The Human Truth Foundation

Tajikistan (Republic of Tajikistan)

By Vexen Crabtree 2013

#tajikistan

Tajikistan
Republic of Tajikistan
StatusIndependent State
Social and Moral Index107th best
CapitalDushanbe
Land Area 139 960km21
LocationAsia
Population9.1m2
Life Expectancy69.58yrs (2017)3
GNI$2 601 (2017)4
ISO3166-1 CodesTJ, TJK, 7625
Internet Domain.tj6
CurrencySomoni (TJS)7
Telephone+9928

1. Overview

The Tajik people came under Russian rule in the 1860s and 1870s, but Russia's hold on Central Asia weakened following the Revolution of 1917. Bolshevik control of the area was fiercely contested and not fully reestablished until 1925. Much of present-day Sughd province was transferred from the Uzbek SSR to the newly formed Tajik SSR in 1929. Ethnic Uzbeks form a substantial minority in Tajikistan. Tajikistan became independent in 1991 following the breakup of the Soviet Union, and experienced a civil war between regional factions from 1992-97. Tajikistan endured several domestic security incidents in 2010-12, including a mass prison-break from a Dushanbe detention facility, the country's first suicide car bombing in Khujand, and armed conflict between government forces and local strongmen in the Rasht Valley and government forces and criminal groups in Gorno-Badakhshan Autonomous Oblast. The country remains the poorest in the former Soviet sphere. Attention by the international community since the beginning of the NATO intervention in Afghanistan has brought increased economic and security assistance, which could create jobs and strengthen stability in the long term. Tajikistan joined NATO's Partnership for Peace in 2002, and became a member of the World Trade Organization in March 2013.

CIA's The World Factbook (2013)9

Book CoverTajikistan´s awesomely dramatic highland landscapes are testing playgrounds for hardy climbers, trekkers and adventure travellers. Tajikistan is the only Central Asian republic to have so far suffered from civil war, and surrounded by Turkic-speaking `stans´, the only one where Persian is spoken. In a lofty mountain cul-de-sac at the furthest corner of the former Soviet domain, it still regards tourists as relative novelties. But this is not to say it doesn´t have a great deal to offer.

Aside from bustling Silk Road towns and colourful bazaars, Tajikistan´s main pull is the Pamir Mountains, a high-altitude plateau of intensely blue lakes, Kyrgyz yurts and rolling valleys that has impressed everyone from Marco Polo to Francis Younghusband.

The people are enormously hospitable but little English is spoken and transport is irregular. Tajikistan´s tourism potential is further restricted by long winters and infuriating border closures. But the marvels of the Wakhan Valley, the starkly beautiful `Roof of the World´ Pamirs and the breathtaking lakes and pinnacles of the Fan Mountains all make Tajikistan arguably Central Asia´s most exciting destination.

"The World" by Lonely Planet (2014)10

2. Tajikistan National and Social Development

#economics #human_development

UN HDI (2016)11
Pos.Lower is better
Rank11
1Norway1
2Australia2
3Switzerland2
...
126Namibia125
127Guyana127
128Micronesia127
129Tajikistan129
130Honduras130
131India131
132Bhutan132
133Timor-Leste (E. Timor)133
World Avg94.3
q=188.
Gross National Income Per-Capita (2011)12
Pos.Higher is better
PPP $12
1Qatar$129 916
2Singapore$78 162
3Kuwait$76 075
...
156Kenya$2 881
157Vanuatu$2 805
158Papua New Guinea$2 712
159Tajikistan$2 601
160Kiribati$2 475
161Tanzania$2 467
162Syria$2 441
163Nepal$2 337
World Avg$17 240
q=193.
Social & Moral
Development Index
13,14
Pos.Lower is better
Avg Rank13,14
1Taiwan30.2
2Denmark30.5
3Norway30.9
...
104Ghana90.1
105Bahrain90.2
106Belize91.7
107Tajikistan91.9
108Nepal91.9
109St Lucia91.9
110Andorra92.3
111Indonesia92.4
World Avg86.4
q=195.

The United Nations produces an annual Human Development Report which includes the Human Development Index. The factors taken into account include life expectancy, education and schooling and Gross National Income (GNI) amongst many others..

The Social and Moral Development Index concentrates on moral issues and human rights, violence, public health, equality, tolerance, freedom and effectiveness in climate change mitigation and environmentalism, and on some technological issues. A country scores higher for achieving well in those areas, and for sustaining that achievement in the long term. Those countries towards the top of this index can truly said to be setting good examples and leading humankind onwards into a bright, humane, and free future. See: Which are the Best Countries in the World? The Social and Moral Development Index.

