The Human Truth Foundation

Saudi Arabia (Kingdom of Saudi Arabia)

By Vexen Crabtree 2013

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#malaysia #new_zealand #paganism #pakistan #palestine #saudi_arabia

Saudi Arabia
Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
StatusIndependent State
Social and Moral Index155th best
CapitalRiyadh
Land Area2 149 690km21
LocationAsia, Middle East
Population28.7m (2011)2
Life Expectancy74.44yrs (2017)3
GNI$51 320 (2017)4
ISO3166-1 CodesSA, SAU, 6825
Internet Domain.sa6
CurrencyRial (SAR)7
Telephone+9668

1. Overview

#bahrain #iraq #islam #kuwait #saudi_arabia #USA

Saudi Arabia is the birthplace of Islam and home to Islam's two holiest shrines in Mecca and Medina. The king's official title is the Custodian of the Two Holy Mosques. The modern Saudi state was founded in 1932 by ABD AL-AZIZ bin Abd al-Rahman Al SAUD (Ibn Saud) after a 30-year campaign to unify most of the Arabian Peninsula. One of his male descendants rules the country today, as required by the country's 1992 Basic Law. King ABDALLAH bin Abd al-Aziz ascended to the throne in 2005. Following Iraq's invasion of Kuwait in 1990, Saudi Arabia accepted the Kuwaiti royal family and 400,000 refugees while allowing Western and Arab troops to deploy on its soil for the liberation of Kuwait the following year. The continuing presence of foreign troops on Saudi soil after the liberation of Kuwait became a source of tension between the royal family and the public until all operational US troops left the country in 2003. Major terrorist attacks in May and November 2003 spurred a strong on-going campaign against domestic terrorism and extremism. King ABDALLAH has continued the cautious reform program begun when he was crown prince. The king instituted an interfaith dialogue initiative in 2008 to encourage religious tolerance on a global level; in 2009, he reshuffled the cabinet, which led to more moderates holding ministerial and judicial positions, and appointed the first female to the cabinet. The 2010-12 uprisings across Middle Eastern and North African countries sparked modest incidents in Saudi cities, predominantly by Shia demonstrators calling for the release of detainees and the withdrawal from Bahrain of the Gulf Cooperation Council's Peninsula Shield Force. Protests in general were met by a strong police presence, with some arrests, but not the level of bloodshed seen in protests elsewhere in the region. In response to the unrest, King ABDALLAH in February and March 2011 announced a series of benefits to Saudi citizens including funds to build affordable housing, salary increases for government workers, and unemployment entitlements. To promote increased political participation, the government held elections nationwide in September 2011 for half the members of 285 municipal councils. Also in September, the king announced that women will be allowed to run for and vote in future municipal elections - first held in 2005 - and serve as full members of the advisory Consultative Council. During 2012, Shia protests increased in violence, while peaceful Sunni protests expanded. The country remains a leading producer of oil and natural gas and holds more than 20% of the world's proven oil reserves. The government continues to pursue economic reform and diversification, particularly since Saudi Arabia's accession to the WTO in December 2005, and promotes foreign investment in the kingdom. A burgeoning population, aquifer depletion, and an economy largely dependent on petroleum output and prices are ongoing governmental concerns.

CIA's The World Factbook (2013)9

Book CoverThe birthplace and spiritual home of Islam, Saudi Arabia is as rich in attractions as it is in stirring symbolism. If you are not a Muslim pilgrim performing the hajj, or an expat working in the oil industry, Saudi Arabia is one of the most difficult places on earth to visit. For those travellers who do get in, rock-hewn Madain Saleh is the Arabian peninsula´s greatest archaeological treasure. Other wonders abound, from the echoes of TE Lawrence along the Hejaz Railway to the mudbrick ruins of Dir´aiyah. Jeddah, gateway to the holy cities of Mecca and Medina, has an enchanting old city made of coral, while the Red Sea coast has world-class diving without the crowds. Elsewhere, this is a land of astonishing natural beauty, particularly the plunging landscapes of the Asir Mountains in the Kingdom´s southwest.Best of all, there are few places left that can be said to represent the last frontier of tourism. Whether you´re an expat or a pilgrim, Saudi Arabia is one of them.

