The Human Truth Foundation

Uruguay (Oriental Republic of Uruguay)

By Vexen Crabtree 2013


Comments:
FB, LJ

#charity #economics #happiness #homosexuality #intelligence #morals #research #science #the_environment #uruguay

Uruguay
Oriental Republic of Uruguay
StatusIndependent State
CapitalMontevideo
Land Area 175 020km21
LocationSouth America, The Americas
Population3.4m (2011)2
Life Expectancy77.35yrs (2017)3
GNI$19 148 (2017)4
ISO3166-1 CodesUY, URY, 8585
Internet Domain.uy6
CurrencyPeso (UYU)7
Telephone+5988

1. Overview

Montevideo, founded by the Spanish in 1726 as a military stronghold, soon took advantage of its natural harbor to become an important commercial center. Claimed by Argentina but annexed by Brazil in 1821, Uruguay declared its independence four years later and secured its freedom in 1828 after a three-year struggle. The administrations of President Jose BATLLE in the early 20th century established widespread political, social, and economic reforms that established a statist tradition. A violent Marxist urban guerrilla movement named the Tupamaros, launched in the late 1960s, led Uruguay's president to cede control of the government to the military in 1973. By yearend, the rebels had been crushed, but the military continued to expand its hold over the government. Civilian rule was not restored until 1985. In 2004, the left-of-center Frente Amplio Coalition won national elections that effectively ended 170 years of political control previously held by the Colorado and Blanco parties. Uruguay's political and labor conditions are among the freest on the continent.

CIA's The World Factbook (2013)9

Book CoverUruguay is a backpacker´s dream. Travelers come for the wild, surf-pounded beaches, for celeb-spotting at Punta and the history-soaked smugglers´ port of Colonia. Wedged like a grape between Brazil´s gargantuan thumb and Argentina´s long forefinger, South America´s smallest Spanish-speaking country has always been an underdog. Bypassed by the Spanish for its lack of mineral wealth, batted about like a ping-pong ball at the whim of its more powerful neighbors and neglected by many modern-day travelers, Uruguay remains a delightfully low-key, hospitable place where visitors can melt into the background – whether caught in a cow-and-gaucho traffic jam on a dirt road to nowhere or strolling with mate-toting locals along Montevideo´s beachfront.

Short-term visitors will find plenty to keep them busy in cosmopolitan Montevideo, picturesque Colonia and party-till-you-drop Punta del Este. But if you´ve got time, dig a little deeper. Go wildlife-watching along the Atlantic coast, hot-spring-hopping up the Río Uruguay, or horseback riding under the big sky of Uruguay´s vast interior, where fields spread out like oceans dotted with little cow and eucalyptus islands.

"The World" by Lonely Planet (2014)10

2. Uruguay National and Social Development

#human_development

UN HDI (2016)11
Pos.Lower is better
Rank11
1Norway1
2Australia2
3Switzerland2
...
52Belarus52
53Oman52
54Barbados54
55Uruguay54
56Kazakhstan56
57Bulgaria56
58Bahamas58
59Malaysia59
World Avg94.3
q=188.
Social & Moral
Development Index
12
Pos.Higher is better
Points12
1Iceland83.4
2Denmark82.4
3Sweden82.1
...
27Korea, S.69.4
28Portugal69.3
29Singapore69.2
30Uruguay68.9
31Italy68.7
32Poland66.3
33Malta66.3
34Hungary65.6
World Avg55.3
q=198.

The United Nations produces an annual Human Development Report which includes the Human Development Index. The factors taken into account include life expectancy, education and schooling and Gross National Income (GNI) amongst many others..

The Social and Moral Development Index concentrates on moral issues and human rights, violence, public health, equality, tolerance, freedom and effectiveness in climate change mitigation and environmentalism, and on some technological issues. A country scores higher for achieving well in those areas, and for sustaining that achievement in the long term. Those countries towards the top of this index can truly said to be setting good examples and leading humankind onwards into a bright, humane, and free future. See: What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life.