3. Tajikistan's Demographics

#birth_control #demographics #health #immigration #life_expectancy #longevity #migration #overpopulation #population

Population:

Tajikistan's population is predicted to fall to 9 016 000 by 2030. Developed countries with falling populations face a pension's crises, whereby an incresingly ageing population must be cared for by fewer and fewer workers. Economic stability can be maintained by increasing foreign workers from younger countries. This country has a fertility rate of 3.19. The fertility rate is, in simple terms, the average amount of children that each woman has. The higher the figure, the quicker the population is growing, although, to calculate the rate you also need to take into account morbidity, i.e., the rate at which people die. If people live healthy and long lives and morbidity is low, then, 2.0 approximates to the replacement rate, which would keep the population stable. If all countries had such a fertility rate, population growth would end. The actual replacement rate in most developed countries is around 2.1.

Population (2018)2
Pos.
Population2
1China1.4b
2India1.4b
3USA327.1m
...
92UAE9.6m
93Honduras9.6m
94Belarus9.5m
95Tajikistan9.1m
96Austria8.9m
97Serbia8.8m
98Papua New Guinea8.6m
99Switzerland8.5m
World Avg39.0m
q=195.
Life Expectancy (2015)12
Pos.Higher is better
Years12
1Hong Kong84.16
2Japan83.68
3Italy83.34
...
122Syria69.65
123Iraq69.63
124Kazakhstan69.59
125Tajikistan69.58
126Uzbekistan69.40
127Micronesia69.27
128Indonesia69.05
129Cambodia68.81
World Avg71.27
q=190.
Fertility Rate (2013)15
Pos.2.0 is best15
1N. Korea2.00
2Brunei1.99
3St Vincent & Grenadines2.01
...
123Lesotho3.08
124Namibia3.08
125Zimbabwe3.15
126Tajikistan3.19
127Haiti3.19
128Gabon3.20
129Swaziland3.21
130Bolivia3.25
World Avg2.81
q=180.
Old-Age Dependency Ratio (2016)16
Pos.Lower is better
Per 10016
1Uganda04.3
2Mali04.5
3Chad04.7
...
59Bahrain08.7
60Syria09.0
61Djibouti09.1
62Tajikistan09.1
63Equatorial Guinea09.4
64Kiribati09.5
65Guatemala09.5
66Saudi Arabia09.5
World Avg18.3
q=185.

Migration:

Immigrants (2017)17
Pos.
%17
1UAE88.4%
2Kuwait75.5%
3Qatar65.2%
...
104Iran3.3%
105Kyrgyzstan3.3%
106Chad3.3%
107Tajikistan3.1%
108Cape Verde2.8%
109Burundi2.8%
110Chile2.7%
111Micronesia2.6%
World Avg9.4%
q=195.
Emigrants (2010)18
Pos.
%18
1Dominica104.8%
2Palestine68.4%
3Samoa67.3%
...
56Luxembourg11.8%
57Jordan11.3%
58Kyrgyzstan11.2%
59Tajikistan11.2%
60Cuba10.9%
61Mauritius10.9%
62Greece10.8%
63Mexico10.7%
World Avg11.5%
q=192.

4. Human Rights, Equality & Tolerance

#equality #freedom #human_rights #politics #tajikistan #tolerance

Tajikistan is generally poor at ensuring human rights and freedom compared to the rest of the world. Tajikistan does better than average for opposing gender inequality19 and in its nominal commitment to Human Rights20. However Tajikistan performs less well in most areas. It does worse than average in terms of commentary in Human Rights Watch reports21, supporting personal, civil & economic freedoms22 (still good for Asia), LGBT equality23, speed of uptake of HR treaties24 and in supporting press freedom25. Persecution of critics and opposition politicians continues26 and human rights defenders are harassed - 7 human rights lawyers have been arrested or imprisoned since 201426.

For tables, charts and commentary, see:

5. Tajikistan's Health

#alcohol #birth_control #demographics #health #life_expectancy #longevity #mental_health #obesity #overpopulation #parenting #population #smoking #suicide #Tajikistan #vaccines

Health (2020)27,28
Pos.Lower is better
Avg Rank27,28
1Hong Kong18.0
2Singapore41.5
3Maldives43.3
...
67Australia85.3
68Estonia85.3
69Turkey85.6
70Tajikistan86.4
71Guyana86.5
72Nicaragua86.8
73Barbados87.1
74Bahamas87.5
75Jordan87.5
World Avg92.3
q=187.

