The Human Truth Foundation

Tajikistan (Republic of Tajikistan)

By Vexen Crabtree 2013


Comments:
FB, LJ

#charity #economics #happiness #homosexuality #morals #research #science #the_environment

Tajikistan
Republic of Tajikistan
StatusIndependent State
CapitalDushanbe
Land Area 139 960km21
LocationAsia
Population7.1m (2011)2
Life Expectancy69.58yrs (2017)3
GNI$2 601 (2017)4
ISO3166-1 CodesTJ, TJK, 7625
Internet Domain.tj6
CurrencySomoni (TJS)7
Telephone+9928

1. Overview

The Tajik people came under Russian rule in the 1860s and 1870s, but Russia's hold on Central Asia weakened following the Revolution of 1917. Bolshevik control of the area was fiercely contested and not fully reestablished until 1925. Much of present-day Sughd province was transferred from the Uzbek SSR to the newly formed Tajik SSR in 1929. Ethnic Uzbeks form a substantial minority in Tajikistan. Tajikistan became independent in 1991 following the breakup of the Soviet Union, and experienced a civil war between regional factions from 1992-97. Tajikistan endured several domestic security incidents in 2010-12, including a mass prison-break from a Dushanbe detention facility, the country's first suicide car bombing in Khujand, and armed conflict between government forces and local strongmen in the Rasht Valley and government forces and criminal groups in Gorno-Badakhshan Autonomous Oblast. The country remains the poorest in the former Soviet sphere. Attention by the international community since the beginning of the NATO intervention in Afghanistan has brought increased economic and security assistance, which could create jobs and strengthen stability in the long term. Tajikistan joined NATO's Partnership for Peace in 2002, and became a member of the World Trade Organization in March 2013.

CIA's The World Factbook (2013)9

Book CoverTajikistan´s awesomely dramatic highland landscapes are testing playgrounds for hardy climbers, trekkers and adventure travellers. Tajikistan is the only Central Asian republic to have so far suffered from civil war, and surrounded by Turkic-speaking `stans´, the only one where Persian is spoken. In a lofty mountain cul-de-sac at the furthest corner of the former Soviet domain, it still regards tourists as relative novelties. But this is not to say it doesn´t have a great deal to offer.

Aside from bustling Silk Road towns and colourful bazaars, Tajikistan´s main pull is the Pamir Mountains, a high-altitude plateau of intensely blue lakes, Kyrgyz yurts and rolling valleys that has impressed everyone from Marco Polo to Francis Younghusband.

The people are enormously hospitable but little English is spoken and transport is irregular. Tajikistan´s tourism potential is further restricted by long winters and infuriating border closures. But the marvels of the Wakhan Valley, the starkly beautiful `Roof of the World´ Pamirs and the breathtaking lakes and pinnacles of the Fan Mountains all make Tajikistan arguably Central Asia´s most exciting destination.

"The World" by Lonely Planet (2014)10

2. Tajikistan National and Social Development

#human_development

UN HDI (2016)11
Pos.Lower is better
Rank11
1Norway1
2Australia2
3Switzerland2
...
126Namibia125
127Guyana127
128Micronesia127
129Tajikistan129
130Honduras130
131India131
132Bhutan132
133Timor-Leste (E. Timor)133
World Avg94.3
q=188.
Social & Moral
Development Index
12
Pos.Higher is better
Points12
1Denmark84.2
2Sweden83.7
3Finland83.5
...
68Qatar56.9
69Mongolia56.9
70Trinidad & Tobago56.8
71Tajikistan56.2
72Panama56.0
73Philippines56.0
74Thailand55.9
75Nicaragua55.9
World Avg54.1
q=198.

The United Nations produces an annual Human Development Report which includes the Human Development Index. The factors taken into account include life expectancy, education and schooling and Gross National Income (GNI) amongst many others..

The Social and Moral Development Index concentrates on moral issues and human rights, violence, public health, equality, tolerance, freedom and effectiveness in climate change mitigation and environmentalism, and on some technological issues. A country scores higher for achieving well in those areas, and for sustaining that achievement in the long term. Those countries towards the top of this index can truly said to be setting good examples and leading humankind onwards into a bright, humane, and free future. See: What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life.

3. Population and Demographics

#demographics #health #immigration #life_expectancy #overpopulation #population

Old-Age Dependency Ratio (2016)13
Pos.Lower is better
Per 10013
1Uganda04.3
2Mali04.5
3Chad04.7
...
59Bahrain08.7
60Syria09.0
61Djibouti09.1
62Tajikistan09.1
63Equatorial Guinea09.4
64Kiribati09.5
65Guatemala09.5
66Saudi Arabia09.5
World Avg18.3
q=185.
Emigrants (2010)14
Pos.
%14
1Dominica104.8
2Palestine68.4
3Samoa67.3
...
56Luxembourg11.8
57Jordan11.3
58Kyrgyzstan11.2
59Tajikistan11.2
60Cuba10.9
61Mauritius10.9
62Greece10.8
63Mexico10.7
World Avg11.5
q=192.
Fertility Rate (2013)15
Pos.2.0 is best15
1Korea, N.2.00
2Brunei1.99
3St Vincent & Grenadines2.01
...
123Lesotho3.08
124Namibia3.08
125Zimbabwe3.15
126Tajikistan3.19
127Haiti3.19
128Gabon3.20
129Swaziland3.21
130Bolivia3.25
World Avg2.81
q=180.