3. Population and Demographics

#demographics #health #immigration #life_expectancy #overpopulation #population #Uruguay

Old-Age Dependency Ratio (2016)13
Pos.Lower is better
Per 10013
1Uganda04.3
2Mali04.5
3Chad04.7
...
129Moldova24.7
130China25.3
131Mauritius25.9
132Uruguay26.8
133Cyprus26.9
134Chile27.0
135Macedonia27.7
136Luxembourg28.3
World Avg18.3
q=185.
Emigrants (2010)14
Pos.
%14
1Dominica104.8
2Palestine68.4
3Samoa67.3
...
63Mexico10.7
64Andorra10.7
65Liberia10.5
66Uruguay10.5
67Hong Kong10.2
68Dominican Rep.10.1
69Zimbabwe9.9
70Haiti9.9
World Avg11.5
q=192.
Fertility Rate (2013)15
Pos.2.0 is best15
1Korea, N.2.00
2Brunei1.99
3St Vincent & Grenadines2.01
4France1.99
5Turkey2.04
6Australia1.96
7Uruguay2.05
8Norway1.95
9Myanmar (Burma)1.95
10Indonesia2.07
11Sweden1.93
12Tunisia1.93
World Avg2.81
q=180.

Immigrants (2010)14
Pos.
%14
1Qatar86.5
2Monaco71.6
3UAE70.0
...
112Paraguay2.5
113Slovakia2.4
114Micronesia2.4
115Uruguay2.4
116Cape Verde2.4
117Liberia2.3
118Pakistan2.3
119Cambodia2.2
World Avg9.2
q=192.
Life Expectancy (2015)16
Pos.Higher is better
Years16
1Hong Kong84.16
2Japan83.68
3Italy83.34
...
42Panama77.76
43Poland77.62
44Croatia77.50
45Uruguay77.35
46UAE77.12
47Estonia77.01
48Mexico76.97
49Oman76.97
World Avg71.27
q=190.
Population (2012)17
Pos.The Overpopulation of the Earth17
1China1.4b
2India1.3b
3USA315.8m
...
129Panama3.6m
130Mauritania3.6m
131Moldova3.5m
132Uruguay3.4m
133Lithuania3.3m
134Albania3.2m
135Armenia3.1m
136Oman2.9m
World Avg36.0m
q=195.

Uruguay's population is predicted to rise to 3.601 million by 2030. This country has a fertility rate of 2.05. The fertility rate is, in simple terms, the average amount of children that each woman has. The higher the figure, the quicker the population is growing, although, to calculate the rate you also need to take into account morbidity, i.e., the rate at which people die. If people live healthy and long lives and morbidity is low, then, 2.0 approximates to the replacement rate, which would keep the population stable. If all countries had such a fertility rate, population growth would end. The actual replacement rate in most developed countries is around 2.1.

4. Politics and Freedom

#antisemitism #corruption #freedom #human_development #human_rights #mass_media #peace #politics #slavery #Uruguay

Anti-Semite Opinions (2014)18
Pos.Lower is better
%18
1Laos0
2Philippines3
3Sweden4
...
51Bangladesh32
52Bosnia & Herzegovina32
53Costa Rica32
54Uruguay33
55Croatia33
56Botswana33
57Nicaragua34
58Romania35
World Avg36.8
q=101.
Corruption (2012-2016)19
Pos.Higher is better
Avg Score19
1Denmark90.8
2New Zealand90.6
3Finland89.4
...
17Japan74.2
18USA74.0
19Ireland72.6
20Uruguay72.6
21Austria72.2
22Barbados71.5
23Chile70.4
24France70.0
World Avg43.05
q=176.
Global Peace Index (2012)20
Pos.Lower is better20
1Iceland1.11
2New Zealand1.24
3Denmark1.24
...
30Chile1.62
31Botswana1.62
32Romania1.63
33Uruguay1.63
34Vietnam1.64
35Croatia1.65
36Costa Rica1.66
37Laos1.66
World Avg2.02
q=157.

Nominal Commitment to HR (2009)21
Pos.Higher is better
Treaties21
1Argentina24
2Chile23
3Costa Rica23
...
10Paraguay23
11Serbia23
12Sweden23
13Uruguay23
14Italy22
15Denmark22
16Croatia22
17Belgium22
World Avg15.1
q=194.
Personal, Civil & Economic Freedom (2014)22
Pos.Lower is better
Rank22
1Hong Kong1
2Switzerland2
3New Zealand3
...
39Slovenia39
40Bulgaria40
41Singapore40
42Uruguay42
43Georgia43
44Croatia44
45Montenegro44
46Panama46
World Avg79.7
q=159.
Press Freedom (2013)23
Pos.Lower is better23
1Finland638
2Netherlands648
3Norway652
...
24Cyprus1383
25Cape Verde1433
26Australia1524
27Uruguay1592
28Portugal1675
29UK1689
30Ghana1727
31Suriname1819
World Avg3249
q=178.

