The Human Truth Foundation

Canada

By Vexen Crabtree 2013


Comments:
FB, LJ

#canada #charity #economics #happiness #intelligence #morals #research #science #the_environment

Canada
StatusIndependent State
CapitalOttawa
Land Area9 093 510km21
LocationNorth America, The Americas
Population34.7m (2011)2
Life Expectancy82.22yrs (2017)3
GNI$42 582 (2017)4
ISO3166-1 CodesCA, CAN, 1245
Internet Domain.ca6
CurrencyDollar (CAD)7
Telephone+18

1. Overview

#UK #USA

A land of vast distances and rich natural resources, Canada became a self-governing dominion in 1867 while retaining ties to the British crown. Economically and technologically, the nation has developed in parallel with the US, its neighbor to the south across the world's longest unfortified border. Canada faces the political challenges of meeting public demands for quality improvements in health care, education, social services, and economic competitiveness, as well as responding to the particular concerns of predominantly francophone Quebec. Canada also aims to develop its diverse energy resources while maintaining its commitment to the environment.

CIA's The World Factbook (2013)9

Book CoverCanada is more than its hulking mountain, craggy-coast good looks: it also cooks extraordinary meals, rocks cool culture and unfurls wild, moosespotting road trips. The globe´s second-biggest country has an endless variety of landscapes. Sky-high mountains, glinting glaciers, spectral rainforests and remote beaches are all here, spread across six times zones. It´s the backdrop for plenty of ah-inspiring moments - and for a big provincial menagerie. That´s big as in polar bears, grizzly bears, whales and, everyone´s favorite, moose.

The arts are an integral part of Canada´s cultural landscape, from the International Fringe Theater Festival in Edmonton to mega museums such as Ottawa´s National Gallery. Montreal´s Jazz Festival and Toronto´s starstudded Film Festival draw global crowds.

Sip a café au lait and tear into a flaky croissant at a sidewalk bistro in Montréal; head to an Asian night market and slurp noodles in Vancouver; join a wild-fiddling Celtic party on Cape Breton Island; kayak between rainforest-cloaked aboriginal villages on Haida Gwaii: Canada is incredibly diverse across its breadth and within its cities. You´ll hear it in the music, see it in the arts and taste it in the cuisine.

"The World" by Lonely Planet (2014)10

2. Canada National and Social Development

#human_development

UN HDI (2016)11
Pos.Lower is better
Rank11
1Norway1
2Australia2
3Switzerland2
...
7Netherlands7
8Ireland8
9Iceland9
10Canada10
11USA10
12Hong Kong12
13New Zealand13
14Sweden14
World Avg94.3
q=188.
Social & Moral
Development Index
12
Pos.Higher is better
Points12
1Denmark84.2
2Sweden83.7
3Finland83.5
...
10UK80.5
11New Zealand80.4
12Iceland80.3
13Canada79.8
14Austria79.3
15Luxembourg79.2
16Australia78.9
17Hong Kong77.5
World Avg54.1
q=198.

The United Nations produces an annual Human Development Report which includes the Human Development Index. The factors taken into account include life expectancy, education and schooling and Gross National Income (GNI) amongst many others..

The Social and Moral Development Index concentrates on moral issues and human rights, violence, public health, equality, tolerance, freedom and effectiveness in climate change mitigation and environmentalism, and on some technological issues. A country scores higher for achieving well in those areas, and for sustaining that achievement in the long term. Those countries towards the top of this index can truly said to be setting good examples and leading humankind onwards into a bright, humane, and free future. See: What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life.

3. Population and Demographics

#Canada #demographics #health #immigration #life_expectancy #overpopulation #population

Old-Age Dependency Ratio (2016)13
Pos.Lower is better
Per 10013
1Uganda04.3
2Mali04.5
3Chad04.7
...
168Estonia37.9
169Belgium38.1
170Switzerland38.3
171Canada38.5
172Croatia39.7
173Malta39.9
174France40.5
175Austria40.5
World Avg18.3
q=185.
Emigrants (2010)14
Pos.
%14
1Dominica104.8
2Palestine68.4
3Samoa67.3
...
131Peru3.7
132Czechia3.6
133Mauritania3.5
134Canada3.5
135Algeria3.4
136Sweden3.4
137Ghana3.4
138Nepal3.3
World Avg11.5
q=192.
Fertility Rate (2013)15
Pos.2.0 is best15
1Korea, N.2.00
2Brunei1.99
3St Vincent & Grenadines2.01
...
47Cape Verde2.29
48Estonia1.71
49UAE1.70
50Canada1.69
51Colombia2.31
52Maldives1.67
53Luxembourg1.67
54Turkmenistan2.33
World Avg2.81
q=180.