The countries with the best overall approach to public health, in terms of both public policy and individual lifestyle choices, are Hong Kong, Singapore and The Maldives27. These countries are worth emulating. And, although often through no fault of the average citizen, the worst countries are S. Sudan, Nigeria and Equatorial Guinea27.

The data sets used to calculate points for each country are its average life expectancy, its alcohol consumption rate, its fertility rate, its smoking rate, its suicide rate, its food aid and health contributions and WHO compliance, the prevalence of overweight adults, its adolescent birth rate and its immunizations take-up. The regions with the best average results per country are Scandinavia, Asia and Europe27, whereas the worst are Africa, Micronesia and Polynesia27.

Health:

Tajikistan does relatively well in encouraging good health, compared to many other countries. Tajikistan comes in the best 20 when it comes to its suicide rate29. It does better than average in terms of its immunizations take-up30, its alcohol consumption rate31, its smoking rate32 and in its adolescent birth rate19 (but bad for Asia). Tajikistan does not succeed in everything, however. It does worse than average in its average life expectancy12 and in its fertility rate15. The number of overweight adults has increased by 14% over the last 40 years.
Life Expectancy (2015)12
Pos.Higher is better
Years12
1Hong Kong84.16
2Japan83.68
3Italy83.34
...
122Syria69.65
123Iraq69.63
124Kazakhstan69.59
125Tajikistan69.58
126Uzbekistan69.40
127Micronesia69.27
128Indonesia69.05
129Cambodia68.81
World Avg71.27
q=190.
Alcohol Consumption (2016)31
Pos.Lower is better
Per Capita31
1Bangladesh0.0
2Kuwait0.0
3Libya0.0
...
57Benin3.0
58Togo3.1
59Central African Rep.3.3
60Tajikistan3.3
61Kenya3.4
62Mauritius3.6
63Malawi3.7
64El Salvador3.8
World Avg6.2
q=189.
Fertility Rate (2013)15
Pos.2.0 is best15
1N. Korea2.00
2Brunei1.99
3St Vincent & Grenadines2.01
...
123Lesotho3.08
124Namibia3.08
125Zimbabwe3.15
126Tajikistan3.19
127Haiti3.19
128Gabon3.20
129Swaziland3.21
130Bolivia3.25
World Avg2.81
q=180.
Smoking Rates (2014)32
Pos.Higher is worse32
182Montenegro4 125
181Belarus3 831
180Lebanon3 023
...
89Norway 556
88Iceland 551
87S. Africa 537
86Tajikistan 533
85Cape Verde 515
84Pakistan 511
83Senegal 504
82Brazil 492
World Avg 819
q=182.
Suicide Rate (2013)29
Pos.
Per 100k29
1Haiti0
2Grenada0
3Egypt0.1
...
11Armenia3.9
12Dominican Rep.4.6
13St Lucia4.9
14Tajikistan5.2
15Venezuela6.5
16Malta6.9
17Greece7
18Paraguay7.1
World Avg20.93
q=91.
Overweight Adults (2016)33
Pos.Lower is better
%33
1Vietnam18.3
2India19.7
3Bangladesh20.0
...
68Brunei41.2
69Malaysia42.5
70Botswana43.4
71Tajikistan45.3
72Trinidad & Tobago46.0
73Antigua & Barbuda48.0
74St Lucia48.1
75Uzbekistan48.2
World Avg49.0
q=191.

Children's Health:

Adolescent Birth Rate (2015)19
Pos.Lower is better
Per 100019
1N. Korea0.5
2S. Korea1.6
3Switzerland2.9
...
87Botswana32.3
88Romania34.6
89Bulgaria37.7
90Tajikistan38.1
91Vietnam38.6
92Pakistan38.7
93Haiti39.3
94Syria39.4
World Avg47.9
q=185.
Infant Immunizations 2011-2015 (2015)30
Pos.Higher is better
Avg %30
1Hungary99.0
2China99.0
3Uzbekistan98.9
...
44St Kitts & Nevis96.3
45Bahamas96.2
46Maldives96.2
47Tajikistan96.1
48Rwanda96.1
49Sao Tome & Principe96.0
50Malaysia96.0
51Croatia95.9
World Avg88.3
q=194.

6. Tajikistan's Modernity and Learning

#education #it_security #modernity #religion #research #science #technology #the_internet

Modernity and Learning (2020)34
Pos.Lower is better
Avg Rank34
1Finland8.0
2Belgium9.1
3Denmark10.0
...
116Zimbabwe83.8
117Ghana84.1
118Nepal84.5
119Tajikistan84.5
120Mongolia85.4
121Marshall Islands86.8
122Samoa86.8
123Zambia89.0
124Rwanda89.1
World Avg69.0
q=180.