"The World" by Lonely Planet (2014)10

2. Saudi Arabia National and Social Development

UN HDI (2016)
Lower is better

Rank11
1Norway1
2Australia2
3Switzerland2
...
36Poland36
37Lithuania37
38Chile38
39Saudi Arabia38
40Slovakia40
41Portugal41
42UAE42
43Hungary43
World Avg94.3
q=188.
Social & Moral
Development Index
Higher is better

Points12
1Iceland84.1
2Sweden80.8
3Norway80.0
...
152Cambodia46.5
153Eritrea46.4
154Papua New Guinea46.2
155Saudi Arabia46.2
156Burkina Faso46.2
157Nauru45.5
158Tanzania45.3
159Myanmar (Burma)45.2
World Avg54.5
q=198.

The United Nations produces an annual Human Development Report which includes the Human Development Index. The factors taken into account include life expectancy, education and schooling and Gross National Income (GNI) amongst many others..

The Social and Moral Development Index concentrates on moral issues and human rights, violence, public health, equality, tolerance, freedom and effectiveness in climate change mitigation and environmentalism, and on some technological issues. A country scores higher for achieving well in those areas, and for sustaining that achievement in the long term. Those countries towards the top of this index can truly said to be setting good examples and leading humankind onwards into a bright, humane, and free future. See: What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life.

3. Population and Demographics

Old-Age Dependency Ratio (2016)
Lower is better

Per 10013
1Uganda04.3
2Mali04.5
3Chad04.7
...
63Equatorial Guinea09.4
64Kiribati09.5
65Guatemala09.5
66Saudi Arabia09.5
67Haiti09.6
68Vanuatu09.9
69Cape Verde10.0
70Philippines10.3
World Avg18.3
q=185.
Emigrants (2010)
%14
1Dominica104.8
2Palestine68.4
3Samoa67.3
...
181Ethiopia0.7
182Tanzania0.7
183Brazil0.7
184Saudi Arabia0.7
185Qatar0.7
186Nigeria0.6
187Maldives0.6
188China0.6
World Avg11.5
q=192.
Fertility Rate (2013)
2.0 is best
15
1Korea, N.2.00
2Brunei1.99
3St Vincent & Grenadines2.01
...
108Austria1.35
109Egypt2.65
110Singapore1.35
111Saudi Arabia2.67
112Portugal1.31
113Belize2.70
114Malta1.28
115Syria2.81
World Avg2.81
q=180.

Immigrants (2010)
%14
1Qatar86.5
2Monaco71.6
3UAE70.0
...
15Liechtenstein34.6
16Oman28.4
17Palau28.1
18Saudi Arabia27.8
19Australia25.7
20Antigua & Barbuda23.6
21Switzerland23.2
22New Zealand22.4
World Avg9.2
q=192.
Life Expectancy (2015)
Higher is better

Years16
1Hong Kong84.16
2Japan83.68
3Italy83.34
...
79Thailand74.62
80Mauritius74.60
81Kuwait74.55
82Saudi Arabia74.44
83Venezuela74.39
84Latvia74.34
85Bulgaria74.32
86Morocco74.31
World Avg71.27
q=190.
Population (2012)17
1China1.4b
2India1.3b
3USA315.8m
...
42Venezuela29.9m
43Peru29.7m
44Malaysia29.3m
45Saudi Arabia28.7m
46Uzbekistan28.1m
47Yemen25.6m
48Ghana25.5m
49Korea, N.24.6m
World Avg36.0m
q=195.