Immigrants (2010)14
Pos.
%14
1Qatar86.5
2Monaco71.6
3UAE70.0
...
20Antigua & Barbuda23.6
21Switzerland23.2
22New Zealand22.4
23Canada21.3
24Ireland19.6
25Kazakhstan19.5
26Gabon18.9
27Lebanon17.8
World Avg9.2
q=192.
Life Expectancy (2015)16
Pos.Higher is better
Years16
1Hong Kong84.16
2Japan83.68
3Italy83.34
...
9Australia82.54
10France82.36
11Sweden82.35
12Canada82.22
13Korea, S.82.13
14New Zealand82.03
15Chile81.96
16Luxembourg81.88
World Avg71.27
q=190.
Population (2012)17
Pos.The Overpopulation of the Earth17
1China1.4b
2India1.3b
3USA315.8m
...
34Algeria36.5m
35Uganda35.6m
36Sudan35.0m
37Canada34.7m
38Iraq33.7m
39Afghanistan33.4m
40Morocco32.6m
41Nepal31.0m
World Avg36.0m
q=195.

Canada's population is predicted to rise to 39.85 million by 2030. This rise is despite a low fertility rate, meaning, that this country is helping to alleviate problems with growing population in neighbouring countries by accepting immigrants, very likely as a requirement of maintaining an active workforce. This country has a fertility rate of 1.69. The fertility rate is, in simple terms, the average amount of children that each woman has. The higher the figure, the quicker the population is growing, although, to calculate the rate you also need to take into account morbidity, i.e., the rate at which people die. If people live healthy and long lives and morbidity is low, then, 2.0 approximates to the replacement rate, which would keep the population stable. If all countries had such a fertility rate, population growth would end. The actual replacement rate in most developed countries is around 2.1.

4. Human Rights, Equality and Freedom

#canada #equality #freedom #human_rights #politics #tolerance

When it comes to ensuring human rights and freedom, Canada leads the world, setting excellent examples. Canada does the second-best in eliminating modern slavery18. It comes in the top 20 in its Global Peace Index rating19, supporting personal, civil & economic freedoms20, fighting corruption21, fighting anti-semitic opinions22 and in opposing gender inequality23. And finally, it does better than average in LGBT equality24, supporting press freedom25 and in its nominal commitment to Human Rights26. Canada actively seeks to protect human rights at home and internationally, and has developed a culture that is tolerant, where it is frowned upon to behave in a prejudiced manner. Although Human Rights Watch does have some criticism when it comes to protecting the rights of Indigenous peoples and the placement of children in immigration detention27.

For tables, charts and commentary, see:

5. Religion and Beliefs

#afterlife #belief #buddhism #christianity #god #heaven #hell #hinduism #islam #judaism #religion #universalism

Religiosity (2009)28
Pos.Lower is better
%28
1Estonia16
2Sweden17
3Denmark19
...
16Switzerland41
17Uruguay41
18Lithuania42
19Canada42
20Korea, S.43
21Kazakhstan43
22Ukraine46
23Slovenia47
World Avg75.1
q=114.
Disbelief In God (2007)29
Pos.Higher is better29
1Vietnam81
2Japan65
3Sweden64
...
20Australia25
21Taiwan24
22New Zealand22
23Canada22
24Latvia20
25Ukraine20
26Mongolia20
27Austria18
World Avg9.9
q=137.

Data from the Pew Forum, a professional polling outfit, states that in 2010 the religious makeup of this country was as follows in the table below30:

Christian69%
Muslim2.1%
Hindu1.4%
Buddhist0.8%
Folk Religion1.2%
Jew1%
Unaffiliated23.7%

It appears that when asked "What religion are you" many give pollsters the 'correct' answer despite how they actually feel, and despite what they actually believe. Although 75.5% of the populace say they belong to a religion, only 42% say that they are religious when the question is phrased as "Is religion an important part of your daily life?".