Slavery (2018)24
Pos.Lower is better
% Victims24
1Japan0.0003
2Canada0.0005
3Taiwan0.0005
4Australia0.0006
5New Zealand0.0006
6Chile0.0008
7Mauritius0.0010
8Uruguay0.0010
9Costa Rica0.0013
10USA0.0013
11Argentina0.0013
12Hong Kong0.0014
World Avg0.0065
q=167.

5. Gender Equality

#gender #misogyny #politics #Uruguay #women

Gender Inequality (2015)25
Pos.Lower is better25
1Switzerland0.04
2Denmark0.04
3Netherlands0.04
...
52Russia0.27
53Mongolia0.28
54Oman0.28
55Uruguay0.28
56Ukraine0.28
57Uzbekistan0.29
58Tunisia0.29
59Malaysia0.29
World Avg0.36
q=159.
Year Women Can Vote26
Pos.Lower is better
Year26
1New Zealand1893
2Australia1902
3Finland1906
...
35Sri Lanka1931
36Spain1931
37Maldives1932
38Uruguay1932
39Thailand1932
40Turkey1934
41Brazil1934
42Cuba1934
World Avg1930
q=189.

Gender inequality is not a necessary part of early human development. Although a separation of roles is almost universal due to different strengths between the genders, this does not have to mean that women are subdued, and, such patriarchialism is not universal in ancient history. Those cultures and peoples who shed, or never developed, the idea that mankind ought to dominate womankind, are better cultures and peoples than those who, even today, cling violently to those mores.

Uruguay is on the way towards ending gender inequality but women are still in an unfavourable position much of the time.

See:

6. Religion and Beliefs

#belief #buddhism #christianity #god #hinduism #islam #judaism #religion

Religiosity (2009)27
Pos.Lower is better
%27
1Estonia16
2Sweden17
3Denmark19
...
14Albania39
15Germany40
16Switzerland41
17Uruguay41
18Lithuania42
19Canada42
20Korea, S.43
21Kazakhstan43
World Avg75.1
q=114.
Disbelief In God (2007)28
Pos.Higher is better28
1Vietnam81
2Japan65
3Sweden64
...
37Singapore13
38Kazakhstan12
39China12
40Uruguay12
41USA10
42Trinidad & Tobago9
43Albania8
44Dominican Rep.7
World Avg9.9
q=137.

Data from the Pew Forum, a professional polling outfit, states that in 2010 the religious makeup of this country was as follows in the table below29:

Christian57.9%
Muslim0.1%
Hindu0.1%
Buddhist0.1%
Folk Religion0.8%
Jew0.3%
Unaffiliated40.7%

It appears that when asked "What religion are you" many give pollsters the 'correct' answer despite how they actually feel, and despite what they actually believe. Although 59.3% of the populace say they belong to a religion, only 41% say that they are religious when the question is phrased as "Is religion an important part of your daily life?".

For more on this phenomenon, see:

The CIA World Factbook has slightly different data, and states: Roman Catholic 47.1%, non-Catholic Christians 11.1%, nondenominational 23.2%, Jewish 0.3%, atheist or agnostic 17.2%, other 1.1% (2006)30.

Links:

7. The Internet

#internet #the_internet #Uruguay

Internet Users (2016)31
Pos.Higher is better31
1Iceland100%
2Faroe Islands99%
3Norway98%
...
65St Kitts & Nevis66%
66Dominica66%
67Italy66%
68Uruguay65%
69Antigua & Barbuda65%
70Greece65%
71Saudi Arabia65%
72French Polynesia64%
World Avg48.1%
q=201.
IPv6 Uptake (2017)32
Pos.Higher is better
Ratio32
1Belgium55.4
2Germany41.8
3Switzerland35.1
...
59China0.3
60Iceland0.3
61Turkey0.3
62Uruguay0.3
63Moldova0.3
64UAE0.3
65Seychelles0.2
66Puerto Rico0.2
World Avg3.82
q=176.