Saudi Arabia's population is predicted to rise to 38.48 million by 2030. These millions of extra people will all need space to live, food to eat, energy to consume, and will increase the burden on the planet's resources. This country has a fertility rate of 2.67. The fertility rate is, in simple terms, the average amount of children that each woman has. The higher the figure, the quicker the population is growing, although, to calculate the rate you also need to take into account morbidity, i.e., the rate at which people die. If people live healthy and long lives and morbidity is low, then, 2.0 approximates to the replacement rate, which would keep the population stable. If all countries had such a fertility rate, population growth would end. The actual replacement rate in most developed countries is around 2.1.

4. Gender Equality

Gender Inequality (2015)
Lower is better18
1Switzerland0.04
2Denmark0.04
3Netherlands0.04
...
47Moldova0.23
48Bahrain0.23
49Hungary0.25
50Saudi Arabia0.26
51Albania0.27
52Russia0.27
53Mongolia0.28
54Oman0.28
World Avg0.36
q=159.
Year Women Can Vote
Lower is better

Year19
1New Zealand1893
2Australia1902
3Finland1906
...
182Samoa1990
183Kazakhstan1993
184Moldova1994
185Oman1994
186Qatar2003
187Kuwait2005
188Saudi Arabia0
189Vatican City0
World Avg1930
q=189.

Gender inequality is not a necessary part of early human development. Although a separation of roles is almost universal due to different strengths between the genders, this does not have to mean that women are subdued, and, such patriarchialism is not universal in ancient history. Those cultures and peoples who shed, or never developed, the idea that mankind ought to dominate womankind, are better cultures and peoples than those who, even today, cling violently to those mores.

Saudi Arabia is on the way towards ending gender inequality but women are still in an unfavourable position much of the time. Women have far fewer political rights than men, and are prevented from voting and standing for election.

See:

5. Religion and Beliefs

#buddhism #christianity #hinduism #islam #judaism

Religiosity (2009)
Lower is better
%20
1Estonia16
2Sweden17
3Denmark19
...
75UAE91
76Pakistan92
77Paraguay92
78Saudi Arabia93
79Sudan93
80Tunisia93
81Uganda93
82Palestine93
World Avg75.1
q=114.
Disbelief In God (2007)
Higher is better21
1Vietnam81
2Japan65
3Sweden64
...
120Ivory Coast0
121Pakistan0
122Niger0
123Saudi Arabia0
124Rwanda0
125Cameroon0
126Philippines0
127Kuwait0
World Avg9.9
q=137.

Data from the Pew Forum, a professional polling outfit, states that in 2010 the religious makeup of this country was as follows in the table below22:

Christian4.4%
Muslim93%
Hindu1.1%
Buddhist0.3%
Folk Religion0.3%
Jew0.1%
Unaffiliated0.7%

The CIA World Factbook has slightly different data, and states simply: Muslim (official) 100%23.

The International Humanist and Ethical Union produced a report in 2012 entitled "Freedom of Thought" (2012), in which they document bias and prejudice at the national level that is based on religion, belief and/or lack of belief. Their entry for Saudi Arabia states:

There is no freedom of religion or belief in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. There is no separation between state and religion, and the deep connection between the royal family and the religious establishment results in significant pressure on all citizens to adhere to the official government interpretation of Islam. The country's laws rely on an interpretation of Sharia law, which treats blasphemy - or, in other words, any deviation from Sunni Islam - as apostasy, an offense usually met with a death sentence. The Commission for the Promotion of Virtue and Prevention of Vice (the religious police) are especially intolerant of minority religions and disbelief.

Cases of Discrimination

In February 2012, journalist Hamza Kashgari, 23, was accused of blasphemy for posting messages on Twitter in which he imagined himself in conversation with the Prophet Muhammad. Soon after, Saudi King Abdullah ordered that Kashgari be arrested "for crossing red lines and denigrating religious beliefs in God and His Prophet." Attempting to flee to New Zealand, Kashgari was arrested when changing planes in Malaysia and sent back to Saudi Arabia, where he faces charges that could result in the death penalty.