For more on this phenomenon, see:

The CIA World Factbook has slightly different data, and states: Roman Catholic 42.6%, Protestant 23.3% (United Church 9.5%, Anglican 6.8%, Baptist 2.4%, Lutheran 2%), other Christian 4.4%, Muslim 1.9%, other and unspecified 11.8%, none 16% (2001 census)31.

The Afterlife: Ipsos-NA in 2011 gathered some statistics on Canada32. Despite the large numbers of Christians, not many have traditional beliefs in the afterlife - just 18%. More people don't know what to believe (25%). Some believe that upon death, you simply cease to exist (18%). Also, 3% specifically believe in heaven but not in hell (which is nice - making them possible "universalists"). 8% believe in reincarnation.

Freedom of Thought: The International Humanist and Ethical Union produced a report in 2012 entitled "Freedom of Thought" (2012)33, in which they document bias and prejudice at the national level that is based on religion, belief and/or lack of belief. Their entry for Canada states:

The constitution and other laws and policies protect freedom of religion or belief. However six of the ten provinces provide partial or full funding to religious schools. Most of these publicly funded religious schools are Roman Catholic. Although five provinces allow other denominations to run publicly funded schools. Publicly funded religious schools can discriminate on religious grounds in hiring and in accepting students. Around 16 percent of the Canadian population claims no religious affiliation, yet in the vast low-population expanses of Canada, the religious school may well be the only public school within a reasonable distance for many non-religious students.

Ontario is the only province that funds Catholic religious education while providing no funding for other religious schools. One third of Ontario's public schools (around 1,400) are Catholic schools, and they receive 100% of their funding from the government. Catholic schools discriminate against non-Catholics in hiring staff. Catholic schools can also exclude non-Catholic children.

"Freedom of Thought" by IHEU (2012)34

Links:

6. The Internet

#Canada #internet #it_security #the_internet

Internet Users (2016)35
Pos.Higher is better35
1Iceland100%
2Faroe Islands99%
3Norway98%
...
18Japan91%
19New Zealand89%
20USA89%
21Canada89%
22Belgium89%
23Czechia88%
24Germany88%
25Aruba88%
World Avg48.1%
q=201.
IPv6 Uptake (2017)36
Pos.Higher is better
Ratio36
1Belgium55.4
2Germany41.8
3Switzerland35.1
...
10UK24.7
11Japan22.1
12France18.8
13Canada18.3
14Peru18.3
15Ecuador18.2
16Estonia17.6
17Malaysia16.5
World Avg3.82
q=176.
IT Security (2013)37
Pos.Lower is better37
1Ireland0.11
2Luxembourg0.11
3Belize0.11
...
40Kuwait0.93
41Saudi Arabia0.93
42Malaysia0.96
43Canada0.96
44Tajikistan1.01
45Brazil1.02
46Indonesia1.05
47British Virgin Islands1.08
World Avg0.98
q=81.

Internet access has become an essential research tool. It facilitates an endless list of life improvements, from the ability to network and socialize without constraint, to access to a seemingly infinite repository of technical and procedural information on pretty much any task. The universal availability of data has sped up industrial development and personal learning at the national and personal level. Individuals can read any topic they wish regardless of the locality of expert teachers, and, entire nations can develop their technology and understanding of the world simply because they are now exposed to advanced societies and moral discourses online. Like every communications medium, the Internet has issues and causes a small range of problems, but these are insignificant compared to the advantages of having an online populace.

7. Public Health Issues

#alcohol #Canada #health #mental_health #parenting #population #smoking #suicide #vaccines

Adolescent Birth Rate (2015)23
Pos.Lower is better
Per 100023
1Korea, N.0.5
2Korea, S.1.6
3Switzerland2.9
...
29France8.9
30Croatia9.5
31Israel9.7
32Canada9.8
33Kuwait9.8
34Portugal9.9
35Czechia9.9
36Ireland10.4
World Avg47.9
q=185.
Alcohol Consumption (2010)38
Pos.Lower is better
Per Capita38
1Libya0.1
2Pakistan0.1
3Kuwait0.1
...
149Uganda9.8
150Netherlands9.9
151Nigeria10.1
152Canada10.2
153Estonia10.3
154Kazakhstan10.3
155Austria10.3
156Greece10.3
World Avg6.2
q=191.
Food Aid, Health Contributions & WHO Compliance (2017)39
Pos.Lower is better
Rank39
1Sweden1
2Ireland2
3Denmark3
4UK4
5Norway5
6Switzerland6
7Germany7
8Canada8
9Netherlands9
10USA10
11Luxembourg11
12Finland12
World Avg82.0
q=163.

