The Human Truth Foundation

Canada

By Vexen Crabtree 2013

#canada

Canada
StatusIndependent State
Social and Moral Index9th best
CapitalOttawa
Land Area9 093 510km21
LocationNorth America, The Americas
Population37.1m2
Life Expectancy82.22yrs (2017)3
GNI$42 582 (2017)4
ISO3166-1 CodesCA, CAN, 1245
Internet Domain.ca6
CurrencyDollar (CAD)7
Telephone+18

1. Overview

#UK #USA

A land of vast distances and rich natural resources, Canada became a self-governing dominion in 1867 while retaining ties to the British crown. Economically and technologically, the nation has developed in parallel with the US, its neighbor to the south across the world's longest unfortified border. Canada faces the political challenges of meeting public demands for quality improvements in health care, education, social services, and economic competitiveness, as well as responding to the particular concerns of predominantly francophone Quebec. Canada also aims to develop its diverse energy resources while maintaining its commitment to the environment.

CIA's The World Factbook (2013)9

Book CoverCanada is more than its hulking mountain, craggy-coast good looks: it also cooks extraordinary meals, rocks cool culture and unfurls wild, moosespotting road trips. The globe´s second-biggest country has an endless variety of landscapes. Sky-high mountains, glinting glaciers, spectral rainforests and remote beaches are all here, spread across six times zones. It´s the backdrop for plenty of ah-inspiring moments - and for a big provincial menagerie. That´s big as in polar bears, grizzly bears, whales and, everyone´s favorite, moose.

The arts are an integral part of Canada´s cultural landscape, from the International Fringe Theater Festival in Edmonton to mega museums such as Ottawa´s National Gallery. Montreal´s Jazz Festival and Toronto´s starstudded Film Festival draw global crowds.

Sip a café au lait and tear into a flaky croissant at a sidewalk bistro in Montréal; head to an Asian night market and slurp noodles in Vancouver; join a wild-fiddling Celtic party on Cape Breton Island; kayak between rainforest-cloaked aboriginal villages on Haida Gwaii: Canada is incredibly diverse across its breadth and within its cities. You´ll hear it in the music, see it in the arts and taste it in the cuisine.

"The World" by Lonely Planet (2014)10

2. Canada National and Social Development

#economics #human_development

UN HDI (2016)11
Pos.Lower is better
Rank11
1Norway1
2Australia2
3Switzerland2
...
7Netherlands7
8Ireland8
9Iceland9
10Canada10
11USA10
12Hong Kong12
13New Zealand13
14Sweden14
World Avg94.3
q=188.
Gross National Income Per-Capita (2011)12
Pos.Higher is better
PPP $12
1Qatar$129 916
2Singapore$78 162
3Kuwait$76 075
...
19Ireland$43 798
20Austria$43 609
21Australia$42 822
22Canada$42 582
23Belgium$41 243
24Finland$38 868
25France$38 085
26UK$37 931
World Avg$17 240
q=193.
Social & Moral
Development Index
13,14
Pos.Lower is better
Avg Rank13,14
1Taiwan30.2
2Denmark30.5
3Norway30.9
4Finland32.0
5Sweden33.3
6Germany34.3
7Netherlands35.5
8Austria35.6
9Canada36.8
10Switzerland37.2
11New Zealand37.6
12Luxembourg39.5
World Avg86.4
q=195.

The United Nations produces an annual Human Development Report which includes the Human Development Index. The factors taken into account include life expectancy, education and schooling and Gross National Income (GNI) amongst many others..

The Social and Moral Development Index concentrates on moral issues and human rights, violence, public health, equality, tolerance, freedom and effectiveness in climate change mitigation and environmentalism, and on some technological issues. A country scores higher for achieving well in those areas, and for sustaining that achievement in the long term. Those countries towards the top of this index can truly said to be setting good examples and leading humankind onwards into a bright, humane, and free future. See: Which are the Best Countries in the World? The Social and Moral Development Index.

3. Canada's Demographics

#birth_control #demographics #health #immigration #life_expectancy #longevity #migration #overpopulation #population

Population:

Canada's population is predicted to rise to 39.85 million by 2030. This rise is despite a low fertility rate, meaning, that this country is helping to alleviate problems with growing population in neighbouring countries by accepting immigrants, very likely as a requirement of maintaining an active workforce. This country has a fertility rate of 1.69. The fertility rate is, in simple terms, the average amount of children that each woman has. The higher the figure, the quicker the population is growing, although, to calculate the rate you also need to take into account morbidity, i.e., the rate at which people die. If people live healthy and long lives and morbidity is low, then, 2.0 approximates to the replacement rate, which would keep the population stable. If all countries had such a fertility rate, population growth would end. The actual replacement rate in most developed countries is around 2.1.