"Freedom of Thought" by IHEU (2012)24

Neil J. Kressel in "Bad Faith: The Danger of Religious Extremism" (2007) describes Saudi Arabia as one the countries that is least tolerant, especially towards Jews:

Saudi children in grades 1 through 10 are told that Jews and Christians are the enemies of Islam, that Jews are a wicked nation characterized by bribery, slyness, deception, and aggressiveness, and that prohibitions against terror do not apply to cases that fall under the categories of jihad and martyrdom. Students are further taught that "the Jews' disappearance is ... desired" and that "Palestine in its entirety should be liberated by force and purified of its Zionist filth."

"Bad Faith: The Danger of Religious Extremism" by Neil J. Kressel (2007)25

Commentators on the deteriorating state of human rights and social stability in Pakistan have stated that one cause is the large numbers of migrant workers who come through Saudi Arabia and then are responsible for spreading overly strict Islam to Pakistan26.

Links:

6. The Internet

Freedom On The Internet (2012)
Lower is better
27
1Estonia10
2USA12
3Germany15
...
36Pakistan63
37Belarus69
38Bahrain71
39Saudi Arabia71
40Vietnam73
41Ethiopia75
42Myanmar (Burma)75
43Uzbekistan77
World Avg46.7
q=47.
Internet Users (2016)
Higher is better
28
1Iceland100%
2Faroe Islands99%
3Norway98%
...
68Uruguay65%
69Antigua & Barbuda65%
70Greece65%
71Saudi Arabia65%
72French Polynesia64%
73Albania63%
74Palestine63%
75Montenegro62%
World Avg48.1%
q=201.
IPv6 Uptake (2017)
Higher is better

Ratio29
1Belgium55.4
2Germany41.8
3Switzerland35.1
...
27Austria7.5
28Hungary7.4
29Guatemala6.9
30Saudi Arabia6.8
31Vietnam5.9
32Slovenia5.4
33Bolivia5.0
34Macau4.2
World Avg3.82
q=176.

IT Security (2013)
Lower is better
30
1Ireland0.11
2Luxembourg0.11
3Belize0.11
...
38Laos0.86
39Spain0.88
40Kuwait0.93
41Saudi Arabia0.93
42Malaysia0.96
43Canada0.96
44Tajikistan1.01
45Brazil1.02
World Avg0.98
q=81.

Internet access has become an essential research tool. It facilitates an endless list of life improvements, from the ability to network and socialize without constraint, to access to a seemingly infinite repository of technical and procedural information on pretty much any task. The universal availability of data has sped up industrial development and personal learning at the national and personal level. Individuals can read any topic they wish regardless of the locality of expert teachers, and, entire nations can develop their technology and understanding of the world simply because they are now exposed to advanced societies and moral discourses online. Like every communications medium, the Internet has issues and causes a small range of problems, but these are insignificant compared to the advantages of having an online populace.

Saudi Arabia is as infamous as Pakistan for its deadly serious approach to blasphemy, against a backdrop of general religious intolerance and barbarism. For example in 2002 it was reported that Saudi Arabia's government began denying access to websites containing general religious content on Christianity, Islam, Paganism, Judaism and Hinduism31. This, like other moves in the region, is designed to keep Muslim populations' access to information limited, so that they will remain steadfast in the "correct" form of Islam as judged by the authorities.