Infant Immunizations 2011-2015 (2015)40
Pos.Higher is better
Avg %40
1Hungary99.0
2China99.0
3Uzbekistan98.9
...
139Dominican Rep.86.3
140Panama86.1
141Belarus85.3
142Canada85.2
143Guatemala85.2
144Togo84.3
145Zambia84.2
146Congo, (Brazzaville)83.6
World Avg88.3
q=194.
Smoking Rates (2014)41
Pos.Lower is better41
1Guinea 15
2Solomon Islands 26
3Kiribati 28
...
128Moldova1 114
129Lithuania1 124
130Uruguay1 135
131Canada1 154
132Albania1 177
133Egypt1 188
134Vietnam1 215
135Iraq1 227
World Avg 819
q=182.
Suicide Rate (2013)42
Pos.Lower is better
Per 100k42
1Haiti0
2Grenada0
3Egypt0.1
...
52Trinidad & Tobago21.7
53USA22.2
54Chile22.4
55Canada22.7
56Iceland23.5
57New Zealand23.6
58Ireland23.7
59Norway23.8
World Avg20.93
q=91.

8. More Charts and Comparisons to Other Countries

Personal Charitability
(World Position, 2013-2016)
43
Pos.Lower is better43
1Myanmar (Burma)1.25
2USA1.5
3New Zealand3.5
4Canada3.75
5Australia5.25
6UK6.75
7Ireland6.75
8Sri Lanka8
9Qatar9
10Trinidad & Tobago10
11Netherlands10
q=156.
Intellectual Endeavours (2017)39
Pos.Lower is better
Rank39
1Ukraine1
2Czechia2
3Hungary3
...
26Singapore26
27Greece27
28Serbia28
29Canada29
30Romania30
31Cyprus31
32Ireland32
q=163.
Creativity and Culture (2017)39
Pos.Lower is better
Rank39
1Belgium1
2Netherlands2
3Estonia3
...
22Norway22
23Lithuania23
24St Lucia24
25Canada25
26Italy26
27Mauritius27
28Malta28
q=163.
Peacekeeping and Security (2017)39
Pos.Lower is better
Rank39
1Samoa1
2S. Africa2
3Tunisia3
...
38Togo38
39Argentina39
40China40
41Canada41
42Azerbaijan42
43Senegal43
44Switzerland44
q=163.
Refugees and UN Treaties (2017)39
Pos.Lower is better
Rank39
1Austria1
2Germany2
3Netherlands3
...
8Finland8
9Denmark9
10Switzerland10
11Canada11
12UK12
13Belgium13
14Italy14
q=163.
Open Trading, Aid and Development (2017)39
Pos.Lower is better
Rank39
1Ireland1
2Denmark2
3Sweden3
...
24Jordan24
25Mauritius25
26Zimbabwe26
27Canada27
28Trinidad & Tobago28
29Timor-Leste (E. Timor)29
30Burkina Faso30
q=163.
Research and Development (2016)
Pos.Higher is better
% RDP PPP
1Korea, S.4.29
2Israel4.11
3Japan3.58
...
19Iceland1.89
20Norway1.70
21UK1.70
22Canada1.61
23Ireland1.52
24Estonia1.43
25Hungary1.37
26Italy1.29
q=126.
Life Satisfaction (2011)44
Pos.Higher is better44
1Denmark7.8
2Norway7.6
3Netherlands7.6
4Venezuela7.5
5Sweden7.5
6Switzerland7.5
7Austria7.5
8Canada7.4
9Australia7.4
10Israel7.4
11Finland7.4
12Costa Rica7.3
q=150.
Gross National Income Per-Capita (2011)16
Pos.Higher is better
PPP $16
1Qatar$129 916
2Singapore$78 162
3Kuwait$76 075
...
19Ireland$43 798
20Austria$43 609
21Australia$42 822
22Canada$42 582
23Belgium$41 243
24Finland$38 868
25France$38 085
26UK$37 931
q=193.
Environmental Performance (2018)45
Pos.Higher is better45
1Switzerland87.4
2France84.0
3Denmark81.6
...
22Greece73.6
23Taiwan72.8
24Cyprus72.6
25Canada72.2
26Portugal71.9
27USA71.2
28Slovakia70.6
29Lithuania69.3
q=180.
IQ (2006)46
Pos.Higher is better46
1Hong Kong108
2Singapore108
3Korea, S.106
...
19Estonia99
20Sweden99
21Belgium99
22Canada99
23Andorra98
24Czechia98
25Spain98
26France98
q=138.