Population (2018)2
Pos.
Population2
1China1.4b
2India1.4b
3USA327.1m
...
36Iraq38.4m
37Poland37.9m
38Afghanistan37.2m
39Canada37.1m
40Morocco36.0m
41Saudi Arabia33.7m
42Uzbekistan32.5m
43Peru32.0m
World Avg39.0m
q=195.
Life Expectancy (2015)12
Pos.Higher is better
Years12
1Hong Kong84.16
2Japan83.68
3Italy83.34
...
9Australia82.54
10France82.36
11Sweden82.35
12Canada82.22
13S. Korea82.13
14New Zealand82.03
15Chile81.96
16Luxembourg81.88
World Avg71.27
q=190.
Fertility Rate (2013)15
Pos.2.0 is best15
1N. Korea2.00
2Brunei1.99
3St Vincent & Grenadines2.01
...
47Cape Verde2.29
48Estonia1.71
49UAE1.70
50Canada1.69
51Colombia2.31
52Maldives1.67
53Luxembourg1.67
54Turkmenistan2.33
World Avg2.81
q=180.
Old-Age Dependency Ratio (2016)16
Pos.Lower is better
Per 10016
1Uganda04.3
2Mali04.5
3Chad04.7
...
168Estonia37.9
169Belgium38.1
170Switzerland38.3
171Canada38.5
172Croatia39.7
173Malta39.9
174France40.5
175Austria40.5
World Avg18.3
q=185.

Migration:

Immigrants (2017)17
Pos.
%17
1UAE88.4%
2Kuwait75.5%
3Qatar65.2%
...
20Israel23.6%
21Palau23.0%
22New Zealand22.7%
23Canada21.5%
24Kazakhstan20.0%
25Austria19.0%
26Sweden17.6%
27Equatorial Guinea17.5%
World Avg9.4%
q=195.
Emigrants (2010)18
Pos.
%18
1Dominica104.8%
2Palestine68.4%
3Samoa67.3%
...
131Peru3.7%
132Czechia3.6%
133Mauritania3.5%
134Canada3.5%
135Algeria3.4%
136Sweden3.4%
137Ghana3.4%
138Nepal3.3%
World Avg11.5%
q=192.

4. Human Rights, Equality & Tolerance

#canada #equality #freedom #human_rights #politics #tolerance

When it comes to ensuring human rights and freedom, Canada leads the world, setting excellent examples. Canada comes in the best 20 in commentary in Human Rights Watch reports19 (amongst the best in The Americas), supporting personal, civil & economic freedoms20 (amongst the lowest in The Americas), its success in fighting anti-semitic prejudice21 (amongst the best in The Americas) and in opposing gender inequality22 (the best in The Americas). And finally, it does better than average in LGBT equality23, supporting press freedom24 (one of the lowest in The Americas), speed of uptake of HR treaties25 and in its nominal commitment to Human Rights26. Canada actively seeks to protect human rights at home and internationally, and has developed a culture that is tolerant, where it is frowned upon to behave in a prejudiced manner. Although Human Rights Watch does have some criticism when it comes to protecting the rights of Indigenous peoples and the placement of children in immigration detention27.

For tables, charts and commentary, see:

5. Canada's Health

#alcohol #birth_control #Canada #demographics #health #life_expectancy #longevity #mental_health #obesity #overpopulation #parenting #population #smoking #suicide #vaccines

Health (2020)28,29
Pos.Lower is better
Avg Rank28,29
1Hong Kong18.0
2Singapore41.5
3Maldives43.3
...
59France82.9
60Vietnam83.0
61Czechia83.0
62Canada83.1
63Bosnia & Herzegovina83.1
64St Lucia84.4
65Solomon Islands84.7
66Turkmenistan85.1
67Australia85.3
World Avg92.3
q=187.

The countries with the best overall approach to public health, in terms of both public policy and individual lifestyle choices, are Hong Kong, Singapore and The Maldives28. These countries are worth emulating. And, although often through no fault of the average citizen, the worst countries are S. Sudan, Nigeria and Equatorial Guinea28.