"Blasphemy and Censorship: In Christianity and Islam: 4.1. Islam: Blasphemy and Censorship"
Vexen Crabtree
(2012)

7. Public Health Issues

Adolescent Birth Rate (2015)
Lower is better

Per 100018
1Korea, N.0.5
2Korea, S.1.6
3Switzerland2.9
...
25Belgium8.2
26Spain8.4
27Bosnia & Herzegovina8.6
28Saudi Arabia8.8
29France8.9
30Croatia9.5
31Israel9.7
32Canada9.8
World Avg47.9
q=185.
Alcohol Consumption (2010)
Lower is better

Per Capita32
1Libya0.1
2Pakistan0.1
3Kuwait0.1
4Mauritania0.1
5Comoros0.2
6Saudi Arabia0.2
7Bangladesh0.2
8Yemen0.3
9Niger0.3
10Egypt0.4
11Iraq0.5
12Somalia0.5
World Avg6.2
q=191.
Infant Immunizations 2011-2015 (2015)
Higher is better

Avg %33
1Hungary99.0
2China99.0
3Uzbekistan98.9
...
11Bahrain98.2
12Iran98.1
13Finland98.1
14Saudi Arabia98.0
15Luxembourg98.0
16Oman98.0
17Antigua & Barbuda98.0
18Cuba97.9
World Avg88.3
q=194.

Smoking Rates (2014)
Lower is better
34
1Guinea 15
2Solomon Islands 26
3Kiribati 28
...
143Denmark1 378
144Georgia1 378
145Cuba1 392
146Saudi Arabia1 395
147Netherlands1 396
148Poland1 396
149Italy1 443
150Germany1 480
World Avg 819
q=182.

8. Politics and Freedom

Nominal Commitment to HR (2009)
Higher is better

Treaties35
1Argentina24
2Chile23
3Costa Rica23
...
152Guyana11
153Swaziland11
154Zimbabwe11
155Saudi Arabia10
156Laos10
157Solomon Islands10
158Qatar10
159Vatican City10
World Avg15.1
q=194.
Personal, Civil & Economic Freedom (2014)
Lower is better

Rank36
1Hong Kong1
2Switzerland2
3New Zealand3
...
142Ethiopia142
143Mauritania143
144Egypt144
145Saudi Arabia144
146Chad146
147Pakistan146
148Zimbabwe148
149Guinea149
World Avg79.7
q=159.
Press Freedom (2013)
Lower is better
37
1Finland638
2Netherlands648
3Norway652
...
159Kazakhstan5508
160Rwanda5546
161Sri Lanka5659
162Saudi Arabia5688
163Uzbekistan6039
164Bahrain6275
165Equatorial Guinea6720
166Djibouti6740
World Avg3249
q=178.

9. More Charts and Comparisons to Other Countries

Anti-Semite Opinions
Lower is better

%38
1Laos0
2Philippines3
3Sweden4
...
84Malaysia61
85Turkey69
86Greece69
87Saudi Arabia74
88Egypt75
89Oman76
90Lebanon78
91Morocco80
q=101.
Personal Charitability
(World Position, 2013-2016)
Lower is better
39
1Myanmar (Burma)1.25
2USA1.5
3New Zealand3.5
...
56Taiwan46
57Belgium47.25
58Chile47.25
59Saudi Arabia48
60Iraq50.25
61Zambia51.5
62Sierra Leone51.67
q=156.
Global Peace Index (2012)
Lower is better
40
1Iceland1.11
2New Zealand1.24
3Denmark1.24
...
102Sri Lanka2.15
103Congo, (Brazzaville)2.15
104Kazakhstan2.15
105Saudi Arabia2.18
106Haiti2.18
107Cambodia2.21
108Belarus2.21
109Uzbekistan2.22
q=157.
Research and Development
Higher is better