Current edition: 2013 May 01
Last Modified: 2017 Jun 18
http://www.humantruth.info/canada.html
Parent page: Compare International Statistics by Region and Continent

All #tags used on this page - click for more:

#afterlife #alcohol #belief #buddhism #Canada #charity #christianity #demographics #economics #equality #freedom #god #happiness #health #heaven #hell #hinduism #human_development #human_rights #immigration #intelligence #internet #islam #it_security #judaism #life_expectancy #mental_health #morals #overpopulation #parenting #politics #population #religion #research #science #smoking #suicide #the_environment #the_internet #tolerance #UK #universalism #USA #vaccines

Social Media

References: (What's this?)

The Good Country Index. Published by The Good Country Inc., New York, USA. Website: goodcountry.org. The Good Country Index gauges how well countries are doing in helping international development. Edition 1.2 (2017) has 35 criteria.

Anti-Defamation League. (ADL)
(2014) ADL Global 100, Executive Summary. Accessed on global100.adl.org on 2017 Jan 02. The numbers given are of those who state that racist stereotyped statements about Jews are true; they have to agree to 6 or more of the 11 statements to be counted. An example statements is "Jews are hated because of the way they behave". The data was collected from 53,100 interviews across 101 countries plus the West Bank and Gaza. The global average is 26%.

Charities Aid Foundation
World Giving Index. On www.cafonline.org.

CIA
(2013) World Factbook. The USA Government's Central Intelligence Agency (USA CIA) publishes The World Factbook, and the online version is frequently updated.

Crabtree, Vexen
(2018) "What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life" (2018). Accessed 2018 Oct 26.

The Fraser Institute
(2016) The Human Freedom Index. Published by The Cato Institute, The Fraser Institute and the Friedrich Naumann Foundation for Freedom. Covers data up to 2014. On www.fraserinstitute.org/.../human-freedom-index-2016.

Gallup
(2009) Religiosity. gallup.com/poll/142727/.... The survey question was "Is religion an important part of your daily life?" and results are charted for those who said "yes". 1000 adults were polled in each of 114 countries.

Human Rights Watch
(2018) World Report 2018. Covering the events of 2017.

IHEU. International Humanist and Ethical Union.
(2012) Freedom of Thought. A copy can be found on iheu.org/...Freedom of Thought 2012.pdf, accessed 2013 Oct 28.

Ipsos-NA. Ipsos-North America.
(2011) Supreme Being(s), the Afterlife and Evolution. Ipsos press release page, link to raw data. Accessed 2017 May 29. The poll was conducted in 23 developed and mostly rich countries - it would be unwise to use their irresponsibly extrapolated data on "global beliefs", but their data on individual countries is still good.

Lonely Planet
(2014) The World. Subtitled: "A Traveller's Guide to the Planet". Published by Lonely Planet, London, UK. Each chapter is devoted to a specific country and includes a list of the most interesting places to visit and a few other cultural notes.

Lynn, Harvey & Nyborg
(2009) Average intelligence predicts atheism rates across 137 nations. Richard Lynn, John Harvey and Helmuth Nyborg. Published in Intelligence (2009 Jan/Feb) vol. 37 issue 1 pages 11-15. Online at www.sciencedirect.com, accessed 2009 Sep 15.

United Nations
(2011) Human Development Report. Published by the UN Development Programme. This edition had the theme of Sustainability and Equity: A Better Future for All. Available on hdr.undp.org/... UN Development Program: About the Human Development Index.
(2013) Human Development Report. Published by the UN Development Programme. This edition had the theme of The Rise of the South: Human Progress in a Diverse World. Available on hdr.undp.org/... UN Development Program: About the Human Development Index.
(2017) Human Development Report. Published by the UN Development Programme. Data for 2015. Available on hdr.undp.org/.

Walk Free Foundation
(2018) Global Slavery Index. Published on www.walkfreefoundation.org/.

World Health Organisation. (WHO)
(2014) Global Status Report on Alcohol and Health. A copy can be found on the WHO website. Accessed 2015 Jan 04. It "presents a comprehensive perspective on the global, regional and country consumption of alcohol, patterns of drinking, health consequences and policy responses in Member States" and was published in Geneva on 2014 May 12.

Footnotes

  1. World Bank data on data.worldbank.org accessed 2013 Nov 04.^
  2. UN (2011) .^
  3. UN (2017). Table 1.^
  4. UN (2017). Gross National Income, per person. Table 1.^
  5. International Standards Organisation (ISO) standard ISO3166-1, on www.iso.org, accessed 2013 May 01.^
  6. Top level domains (TLDs) are managed by the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) on www.iana.org.^
  7. According to ISO4217.^
  8. According to ITU-T.^
  9. CIA (2013). Https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/ca.html accessed 2014 Apr 27.^
  10. Lonely Planet (2014). Chapter "Canada".^
  11. UN (2017). Table 1. Lower is better.^
  12. "What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life" by Vexen Crabtree (2018)^
  13. UN (2017). Dashboard 2. Higher is worse. Old-age is counted as 65+, and ratio is of these to people ages 15-64. Projections are for 2030 based on medium-fertility variant of growth.^
  14. UN (2013). Table 11.^
  15. UN (2013). Table 14. Births per woman (2012), expressed as deviance (positive or negative) from the value of 2.0.^
  16. UN (2017). Table 1. Higher is better.^^
  17. UN (2013). Table 14.^
  18. Walk Free Foundation (2018) .^
  19. ^
  20. Fraser Institute, the (2016). Covers data for 2014.^
  21. Transparency International Corruption Perceptions Index (2017). Accessed 2017 Dec 30. The scores given are the TI average for the years 2012-2016.^
  22. ADL (2014). Lower is better.^
  23. UN (2017). Table 5. Lower is better.^^
  24. Sources:^
  25. Reporters Without Borders Report "2013 World Press Freedom Index: Dashed hopes after spring" at fr.rsf.org/.../classement_2013_gb-bd.pdf accessed 2013 Feb.^
  26. Max possible=24. Total amount of treaties ratified. Nominal Commitment to Human Rights report published by UCL School of Public Policy, London, UK, at ucl.ac.uk/spp/research/research-projects/nchr accessed 2011 Apr 30.^
  27. Human Rights Watch (2018). P118-123.^
  28. Gallup (2009) .^
  29. Zuckerman, P. (2007). Atheism: contemporary numbers and patterns. In M.Martin (Ed.), The Cambridge Companion to Atheism. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. In "Average intelligence predicts atheism rates across 137 nations" by Lynn et al. (2009)46.^
  30. Pew Forum (2012) publication "The Global Religious Landscape: A Report on the Size and Distribution of the World´s Major Religious Groups as of 2010" (2012 Dec 18) accessed 2013 May 01.^
  31. CIA (2013). Https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/ar.html accessed 2014 Apr 27.^
  32. Ipsos (2011) .^
  33. IHEU (2012) .^
  34. IHEU (2012) .Added to this page on 2013 Oct 28.^
  35. internetlivestats.com/internet-users-by-country accessed 2017 Mar 10.^
  36. % of internet access via native IPv6 compared to IPv4. As of 2017 Jun 20, from http://www.cidr-report.org. Accessed 2017 Jun 20.^
  37. "What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life: 3.4. Malware and Email Spam" by Vexen Crabtree (2018)^
  38. WHO (2014). Appendix 1. Alcohol Per Capita Consumption in liters of pure alcohol, 15+ years age population, consumed in 2010. Lower is better.^
  39. The Good Country Index (2017) .^^
  40. World Health Organisation data for 2011-2015 from 7 data series accessed 2017 May 21. Details in "Immunizations: International Statistics on Vaccines and the Autism Scare: 3. World Health Organisation Statistics" by Vexen Crabtree (2017).^
  41. Annual Cigarette Consumption Per Adult (age 15 and above) - compustible cigarettes. Euromonitor International (2014), via tobaccoatlas.org/topic/cigarette-use-globally/ . Accessed 2017 Jun 20.^
  42. UN (2013). World Health Organisation statistics. Suicide Rates Per 100k.^
  43. Charities Aid Foundation. Average ranking across years 2013-2016. Lower is better.^
  44. UN (2013). Table 9. Higher is better. Table 9. The UN's data is the latest available from a range of data from 2007-2011.^
  45. Yale University Center for Environmental Law & Policy 2018 EPI.^
  46. Lynn, Harvey & Nyborg (2009) .^

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