Modernity and Education:

Research and Development (2016)
Pos.Higher is better
% RDP PPP
1S. Korea4.2935
2Israel4.1135
3Japan3.5835
...
102Namibia0.1436
103Georgia0.1337
104Gambia0.1338
105Tajikistan0.1239
106Burundi0.1238
107Madagascar0.1138
108Philippines0.1140
109Myanmar (Burma)0.1141
World Avg0.84
q=126.
Secondary Education (2018)42
Pos.Higher is better42
1Luxembourg100.0%
2Estonia100.0%
3Austria100.0%
...
30Ukraine94.6%
31Tonga93.7%
32Japan93.6%
33Tajikistan93.1%
34Barbados92.9%
35Albania92.9%
36Belarus92.2%
37Marshall Islands92.1%
World Avg63.0%
q=169.
Length of Schooling (2018)43
Pos.Higher is better
Years43
1Australia22.1
2Belgium19.7
3Finland19.3
...
139Ghana11.5
140Guyana11.5
141Vanuatu11.4
142Tajikistan11.4
143Swaziland11.4
144Cambodia11.3
145Burundi11.3
146Lebanon11.3
World Avg13.2
q=193.
Religiosity (2009)44
Pos.Lower is better
%44
1Estonia16
2Sweden17
3Denmark19
...
57Iraq84
58Nicaragua84
59S. Africa85
60Tajikistan85
61Malta86
62Dominican Rep.87
63Brazil87
64Lebanon87
World Avg75.1
q=114.

Technology and Information:

Internet Users (2016)45
Pos.Higher is better45
1Iceland100%
2Faroe Islands99%
3Norway98%
...
154Nicaragua19%
155Uganda19%
156Zambia19%
157Tajikistan19%
158Cameroon18%
159Pakistan18%
160Nepal17%
161Mauritania17%
World Avg48.1%
q=201.
IT Security (2013)46
Pos.Lower is better46
1Ireland0.11
2Luxembourg0.11
3Belize0.11
...
41Saudi Arabia0.93
42Malaysia0.96
43Canada0.96
44Tajikistan1.01
45Brazil1.02
46Indonesia1.05
47British Virgin Islands1.08
48Mali1.12
World Avg0.98
q=81.

7. National Culture

#charity #corruption #happiness #morals #politics

Personal Charitability
(World Position, 2013-2016)
47
Pos.Lower is better47
1Myanmar (Burma)1.25
2USA1.5
3New Zealand3.5
...
74Ghana63.75
75Spain64
76Sudan64
77Tajikistan64.5
78Guinea65.75
79Cameroon66
80Suriname66
81S. Korea66.33
World Avg68.1185897435897
q=156.
Corruption (2012-2016)48
Pos.Higher is better
Avg Score48
1Denmark90.8
2New Zealand90.6
3Finland89.4
...
150Laos25.4
151Guinea25.0
152Central African Rep.23.8
153Tajikistan23.6
154Congo, (Brazzaville)22.8
155Congo, DR21.6
156Myanmar (Burma)21.4
157Zimbabwe21.0
World Avg43.05
q=176.
Happiness (2018)49
Pos.Higher is better49
1Finland7.6
2Norway7.6
3Denmark7.6
...
77Portugal5.4
78Serbia5.4
79Greece5.4
80Tajikistan5.4
81Montenegro5.3
82Croatia5.3
83Dominican Rep.5.3
84Algeria5.3
World Avg5.38
q=156.

8. Peace Versus Instability

#extremism #human_development #peace #politics #religious_violence #terrorism

Global Peace Index (2012)50
Pos.Lower is better50
1Iceland1.11
2New Zealand1.24
3Denmark1.24
...
95Angola2.11
96Cameroon2.11
97Uganda2.12
98Tajikistan2.12
99Madagascar2.12
100Liberia2.13
101Mali2.13
102Sri Lanka2.15
World Avg2.02
q=157.
Impact of Terrorism (2019)51
Pos.Lower is better
Score51
1Togo0.00
2Mongolia0.00
3Swaziland0.00
...
98Belgium3.64
99Angola3.78
100Tunisia3.94
101Tajikistan3.95
102Uganda3.96
103Mexico4.08
104Venezuela4.10
105Chile4.12
World Avg2.78
q=150.