% RDP PPP
1Korea, S.4.29
2Israel4.11
3Japan3.58
...
111Paraguay0.09
112Congo, DR0.08
113Indonesia0.08
114Saudi Arabia0.07
115Algeria0.07
116Cape Verde0.07
117Trinidad & Tobago0.05
118Macau0.05
q=126.
Life Satisfaction (2011)
Higher is better
41
1Denmark7.8
2Norway7.6
3Netherlands7.6
...
27El Salvador6.7
28Cyprus6.7
29Thailand6.7
30Saudi Arabia6.7
31Germany6.7
32Trinidad & Tobago6.7
33Kuwait6.6
34Qatar6.6
q=150.
Gross National Income Per-Capita (2011)
Higher is better
PPP $16
1Qatar$129 916
2Singapore$78 162
3Kuwait$76 075
...
9Switzerland$56 364
10Hong Kong$54 265
11USA$53 245
12Saudi Arabia$51 320
13San Marino$50 063
14Andorra$47 979
15Netherlands$46 326
16Sweden$46 251
q=193.
Environmental Performance (2010)
Higher is better
42
1Iceland93.5
2Switzerland89.1
3Costa Rica86.4
...
95Cyprus56.3
96Jordan56.1
97Bosnia & Herzegovina55.9
98Saudi Arabia55.3
99Eritrea54.6
100Swaziland54.4
101Ivory Coast54.3
102Trinidad & Tobago54.2
q=162.
LGBT Equality (2013)
Higher is better

Score43
1Netherlands405
2Belgium350
3Canada280
...
204Nigeria-220
205Somaliland-500
206Iran-520
207Yemen-520
208Sudan-520
209Saudi Arabia-520
210Afghanistan-520
211UAE-520
q=211.

Current edition: 2013 May 01
Last Modified: 2017 Jun 21
http://www.humantruth.info/saudi_arabia.html
Parent page: Compare International Statistics by Region and Continent

All #tags used on this page - click for more:

#bahrain #buddhism #christianity #hinduism #iraq #islam #judaism #kuwait #malaysia #new_zealand #paganism #pakistan #palestine #saudi_arabia #USA

Social Media

References: (What's this?)

Book Cover

The Economist. Published by The Economist Group, Ltd. A weekly newspaper in magazine format, famed for its accuracy, wide scope and intelligent content. See vexen.co.uk/references.html#Economist for some commentary on this source..

Anti-Defamation League. (ADL)
(2014) ADL Global 100, Executive Summary. Accessed on global100.adl.org on 2017 Jan 02. The numbers given are of those who state that racist stereotyped statements about Jews are true; they have to agree to 6 or more of the 11 statements to be counted. An example statements is "Jews are hated because of the way they behave". The data was collected from 53,100 interviews across 101 countries plus the West Bank and Gaza. The global average is 26%.

Bunt, Gary R.. Senior Lecturer in Islamic Studies, University of Wales Trinity Saint David, Lampeter, UK
(2011) Religion and the Internet. This essay is chapter 39 of "The Oxford Handbook of The Sociology of Religion" by Peter B. Clarke (2011) (pages p705-720.).

Charities Aid Foundation
World Giving Index. On www.cafonline.org.

CIA
(2013) World Factbook. The USA Government's Central Intelligence Agency (USA CIA) publishes The World Factbook, and the online version is frequently updated.

Clarke, Peter B.. Peter B. Clarke: Professor Emeritus of the History and Sociology of Religion, King's College, University of London, and currently Professor in the Faculty of Theology, University of Oxford, UK.
(2011) The Oxford Handbook of The Sociology of Religion. Paperback book. Originally published 2009. Current version published by Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK.

Crabtree, Vexen
(2017) "What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life" (2017). Accessed 2017 Jun 22.

Gallup
(2009) Religiosity. gallup.com/poll/142727/.... The survey question was "Is religion an important part of your daily life?" and results are charted for those who said "yes". 1000 adults were polled in each of 114 countries.

IHEU. International Humanist and Ethical Union.
(2012) Freedom of Thought. A copy can be found on iheu.org/...Freedom of Thought 2012.pdf, accessed 2013 Oct 28.

Kressel, Neil
(2007) Bad Faith: The Danger of Religious Extremism. E-book. Amazon Kindle digital edition. Published by Prometheus Books, New York, USA.

Lonely Planet
(2014) The World. Subtitled: "A Traveller's Guide to the Planet". Published by Lonely Planet, London, UK. Each chapter is devoted to a specific country and includes a list of the most interesting places to visit and a few other cultural notes..