The data sets used to calculate points for each country are its average life expectancy, its alcohol consumption rate, its fertility rate, its smoking rate, its suicide rate, its food aid and health contributions and WHO compliance, the prevalence of overweight adults, its adolescent birth rate and its immunizations take-up. The regions with the best average results per country are Scandinavia, Asia and Europe28, whereas the worst are Africa, Micronesia and Polynesia28.

Health:

Canada does relatively well in encouraging good health, compared to many other countries. Canada comes in the best 20 in its food aid and health contributions and WHO compliance30 (the best in The Americas) and in its average life expectancy12 (the best in The Americas). It does better than average when it comes to its adolescent birth rate22 (the best in The Americas) and in its fertility rate15. Canada does not succeed in everything, however. It does worse than average in its suicide rate31, its smoking rate32 (amongst the worst in The Americas), its alcohol consumption rate33 and in its immunizations take-up34 (one of the worst in The Americas). The prevalence of overweight adults has increased by 14% over the last 40 years.
Life Expectancy (2015)12
Pos.Higher is better
Years12
1Hong Kong84.16
2Japan83.68
3Italy83.34
...
9Australia82.54
10France82.36
11Sweden82.35
12Canada82.22
13S. Korea82.13
14New Zealand82.03
15Chile81.96
16Luxembourg81.88
World Avg71.27
q=190.
Alcohol Consumption (2016)33
Pos.Lower is better
Per Capita33
1Bangladesh0.0
2Kuwait0.0
3Libya0.0
...
131Netherlands8.7
132Croatia8.9
133Cameroon8.9
134Canada8.9
135Rwanda9.0
136Iceland9.1
137Sweden9.2
138Chile9.3
World Avg6.2
q=189.
Fertility Rate (2013)15
Pos.2.0 is best15
1N. Korea2.00
2Brunei1.99
3St Vincent & Grenadines2.01
...
47Cape Verde2.29
48Estonia1.71
49UAE1.70
50Canada1.69
51Colombia2.31
52Maldives1.67
53Luxembourg1.67
54Turkmenistan2.33
World Avg2.81
q=180.
Smoking Rates (2014)32
Pos.Higher is worse32
182Montenegro4 125
181Belarus3 831
180Lebanon3 023
...
134Vietnam1 215
133Egypt1 188
132Albania1 177
131Canada1 154
130Uruguay1 135
129Lithuania1 124
128Moldova1 114
127Portugal1 113
World Avg 819
q=182.
Suicide Rate (2013)31
Pos.
Per 100k31
1Haiti0
2Grenada0
3Egypt0.1
...
52Trinidad & Tobago21.7
53USA22.2
54Chile22.4
55Canada22.7
56Iceland23.5
57New Zealand23.6
58Ireland23.7
59Norway23.8
World Avg20.93
q=91.
Food Aid, Health Contributions & WHO Compliance (2017)30
Pos.Lower is better
Rank30
1Sweden1
2Ireland2
3Denmark3
4UK4
5Norway5
6Switzerland6
7Germany7
8Canada8
9Netherlands9
10USA10
11Luxembourg11
12Finland12
World Avg82.0
q=163.
Overweight Adults (2016)35
Pos.Lower is better
%35
1Vietnam18.3
2India19.7
3Bangladesh20.0
...
161Andorra63.7
162UK63.7
163Fiji63.8
164Canada64.1
165Israel64.3
166Bahamas64.4
167Australia64.5
168Iraq64.6
World Avg49.0
q=191.

Children's Health:

Adolescent Birth Rate (2015)22
Pos.Lower is better
Per 100022
1N. Korea0.5
2S. Korea1.6
3Switzerland2.9
...
29France8.9
30Croatia9.5
31Israel9.7
32Canada9.8
33Kuwait9.8
34Portugal9.9
35Czechia9.9
36Ireland10.4
World Avg47.9
q=185.
Infant Immunizations 2011-2015 (2015)34
Pos.Higher is better
Avg %34
1Hungary99.0
2China99.0
3Uzbekistan98.9
...
139Dominican Rep.86.3
140Panama86.1
141Belarus85.3
142Canada85.2
143Guatemala85.2
144Togo84.3
145Zambia84.2
146Congo, (Brazzaville)83.6
World Avg88.3
q=194.

6. Canada's Modernity and Learning

#education #english #intelligence #it_security #maths #modernity #religion #research #science #technology #the_internet

Modernity and Learning (2020)36
Pos.Lower is better
Avg Rank36
1Finland8.0
2Belgium9.1
3Denmark10.0
...
16Austria18.9
17Iceland19.1
18Slovenia19.5
19Canada20.4
20Singapore21.1
21Hungary21.2
22S. Korea21.5
23Hong Kong21.6
24France22.0
World Avg69.0
q=180.

Modernity and Education:

Research and Development (2016)
Pos.Higher is better
% RDP PPP
1S. Korea4.2937
2Israel4.1137
3Japan3.5837
...
19Iceland1.8937
20Norway1.7037
21UK1.7037
22Canada1.6137
23Ireland1.5237
24Estonia1.4337
25Hungary1.3737
26Italy1.2937
World Avg0.84
q=126.
Secondary Education (2018)38
Pos.Higher is better38
1Luxembourg100.0%
2Estonia100.0%
3Austria100.0%
4Canada100.0%
5Finland100.0%
6Iceland100.0%
7Uzbekistan99.9%
8Czechia99.8%
9Slovakia99.3%
10Latvia99.2%
11Kazakhstan98.6%
12Kyrgyzstan98.4%
World Avg63.0%
q=169.
Length of Schooling (2018)39
Pos.Higher is better
Years39
1Australia22.1
2Belgium19.7
3Finland19.3
...
30USA16.3
31Italy16.2
32Switzerland16.2
33Canada16.1
34Estonia16.1
35Israel16.0
36Latvia16.0
37Malta15.9
World Avg13.2
q=193.
Intellectual Endeavours (2017)30
Pos.Lower is better
Rank30
1Ukraine1
2Czechia2
3Hungary3
...
26Singapore26
27Greece27
28Serbia28
29Canada29
30Romania30
31Cyprus31
32Ireland32
33Croatia33
World Avg82.0
q=163.
Maths, Science & Reading (2015)40
Pos.Higher is better
Score40
1Singapore1655
2Hong Kong1598
3Japan1586
4Macau1582
5Estonia1573
6Taiwan1571
7Canada1571
8Finland1568
9S. Korea1557
10China154341
11Ireland1528
12Slovenia1528
World Avg1389
q=70.
Religiosity (2009)42
Pos.Lower is better
%42
1Estonia16
2Sweden17
3Denmark19
...
16Switzerland41
17Uruguay41
18Lithuania42
19Canada42
20S. Korea43
21Kazakhstan43
22Ukraine46
23Slovenia47
World Avg75.1
q=114.
IQ (2006)43
Pos.Higher is better43
1Hong Kong108
2Singapore108
3S. Korea106
...
19Estonia99
20Sweden99
21Belgium99
22Canada99
23Andorra98
24Czechia98
25Spain98
26France98
World Avg85.6
q=138.

Technology and Information:

Internet Users (2016)44
Pos.Higher is better44
1Iceland100%
2Faroe Islands99%
3Norway98%
...
18Japan91%
19New Zealand89%
20USA89%
21Canada89%
22Belgium89%
23Czechia88%
24Germany88%
25Aruba88%
World Avg48.1%
q=201.
IT Security (2013)45
Pos.Lower is better45
1Ireland0.11
2Luxembourg0.11
3Belize0.11
...
40Kuwait0.93
41Saudi Arabia0.93
42Malaysia0.96
43Canada0.96
44Tajikistan1.01
45Brazil1.02
46Indonesia1.05
47British Virgin Islands1.08
World Avg0.98
q=81.
IPv6 Uptake (2017)46
Pos.Higher is better
Ratio46
1Belgium55.4
2Germany41.8
3Switzerland35.1
...
10UK24.7
11Japan22.1
12France18.8
13Canada18.3
14Peru18.3
15Ecuador18.2
16Estonia17.6
17Malaysia16.5
World Avg3.82
q=176.

7. National Culture

#charity #corruption #happiness #morals #politics

Personal Charitability
(World Position, 2013-2016)
47
Pos.Lower is better47
1Myanmar (Burma)1.25
2USA1.5
3New Zealand3.5
4Canada3.75
5Australia5.25
6UK6.75
7Ireland6.75
8Sri Lanka8
9Qatar9
10Trinidad & Tobago10
11Netherlands10
12UAE12
World Avg68.1185897435897
q=156.
Corruption (2012-2016)48
Pos.Higher is better
Avg Score48
1Denmark90.8
2New Zealand90.6
3Finland89.4
4Sweden88.2
5Norway86.0
6Switzerland85.8
7Singapore85.2
8Netherlands83.4
9Canada82.2
10Luxembourg81.6
11Australia80.8
12Germany79.6
World Avg43.05
q=176.
Happiness (2018)49
Pos.Higher is better49
1Finland7.6
2Norway7.6
3Denmark7.6
4Iceland7.5
5Switzerland7.5
6Netherlands7.4
7Canada7.3
8New Zealand7.3
9Sweden7.3
10Australia7.3
11Israel7.2
12Austria7.1
World Avg5.38
q=156.
Creativity and Culture (2017)30
Pos.Lower is better
Rank30
1Belgium1
2Netherlands2
3Estonia3
...
22Norway22
23Lithuania23
24St Lucia24
25Canada25
26Italy26
27Mauritius27
28Malta28
29Singapore29
World Avg82.0
q=163.
Open Trading, Aid and Development (2017)30
Pos.Lower is better
Rank30
1Ireland1
2Denmark2
3Sweden3
...
24Jordan24
25Mauritius25
26Zimbabwe26
27Canada27
28Trinidad & Tobago28
29Timor-Leste (E. Timor)29
30Burkina Faso30
31Lebanon31
World Avg82.0
q=163.

8. Peace Versus Instability

#extremism #human_development #peace #politics #religious_violence #terrorism

Global Peace Index (2012)50
Pos.Lower is better50
1Iceland1.11
2New Zealand1.24
3Denmark1.24
4Canada1.32
5Japan1.33
6Austria1.33
7Ireland1.33
8Slovenia1.33
9Finland1.35
10Switzerland1.35
11Belgium1.38
12Qatar1.40
World Avg2.02
q=157.
Peacekeeping and Security (2017)30
Pos.Lower is better
Rank30
1Samoa1
2S. Africa2
3Tunisia3
...
38Togo38
39Argentina39
40China40
41Canada41
42Azerbaijan42
43Senegal43
44Switzerland44
45Bolivia45
World Avg82.0
q=163.
Refugees and UN Treaties (2017)30
Pos.Lower is better
Rank30
1Austria1
2Germany2
3Netherlands3
...
8Finland8
9Denmark9
10Switzerland10
11Canada11
12UK12
13Belgium13
14Italy14
15Spain15
World Avg82.0
q=163.
Impact of Terrorism (2019)51
Pos.Lower is better
Score51
1Togo0.00
2Mongolia0.00
3Swaziland0.00
...
94Algeria3.41
95Sweden3.45
96Sri Lanka3.57
97Canada3.59
98Belgium3.64
99Angola3.78
100Tunisia3.94
101Tajikistan3.95
World Avg2.78
q=150.

9. The Natural Environment

#biodiversity #climate_change #over-exploitation #the_environment

Forest Area Change 1990-2015 (2015)52
Pos.Higher is better
%52
1Iceland205.6
2Bahrain144.4
3Uruguay131.3
...
99St Kitts & Nevis00.0
100Norway-00.2
101Papua New Guinea-00.2
102Canada-00.3
103Jordan-00.6
104Suriname-00.6
105Guyana-00.8
106Malaysia-00.8
World Avg02.8
q=184.
Environmental Performance (2018)53
Pos.Higher is better53
1Switzerland87.4
2France84.0
3Denmark81.6
...
22Greece73.6
23Taiwan72.8
24Cyprus72.6
25Canada72.2
26Portugal71.9
27USA71.2
28Slovakia70.6
29Lithuania69.3
World Avg56.4
q=180.
Energy to GDP Efficiency (2014)54
Pos.Higher is better54
1Hong Kong26.32
2Sri Lanka20.00
3Panama17.86
...
94Belarus05.81
95Niger05.81
96Zambia05.71
97Canada05.56
98China05.52
99Nepal05.35
100Iran05.32
101Kenya05.24
World Avg09.29
q=119.
Convention on Biological Diversity
Pos.Earlier is better
Signed
1China1993 Dec 29
2Guinea1993 Dec 29
3Cook Islands1993 Dec 29
...
7Armenia1993 Dec 29
8Ecuador1993 Dec 29
9Fiji1993 Dec 29
10Canada1993 Dec 29
11Monaco1993 Dec 29
12Maldives1993 Dec 29
13Marshall Islands1993 Dec 29
14Seychelles1993 Dec 29
World Avg1899 Dec 30
q=197.
Rational Beliefs on the Environment (2011)55
Pos.Higher is better
%55
1Argentina78.3%
2Greece77.6%
3Brazil77.1%
...
62Ukraine41.5%
63Jordan41.4%
64India41.2%
65Canada41.2%
66Serbia41.1%
67Ghana40.4%
68Moldova40.4%
69Cameroon39.0%
World Avg39.9%
q=145.