9. The Natural Environment

#biodiversity #climate_change #over-exploitation #the_environment

Forest Area Change 1990-2015 (2015)52
Pos.Higher is better
%52
1Iceland205.6
2Bahrain144.4
3Uruguay131.3
...
72Estonia01.2
73Seychelles01.1
74Palestine01.0
75Tajikistan01.0
76Slovakia01.0
77Russia00.8
78Sweden00.8
79Mongolia00.1
World Avg02.8
q=184.
Environmental Performance (2018)53
Pos.Higher is better53
1Switzerland87.4
2France84.0
3Denmark81.6
...
126Senegal49.5
127Malawi49.2
128Guyana47.9
129Tajikistan47.9
130Kenya47.3
131Bhutan47.2
132Vietnam47.0
133Indonesia46.9
World Avg56.4
q=180.
Energy to GDP Efficiency (2014)54
Pos.Higher is better54
1Hong Kong26.32
2Sri Lanka20.00
3Panama17.86
...
76Kuwait07.58
77USA07.58
78Czechia07.46
79Tajikistan07.46
80Thailand07.41
81Cambodia07.35
82Nigeria07.30
83Georgia07.25
World Avg09.29
q=119.
Convention on Biological Diversity
Pos.Earlier is better
Signed
1China1993 Dec 29
2Guinea1993 Dec 29
3Cook Islands1993 Dec 29
...
167Turkey1997 May 15
168Gabon1997 Jun 12
169Burundi1997 Jul 14
170Tajikistan1998 Jan 27
171Liechtenstein1998 Feb 17
172Macedonia1998 Mar 02
173Angola1998 Jun 30
174Tonga1998 Aug 17
World Avg1899 Dec 30
q=197.
Rational Beliefs on the Environment (2011)55
Pos.Higher is better
%55
1Argentina78.3%
2Greece77.6%
3Brazil77.1%
...
138Denmark14.9%
139Libya14.6%
140Iceland13.1%
141Uzbekistan11.3%
142Tajikistan11.1%
143Haiti10.0%
144Albania9.4%
145Turkmenistan8.6%
World Avg39.9%
q=145.

10. Economic Inequality and Poverty

#capitalism #economics #health #inequality #life_expectancy #poverty #social_development

Inequality in Life Expectancy (2019)56
Pos.Higher is worse56
184Chad40.90
183Central African Rep.40.10
182Sierra Leone39.00
...
122Bhutan17.10
121Dominican Rep.17.00
120Sao Tome & Principe17.00
119Tajikistan16.70
118Micronesia16.10
117Iraq15.90
116Philippines15.30
115Trinidad & Tobago14.90
World Avg14.59
q=184.
Income Inequality (Gini Coefficient) (2017)57
Pos.Lower is better
%57
1Ukraine25.0
2Belarus25.4
3Slovenia25.4
...
49Jordan33.7
50Luxembourg33.8
51Sierra Leone34.0
52Tajikistan34.0
53Canada34.0
54Cyprus34.0
55Latvia34.2
56Niger34.3
World Avg38.1
q=152.
Multidimensional Poverty (2018)58
Pos.Lower is better
Severity58
1Armenia.001
2Ukraine.001
3Serbia.001
...
35S. Africa.025
36Indonesia.028
37Syria.029
38Tajikistan.029
39El Salvador.032
40Iraq.033
41Suriname.041
42Mongolia.042
World Avg.154
q=101.

11. Religion and Beliefs

#belief #buddhism #christianity #god #hinduism #islam #judaism #religion #tajikistan

Religiosity (2009)44
Pos.Lower is better
%44
1Estonia16
2Sweden17
3Denmark19
...
57Iraq84
58Nicaragua84
59S. Africa85
60Tajikistan85
61Malta86
62Dominican Rep.87
63Brazil87
64Lebanon87
World Avg75.1
q=114.
Disbelief In God (2007)59
Pos.Higher is better
%59
1Vietnam81
2Japan65
3Sweden64
...
67Angola2
68Chile2
69Central African Rep.2
70Tajikistan2
71Turkmenistan2
72Indonesia2
73Paraguay1
74Nicaragua1
World Avg9.9
q=137.

Data from the Pew Forum, a professional polling outfit, states that in 2010 the religious makeup of this country was as follows in the table below60:

Christian1.6%
Muslim96.7%
Hindu0.1%
Buddhist0.1%
Folk Religion0.1%
Jew0.1%
Unaffiliated1.5%

The CIA World Factbook has slightly different data, and states: Sunni Muslim 85%, Shia Muslim 5%, other 10% (2003 est.)61.

Freedom of Religion and Belief: Religion seems to be tightly controlled in TajikIstan, but it is Islam in particular that been made the subject to prejudiced and draconian legislation, combined with some harassment of those perceived to be Muslims26. A book-registration and blacklisting scheme is being used to limit the import of religious books26. The US Commission on International Religious Freedom designates Tajikistan as a "country of particular concern" with respect to religious freedom26.

Links: