritania79.9
160Lebanon79.4
161San Marino79.3
162Gabon78.7
163Micronesia78.2
164Philippines77.9
World Avg88.3
q=194.
Smoking Rates (2014)38
Pos.Lower is better38
1Guinea 15
2Solomon Islands 26
3Kiribati 28
...
175Luxembourg2 284
176Belgium2 353
177Slovenia2 637
178Russia2 690
179Macedonia2 732
180Lebanon3 023
181Belarus3 831
182Montenegro4 125
World Avg 819
q=182.

8. More Charts and Comparisons to Other Countries

Personal Charitability
(World Position, 2013-2016)
39
Pos.Lower is better39
1Myanmar (Burma)1.25
2USA1.5
3New Zealand3.5
...
86Nicaragua73.5
87Pakistan75
88Kosovo76
89Lebanon77.25
90Senegal79
91Kazakhstan79.75
92Portugal80.25
q=156.
Intellectual Endeavours (2017)36
Pos.Lower is better
Rank36
1Ukraine1
2Czechia2
3Hungary3
...
65Jordan65
66Namibia66
67India67
68Lebanon68
69Senegal69
70China70
71Burundi71
q=163.
Creativity and Culture (2017)36
Pos.Lower is better
Rank36
1Belgium1
2Netherlands2
3Estonia3
...
63Israel63
64Mexico64
65S. Africa65
66Lebanon66
67USA67
68Guyana68
69Bosnia & Herzegovina69
q=163.
Peacekeeping and Security (2017)36
Pos.Lower is better
Rank36
1Samoa1
2S. Africa2
3Tunisia3
...
150Seychelles150
151Sierra Leone151
152Afghanistan152
153Lebanon153
154Liberia154
155Mali155
156Swaziland156
q=163.
Refugees and UN Treaties (2017)36
Pos.Lower is better
Rank36
1Austria1
2Germany2
3Netherlands3
...
73Guinea-Bissau73
74Albania74
75Botswana75
76Lebanon76
77Bahrain77
78Sri Lanka78
79Algeria79
q=163.
Open Trading, Aid and Development (2017)36
Pos.Lower is better
Rank36
1Ireland1
2Denmark2
3Sweden3
...
28Trinidad & Tobago28
29Timor-Leste (E. Timor)29
30Burkina Faso30
31Lebanon31
32Barbados32
33Mongolia33
34Spain34
q=163.
Life Satisfaction (2011)40
Pos.Higher is better40
1Denmark7.8
2Norway7.6
3Netherlands7.6
...
72Turkey5.3
73Albania5.3
74Pakistan5.3
75Lebanon5.2
76Indonesia5.2
77Portugal5.2
78Belarus5.2
79Algeria5.2
q=150.
Gross National Income Per-Capita (2011)16
Pos.Higher is better
PPP $16
1Qatar$129 916
2Singapore$78 162
3Kuwait$76 075
...
81Palau$13 771
82Algeria$13 533
83China$13 345
84Lebanon$13 312
85Colombia$12 762
86Dominican Rep.$12 756
87Macedonia$12 405
88Serbia$12 202
q=193.
Environmental Performance (2018)41
Pos.Higher is better41
1Switzerland87.4
2France84.0
3Denmark81.6
...
64Peru61.9
65Montenegro61.3
66Egypt61.2
67Lebanon61.1
68Macedonia61.1
69Brazil60.7
70Sri Lanka60.6
71Equatorial Guinea60.4
q=180.
IQ (2006)42
Pos.Higher is better42
1Hong Kong108
2Singapore108
3S. Korea106
...
91Syria83
92India82
93Bangladesh82
94Lebanon82
95Dominican Rep.82
96Madagascar82
97Egypt81
98Honduras81
q=138.

Current edition: 2013 May 01
Last Modified: 2019 Jan 01
http://www.humantruth.info/lebanon.html
Parent page: Compare International Statistics by Region and Continent

All #tags used on this page - click for more:

#alcohol #belief #buddhism #charity #christianity #demographics #economics #equality #freedom #god #happiness #health #hinduism #human_development #human_rights #immigration #intelligence #internet #islam #judaism #Lebanon #life_expectancy #morals #overpopulation #parenting #politics #population #religion #smoking #the_environment #the_internet #tolerance #vaccines

Social Media

References: (What's this?)

The Good Country Index. Published by The Good Country Inc., New York, USA. Website: goodcountry.org. The Good Country Index gauges how well countries are doing in helping international development. Edition 1.2 (2017) has 35 criteria.

Anti-Defamation League. (ADL)
(2014) ADL Global 100, Executive Summary. Accessed on global100.adl.org on 2017 Jan 02. The numbers given are of those who state that racist stereotyped statements about Jews are true; they have to agree to 6 or more of the 11 statements to be counted. An example statements is "Jews are hated because of the way they behave". The data was collected from 53,100 interviews across 101 countries plus the West Bank and Gaza. The global average is 26%.

Charities Aid Foundation
World Giving Index. On www.cafonline.org.

CIA
(2013) World Factbook. The USA Government's Central Intelligence Agency (USA CIA) publishes The World Factbook, and the online version is frequently updated.

Crabtree, Vexen
(2019) "What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life" (2019). Accessed 2019 Jan 13.

The Fraser Institute
(2016) The Human Freedom Index. Published by The Cato Institute, The Fraser Institute and the Friedrich Naumann Foundation for Freedom. Covers data up to 2014. On www.fraserinstitute.org/.../human-freedom-index-2016.

Gallup
(2009) Religiosity. gallup.com/poll/142727/.... The survey question was "Is religion an important part of your daily life?" and results are charted for those who said "yes". 1000 adults were polled in each of 114 countries.

Human Rights Watch
(2018) World Report 2018. Covering the events of 2017.

Lonely Planet
(2014) The World. Subtitled: "A Traveller's Guide to the Planet". Published by Lonely Planet, London, UK. Each chapter is devoted to a specific country and includes a list of the most interesting places to visit and a few other cultural notes.

Lynn, Harvey & Nyborg
(2009) Average intelligence predicts atheism rates across 137 nations. Richard Lynn, John Harvey and Helmuth Nyborg. Published in Intelligence (2009 Jan/Feb) vol. 37 issue 1 pages 11-15. Online at www.sciencedirect.com, accessed 2009 Sep 15.

United Nations
(2011) Human Development Report. Published by the UN Development Programme. This edition had the theme of Sustainability and Equity: A Better Future for All. Available on hdr.undp.org/... UN Development Program: About the Human Development Index.
(2013) Human Development Report. Published by the UN Development Programme. This edition had the theme of The Rise of the South: Human Progress in a Diverse World. Available on hdr.undp.org/... UN Development Program: About the Human Development Index.
(2017) Human Development Report. Published by the UN Development Programme. Data for 2015. Available on hdr.undp.org/.

Walk Free Foundation
(2018) Global Slavery Index. Published on www.walkfreefoundation.org/.

World Health Organisation. (WHO)
(2014) Global Status Report on Alcohol and Health. A copy can be found on the WHO website. Accessed 2015 Jan 04. It "presents a comprehensive perspective on the global, regional and country consumption of alcohol, patterns of drinking, health consequences and policy responses in Member States" and was published in Geneva on 2014 May 12.

Footnotes

  1. World Bank data on data.worldbank.org accessed 2013 Nov 04.^
  2. UN (2011) .^
  3. UN (2017). Table 1.^
  4. UN (2017). Gross National Income, per person. Table 1.^
  5. International Standards Organisation (ISO) standard ISO3166-1, on www.iso.org, accessed 2013 May 01.^
  6. Top level domains (TLDs) are managed by the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) on www.iana.org.^
  7. According to ISO4217.^
  8. According to ITU-T.^
  9. CIA (2013). Https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/le.html accessed 2014 Apr 27.^
  10. Lonely Planet (2014). Chapter "Lebanon".^
  11. UN (2017). Table 1. Lower is better.^
  12. "What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life" by Vexen Crabtree (2019)^
  13. UN (2017). Dashboard 2. Higher is worse. Old-age is counted as 65+, and ratio is of these to people ages 15-64. Projections are for 2030 based on medium-fertility variant of growth.^
  14. UN (2013). Table 11.^
  15. UN (2013). Table 14. Births per woman (2012), expressed as deviance (positive or negative) from the value of 2.0.^
  16. UN (2017). Table 1. Higher is better.^^
  17. UN (2013). Table 14.^
  18. Walk Free Foundation (2018) .^
  19. Human Rights Watch (2018). Negative and positive comments have been added to create a score for each country covered in the report.^
  20. UN (2017). Table 5. Lower is better.^^
  21. Reporters Without Borders Report "2013 World Press Freedom Index: Dashed hopes after spring" at fr.rsf.org/.../classement_2013_gb-bd.pdf accessed 2013 Feb.^
  22. Fraser Institute, the (2016). Covers data for 2014.^
  23. Transparency International Corruption Perceptions Index (2017). Accessed 2017 Dec 30. The scores given are the TI average for the years 2012-2016.^
  24. ^
  25. Max possible=24. Total amount of treaties ratified. Nominal Commitment to Human Rights report published by UCL School of Public Policy, London, UK, at ucl.ac.uk/spp/research/research-projects/nchr accessed 2011 Apr 30.^
  26. Sources:^
  27. ADL (2014). Lower is better.^
  28. Human Rights Watch (2018). p335-342.^
  29. Gallup (2009) .^
  30. Zuckerman, P. (2007). Atheism: contemporary numbers and patterns. In M.Martin (Ed.), The Cambridge Companion to Atheism. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. In "Average intelligence predicts atheism rates across 137 nations" by Lynn et al. (2009)42.^
  31. Pew Forum (2012) publication "The Global Religious Landscape: A Report on the Size and Distribution of the World´s Major Religious Groups as of 2010" (2012 Dec 18) accessed 2013 May 01.^
  32. CIA (2013). Https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/ar.html accessed 2014 Apr 27.^
  33. internetlivestats.com/internet-users-by-country accessed 2017 Mar 10.^
  34. % of internet access via native IPv6 compared to IPv4. As of 2017 Jun 20, from http://www.cidr-report.org. Accessed 2017 Jun 20.^
  35. WHO (2014). Appendix 1. Alcohol Per Capita Consumption in liters of pure alcohol, 15+ years age population, consumed in 2010. Lower is better.^
  36. The Good Country Index (2017) .^^
  37. World Health Organisation data for 2011-2015 from 7 data series accessed 2017 May 21. Details in "Immunizations: International Statistics on Vaccines and the Autism Scare: 3. World Health Organisation Statistics" by Vexen Crabtree (2017).^
  38. Annual Cigarette Consumption Per Adult (age 15 and above) - compustible cigarettes. Euromonitor International (2014), via tobaccoatlas.org/topic/cigarette-use-globally/ . Accessed 2017 Jun 20.^
  39. Charities Aid Foundation. Average ranking across years 2013-2016. Lower is better.^
  40. UN (2013). Table 9. Higher is better. Table 9. The UN's data is the latest available from a range of data from 2007-2011.^
  41. Yale University Center for Environmental Law & Policy 2018 EPI.^
  42. Lynn, Harvey & Nyborg (2009) .^

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