10. Economic Inequality and Poverty

#capitalism #economics #health #inequality #life_expectancy #social_development

Inequality in Life Expectancy (2019)56
Pos.Higher is worse56
184Chad40.90
183Central African Rep.40.10
182Sierra Leone39.00
...
38Slovakia5.00
37Serbia4.90
36Malta4.60
35Canada4.60
34Belarus4.40
33New Zealand4.30
32Poland4.30
31Croatia4.30
World Avg14.59
q=184.
Income Inequality (Gini Coefficient) (2017)57
Pos.Lower is better
%57
1Ukraine25.0
2Belarus25.4
3Slovenia25.4
...
50Luxembourg33.8
51Sierra Leone34.0
52Tajikistan34.0
53Canada34.0
54Cyprus34.0
55Latvia34.2
56Niger34.3
57Vietnam35.3
World Avg38.1
q=152.

11. Religion and Beliefs

#afterlife #belief #buddhism #christianity #god #heaven #hell #hinduism #islam #judaism #religion #universalism

Religiosity (2009)42
Pos.Lower is better
%42
1Estonia16
2Sweden17
3Denmark19
...
16Switzerland41
17Uruguay41
18Lithuania42
19Canada42
20S. Korea43
21Kazakhstan43
22Ukraine46
23Slovenia47
World Avg75.1
q=114.
Disbelief In God (2007)58
Pos.Higher is better
%58
1Vietnam81
2Japan65
3Sweden64
...
20Australia25
21Taiwan24
22New Zealand22
23Canada22
24Latvia20
25Ukraine20
26Mongolia20
27Austria18
World Avg9.9
q=137.

Data from the Pew Forum, a professional polling outfit, states that in 2010 the religious makeup of this country was as follows in the table below59:

Christian69%
Muslim2.1%
Hindu1.4%
Buddhist0.8%
Folk Religion1.2%
Jew1%
Unaffiliated23.7%

It appears that when asked "What religion are you" many give pollsters the 'correct' answer despite how they actually feel, and despite what they actually believe. Although 75.5% of the populace say they belong to a religion, only 42% say that they are religious when the question is phrased as "Is religion an important part of your daily life?".

For more on this phenomenon, see:

The CIA World Factbook has slightly different data, and states: Roman Catholic 42.6%, Protestant 23.3% (United Church 9.5%, Anglican 6.8%, Baptist 2.4%, Lutheran 2%), other Christian 4.4%, Muslim 1.9%, other and unspecified 11.8%, none 16% (2001 census)60.

The Afterlife: Ipsos-NA in 2011 gathered some statistics on Canada61. Despite the large numbers of Christians, not many have traditional beliefs in the afterlife - just 18%. More people don't know what to believe (25%). Some believe that upon death, you simply cease to exist (18%). Also, 3% specifically believe in heaven but not in hell (which is nice - making them possible "universalists"). 8% believe in reincarnation.

Freedom of Thought: The International Humanist and Ethical Union produced a report in 2012 entitled "Freedom of Thought" (2012)62, in which they document bias and prejudice at the national level that is based on religion, belief and/or lack of belief. Their entry for Canada states:

The constitution and other laws and policies protect freedom of religion or belief. However six of the ten provinces provide partial or full funding to religious schools. Most of these publicly funded religious schools are Roman Catholic. Although five provinces allow other denominations to run publicly funded schools. Publicly funded religious schools can discriminate on religious grounds in hiring and in accepting students. Around 16 percent of the Canadian population claims no religious affiliation, yet in the vast low-population expanses of Canada, the religious school may well be the only public school within a reasonable distance for many non-religious students.

Ontario is the only province that funds Catholic religious education while providing no funding for other religious schools. One third of Ontario's public schools (around 1,400) are Catholic schools, and they receive 100% of their funding from the government. Catholic schools discriminate against non-Catholics in hiring staff. Catholic schools can also exclude non-Catholic children.

"Freedom of Thought" by IHEU (2012)63

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