Internet access has become an essential research tool. It facilitates an endless list of life improvements, from the ability to network and socialize without constraint, to access to a seemingly infinite repository of technical and procedural information on pretty much any task. The universal availability of data has sped up industrial development and personal learning at the national and personal level. Individuals can read any topic they wish regardless of the locality of expert teachers, and, entire nations can develop their technology and understanding of the world simply because they are now exposed to advanced societies and moral discourses online. Like every communications medium, the Internet has issues and causes a small range of problems, but these are insignificant compared to the advantages of having an online populace.

8. Public Health Issues

#alcohol #health #mental_health #parenting #population #smoking #suicide #Uruguay #vaccines

Adolescent Birth Rate (2015)25
Pos.Lower is better
Per 100025
1Korea, N.0.5
2Korea, S.1.6
3Switzerland2.9
...
114St Lucia53.9
115Eritrea54.3
116Papua New Guinea54.8
117Uruguay56.1
118Costa Rica56.5
119Seychelles57.4
120Paraguay57.4
121Ethiopia58.4
World Avg47.9
q=185.
Alcohol Consumption (2010)33
Pos.Lower is better
Per Capita33
1Libya0.1
2Pakistan0.1
3Kuwait0.1
...
121Ecuador7.2
122Laos7.3
123Angola7.5
124Uruguay7.6
125Tanzania7.7
126Georgia7.7
127Norway7.7
128Palau7.9
World Avg6.2
q=191.
Infant Immunizations 2011-2015 (2015)34
Pos.Higher is better
Avg %34
1Hungary99.0
2China99.0
3Uzbekistan98.9
...
55Portugal95.7
56Qatar95.6
57Armenia95.6
58Uruguay95.6
59Bhutan95.6
60Turkey95.5
61Malta95.5
62Botswana95.4
World Avg88.3
q=194.

Smoking Rates (2014)35
Pos.Lower is better35
1Guinea 15
2Solomon Islands 26
3Kiribati 28
...
127Portugal1 113
128Moldova1 114
129Lithuania1 124
130Uruguay1 135
131Canada1 154
132Albania1 177
133Egypt1 188
134Vietnam1 215
World Avg 819
q=182.
Suicide Rate (2013)36
Pos.Lower is better
Per 100k36
1Haiti0
2Grenada0
3Egypt0.1
...
69Hong Kong29.7
70Poland30.5
71Austria30.9
72Uruguay32.3
73France33.2
74Moldova35.7
75Switzerland36.2
76Croatia36.4
World Avg20.93
q=91.

9. More Charts and Comparisons to Other Countries

Personal Charitability
(World Position, 2013-2016)
37
Pos.Lower is better37
1Myanmar (Burma)1.25
2USA1.5
3New Zealand3.5
...
65Nepal53.5
66Colombia55.75
67S. Sudan58
68Uruguay61
69Namibia61
70Bolivia61.5
71Honduras61.75
q=156.
Research and Development (2016)
Pos.Higher is better
% RDP PPP
1Korea, S.4.29
2Israel4.11
3Japan3.58
...
83Botswana0.25
84Armenia0.24
85Sudan0.23
86Uruguay0.23
87Mongolia0.23
88Bermuda0.23
89Togo0.22
90Nigeria0.22
q=126.
Life Satisfaction (2011)38
Pos.Higher is better38
1Denmark7.8
2Norway7.6
3Netherlands7.6
...
41Guatemala6.3
42Czechia6.3
43Malta6.2
44Uruguay6.1
45Japan6.1
46Italy6.1
47Slovenia6.0
48Guyana6.0
q=150.
Gross National Income Per-Capita (2011)16
Pos.Higher is better
PPP $16
1Qatar$129 916
2Singapore$78 162
3Kuwait$76 075
...
59Croatia$20 291
60Panama$19 470
61Romania$19 428
62Uruguay$19 148
63Gabon$19 044
64Turkey$18 705
65Mauritius$17 948
66Azerbaijan$16 413
q=193.
Environmental Performance (2018)39
Pos.Higher is better39
1Switzerland87.4
2France84.0
3Denmark81.6
...
44Belarus65.0
45Romania64.8
46Dominican Rep.64.7
47Uruguay64.7
48Estonia64.3
49Singapore64.2
50Poland64.1
51Venezuela63.9
q=180.
Anti-Semite Opinions (2014)18
Pos.Lower is better
%18
1Laos0
2Philippines3
3Sweden4
...
51Bangladesh32
52Bosnia & Herzegovina32
53Costa Rica32
54Uruguay33
55Croatia33
56Botswana33
57Nicaragua34
58Romania35
q=101.
LGBT Equality (2017)40
Pos.Higher is better
Score40
1Netherlands103
2Belgium90
3Sweden86
4Brazil81
5Spain79
6France78
7S. Africa78
8Uruguay77
9Norway72
10Denmark72
11Iceland72
12UK72
q=196.
IQ (2006)41
Pos.Higher is better41
1Hong Kong108
2Singapore108
3Korea, S.106
...
33Russia97
34Belarus97
35Moldova96
36Uruguay96
37Slovenia96
38Slovakia96
39Portugal95
40Israel95
q=138.