Lynn, Harvey & Nyborg
(2009) Average intelligence predicts atheism rates across 137 nations. Richard Lynn, John Harvey and Helmuth Nyborg article "Average intelligence predicts atheism rates across 137 nations" in Intelligence (2009 Jan/Feb) vol. 37 issue 1 pages 11-15. Online at www.sciencedirect.com, accessed 2009 Sep 15.

The Fraser Institute
(2016) The Human Freedom Index. Published by The Cato Institute, The Fraser Institute and the Friedrich Naumann Foundation for Freedom. Covers data up to 2014. On www.fraserinstitute.org/.../human-freedom-index-2016..

United Nations
(2011) Human Development Report. This edition had the theme of Sustainability and Equity: A Better Future for All. Published on the United Nation's website at hdr.undp.org/.../HDR_2011_EN_Complete.pdf (accessed throughout 2013, Jan-Mar). UN Development Program: About the Human Development Index.
(2013) Human Development Report. This edition had the theme of The Rise of the South: Human Progress in a Diverse World. Published on the United Nation's HDR website at hdr.undp.org/.../hdr2013/ (accessed throughout 2013). UN Development Program: About the Human Development Index.
(2017) Human Development Report. Published by the UN Development Programme. Data for 2015. Analysis conducted by the UN Development Report Office. Available on hdr.undp.org/..

World Health Organisation. (WHO)
(2014) Global Status Report on Alcohol and Health. A copy can be found on the WHO website. Accessed 2015 Jan 04. It "presents a comprehensive perspective on the global, regional and country consumption of alcohol, patterns of drinking, health consequences and policy responses in Member States" and was published in Geneva on 2014 May 12.

Footnotes

  1. World Bank data on data.worldbank.org accessed 2013 Nov 04.^
  2. UN (2011) .^
  3. UN (2017) Table 1.^
  4. UN (2017) Gross National Income, per person. Table 1.^
  5. International Standards Organisation (ISO) standard ISO3166-1, on www.iso.org, accessed 2013 May 01.^
  6. Top level domains (TLDs) are managed by the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) on www.iana.org.^
  7. According to ISO4217.^
  8. According to ITU-T.^
  9. CIA (2013) https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/sa.html accessed 2014 Apr 27.^
  10. Lonely Planet (2014) chapter "Saudi Arabia" .^
  11. UN (2017) Table 1. Lower is better.^
  12. "What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life" by Vexen Crabtree (2017)^
  13. UN (2017) Dashboard 2. Higher is worse. Old-age is counted as 65+, and ratio is of these to people ages 15-64. Projections are for 2030 based on medium-fertility variant of growth.^
  14. UN (2013) Table 11.^
  15. UN (2013) Table 14. Births per woman (2012), expressed as deviance (positive or negative) from the value of 2.0.^
  16. UN (2017) Table 1. Higher is better.^^
  17. UN (2013) Table 14.^
  18. UN (2017) Table 5. Lower is better.^^
  19. "What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life: 3.6. Women Stand for Election & Vote (1893+) New Zealand, Australia, Finland" by Vexen Crabtree (2017)^
  20. Gallup (2009) .^
  21. Zuckerman, P. (2007). Atheism: contemporary numbers and patterns. In M.Martin (Ed.), The Cambridge Companion to Atheism. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. In "Average intelligence predicts atheism rates across 137 nations" by Lynn et al. (2009).^
  22. Pew Forum (2012) publication "The Global Religious Landscape: A Report on the Size and Distribution of the World´s Major Religious Groups as of 2010" (2012 Dec 18) accessed 2013 May 01.^
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  40. ^
  41. UN (2013) Table 9. Higher is better. Table 9. The UN's data is the latest available from a range of data from 2007-2011.^
  42. UN (2011) Table 6. Higher is better.^
  43. Higher is better. Sources:^

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