Current edition: 2013 May 01
Last Modified: 2017 Jun 21
http://www.humantruth.info/uruguay.html
Parent page: Compare International Statistics by Region and Continent

All #tags used on this page - click for more:

#alcohol #antisemitism #belief #buddhism #charity #christianity #corruption #demographics #economics #freedom #gender #god #happiness #health #hinduism #homosexuality #human_development #human_rights #immigration #intelligence #internet #islam #judaism #life_expectancy #mass_media #mental_health #misogyny #morals #overpopulation #parenting #peace #politics #population #religion #research #science #slavery #smoking #suicide #the_environment #the_internet #Uruguay #vaccines #women

Social Media

References: (What's this?)

Anti-Defamation League. (ADL)
(2014) ADL Global 100, Executive Summary. Accessed on global100.adl.org on 2017 Jan 02. The numbers given are of those who state that racist stereotyped statements about Jews are true; they have to agree to 6 or more of the 11 statements to be counted. An example statements is "Jews are hated because of the way they behave". The data was collected from 53,100 interviews across 101 countries plus the West Bank and Gaza. The global average is 26%.

Charities Aid Foundation
World Giving Index. On www.cafonline.org.

CIA
(2013) World Factbook. The USA Government's Central Intelligence Agency (USA CIA) publishes The World Factbook, and the online version is frequently updated.

Crabtree, Vexen
(2017) "What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life" (2017). Accessed 2018 Aug 16.

The Fraser Institute
(2016) The Human Freedom Index. Published by The Cato Institute, The Fraser Institute and the Friedrich Naumann Foundation for Freedom. Covers data up to 2014. On www.fraserinstitute.org/.../human-freedom-index-2016.

Gallup
(2009) Religiosity. gallup.com/poll/142727/.... The survey question was "Is religion an important part of your daily life?" and results are charted for those who said "yes". 1000 adults were polled in each of 114 countries.

Lonely Planet
(2014) The World. Subtitled: "A Traveller's Guide to the Planet". Published by Lonely Planet, London, UK. Each chapter is devoted to a specific country and includes a list of the most interesting places to visit and a few other cultural notes.

Lynn, Harvey & Nyborg
(2009) Average intelligence predicts atheism rates across 137 nations. Richard Lynn, John Harvey and Helmuth Nyborg. Published in Intelligence (2009 Jan/Feb) vol. 37 issue 1 pages 11-15. Online at www.sciencedirect.com, accessed 2009 Sep 15.

United Nations
(2011) Human Development Report. Published by the UN Development Programme. This edition had the theme of Sustainability and Equity: A Better Future for All. Available on hdr.undp.org/... UN Development Program: About the Human Development Index.
(2013) Human Development Report. Published by the UN Development Programme. This edition had the theme of The Rise of the South: Human Progress in a Diverse World. Available on hdr.undp.org/... UN Development Program: About the Human Development Index.
(2017) Human Development Report. Published by the UN Development Programme. Data for 2015. Available on hdr.undp.org/.

World Health Organisation. (WHO)
(2014) Global Status Report on Alcohol and Health. A copy can be found on the WHO website. Accessed 2015 Jan 04. It "presents a comprehensive perspective on the global, regional and country consumption of alcohol, patterns of drinking, health consequences and policy responses in Member States" and was published in Geneva on 2014 May 12.

Footnotes

  1. World Bank data on data.worldbank.org accessed 2013 Nov 04.^
  2. UN (2011) .^
  3. UN (2017). Table 1.^
  4. UN (2017). Gross National Income, per person. Table 1.^
  5. International Standards Organisation (ISO) standard ISO3166-1, on www.iso.org, accessed 2013 May 01.^
  6. Top level domains (TLDs) are managed by the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) on www.iana.org.^
  7. According to ISO4217.^
  8. According to ITU-T.^
  9. CIA (2013). Https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/uy.html accessed 2014 Apr 27.^
  10. Lonely Planet (2014). Chapter "Uruguay".^
  11. UN (2017). Table 1. Lower is better.^
  12. "What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life" by Vexen Crabtree (2017)^
  13. UN (2017). Dashboard 2. Higher is worse. Old-age is counted as 65+, and ratio is of these to people ages 15-64. Projections are for 2030 based on medium-fertility variant of growth.^
  14. UN (2013). Table 11.^
  15. UN (2013). Table 14. Births per woman (2012), expressed as deviance (positive or negative) from the value of 2.0.^
  16. UN (2017). Table 1. Higher is better.^^
  17. UN (2013). Table 14.^
  18. ADL (2014). Lower is better.^^
  19. Transparency International Corruption Perceptions Index (2017). Accessed 2017 Dec 30. The scores given are the TI average for the years 2012-2016.^
  20. ^
  21. Max possible=24. Total amount of treaties ratified. Nominal Commitment to Human Rights report published by UCL School of Public Policy, London, UK, at ucl.ac.uk/spp/research/research-projects/nchr accessed 2011 Apr 30.^
  22. Fraser Institute, the (2016). Covers data for 2014.^
  23. Reporters Without Borders Report "2013 World Press Freedom Index: Dashed hopes after spring" at fr.rsf.org/.../classement_2013_gb-bd.pdf accessed 2013 Feb.^
  24. Global Slavery Index (2018), published by The Walk Free Foundation. Accessed 2018 Aug 16.^
  25. UN (2017). Table 5. Lower is better.^^
  26. "What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life: 2.6. Women Stand for Election & Vote" by Vexen Crabtree (2017)^
  27. Gallup (2009) .^
  28. Zuckerman, P. (2007). Atheism: contemporary numbers and patterns. In M.Martin (Ed.), The Cambridge Companion to Atheism. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. In "Average intelligence predicts atheism rates across 137 nations" by Lynn et al. (2009)41.^
  29. Pew Forum (2012) publication "The Global Religious Landscape: A Report on the Size and Distribution of the World´s Major Religious Groups as of 2010" (2012 Dec 18) accessed 2013 May 01.^
  30. CIA (2013). Https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/ar.html accessed 2014 Apr 27.^
  31. internetlivestats.com/internet-users-by-country accessed 2017 Mar 10.^
  32. % of internet access via native IPv6 compared to IPv4. As of 2017 Jun 20, from http://www.cidr-report.org. Accessed 2017 Jun 20.^
  33. WHO (2014). Appendix 1. Alcohol Per Capita Consumption in liters of pure alcohol, 15+ years age population, consumed in 2010. Lower is better.^
  34. World Health Organisation data for 2011-2015 from 7 data series accessed 2017 May 21. Details in "Immunizations: International Statistics on Vaccines and the Autism Scare: 3. World Health Organisation Statistics" by Vexen Crabtree (2017).^
  35. Annual Cigarette Consumption Per Adult (age 15 and above) - compustible cigarettes. Euromonitor International (2014), via tobaccoatlas.org/topic/cigarette-use-globally/ . Accessed 2017 Jun 20.^
  36. UN (2013). World Health Organisation statistics. Suicide Rates Per 100k.^
  37. Charities Aid Foundation. Average ranking across years 2013-2016. Lower is better.^
  38. UN (2013). Table 9. Higher is better. Table 9. The UN's data is the latest available from a range of data from 2007-2011.^
  39. Yale University Center for Environmental Law & Policy 2018 EPI.^
  40. Sources:^
  41. Lynn, Harvey & Nyborg (2009) .^

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