Immigrants (2010)14
Pos.
%14
1Qatar86.5
2Monaco71.6
3UAE70.0
...
81Dominican Rep.4.2
82Uzbekistan4.2
83Finland4.2
84Tajikistan4.0
85Kyrgyzstan4.0
86Turkmenistan4.0
87Georgia4.0
88Lithuania4.0
World Avg9.2
q=192.
Life Expectancy (2015)16
Pos.Higher is better
Years16
1Hong Kong84.16
2Japan83.68
3Italy83.34
...
122Syria69.65
123Iraq69.63
124Kazakhstan69.59
125Tajikistan69.58
126Uzbekistan69.40
127Micronesia69.27
128Indonesia69.05
129Cambodia68.81
World Avg71.27
q=190.
Population (2012)17
Pos.The Overpopulation of the Earth17
1China1.4b
2India1.3b
3USA315.8m
...
98Bulgaria7.4m
99Hong Kong7.2m
100Papua New Guinea7.2m
101Tajikistan7.1m
102Paraguay6.7m
103Libya6.5m
104Jordan6.5m
105Laos6.4m
World Avg36.0m
q=195.

Tajikistan's population is predicted to rise to 9.016 million by 2030. This country has a fertility rate of 3.19. The fertility rate is, in simple terms, the average amount of children that each woman has. The higher the figure, the quicker the population is growing, although, to calculate the rate you also need to take into account morbidity, i.e., the rate at which people die. If people live healthy and long lives and morbidity is low, then, 2.0 approximates to the replacement rate, which would keep the population stable. If all countries had such a fertility rate, population growth would end. The actual replacement rate in most developed countries is around 2.1.

4. Politics and Freedom

#burundi #corruption #eritrea #france #freedom #human_development #human_rights #indonesia #mass_media #peace #politics #slavery

Corruption (2012-2016)18
Pos.Higher is better
Avg Score18
1Denmark90.8
2New Zealand90.6
3Finland89.4
...
150Laos25.4
151Guinea25.0
152Central African Rep.23.8
153Tajikistan23.6
154Congo, (Brazzaville)22.8
155Congo, DR21.6
156Myanmar (Burma)21.4
157Zimbabwe21.0
World Avg43.05
q=176.
Global Peace Index (2012)19
Pos.Lower is better19
1Iceland1.11
2New Zealand1.24
3Denmark1.24
...
95Angola2.11
96Cameroon2.11
97Uganda2.12
98Tajikistan2.12
99Madagascar2.12
100Liberia2.13
101Mali2.13
102Sri Lanka2.15
World Avg2.02
q=157.
Nominal Commitment to HR (2009)20
Pos.Higher is better
Treaties20
1Argentina24
2Chile23
3Costa Rica23
...
85Togo16
86Belarus16
87Seychelles16
88Tajikistan16
89Ghana16
90Belize16
91Monaco16
92Latvia16
World Avg15.1
q=194.

Personal, Civil & Economic Freedom (2014)21
Pos.Lower is better
Rank21
1Hong Kong1
2Switzerland2
3New Zealand3
...
80Bhutan79
81Benin79
82Brazil82
83Tajikistan83
84Nepal84
85Barbados85
86Rwanda85
87India87
World Avg79.7
q=159.
Press Freedom (2013)22
Pos.Lower is better22
1Finland638
2Netherlands648
3Norway652
...
119Cameroon3478
120Chad3487
121Brunei3545
122Tajikistan3571
123S. Sudan3620
124Algeria3654
125Ukraine3679
126Honduras3692
World Avg3249
q=178.
Slavery (2018)23
Pos.Lower is better
% Victims23
1Japan0.03
2Canada0.05
3Taiwan0.05
...
90Azerbaijan0.45
91Bulgaria0.45
92Burkina Faso0.45
93Tajikistan0.45
94Indonesia0.47
95Ghana0.48
96Iraq0.48
97Gabon0.48
World Avg0.65
q=167.

The taking of slaves has been an unwholesome feature of Human cultures since prehistory24. Private households and national endeavours have frequently been augmented with the use of slaves. The Egyptian and Roman empires both thrived on them for both purposes. Aside from labourers they are often abused sexually by their owners and their owners' friends25. The era of colonialism and the beginnings of globalisation changed nothing: the imprisonment and forced movements of labour continued to destroy many lives except that new justifications were invented based on Christian doctrine and the effort to convert non-Christians. By 1786 over 12 million slaves had been extracted from Africa and sent to colonial labour camps, with a truly atrocious condition of life26. But they were not the only ones to blame; in Africa internal nations such as the Asantes sold and bought tens of thousands of slaves27.

The abolition of the slave trade was a long and slow process. Until a relatively modern time, even philosophers, religious leaders and those concerned with ethics justified, or ignored, the problem of slavery28. The first abolitionists were always the slaves themselves. Their protests and rebellions caused the industry to become too expensive to continue. After that, it was the economic costs of maintain slave colonies that led the British to reject and then oppose the slave trade globally. Finally, the enlightenment-era thinkers of France encouraged moral and ethical thinking including the declaration of the inherent value of human life and human dignity29. A long-overdue wave of compassionate and conscientious movements swept across the West, eliminating public support for slavery, until the industries and churches that supported it had no choice but to back down.

'Modern slavery' includes forced labour (often of the under-age), debt bondage (especially generational), sexual slavery, chattel slavery and other forms of abuse, some of which can be surprisingly difficult to detect, but often target those fleeing from warzones and the vulnerable.30. Some industries (diamond, clothing, coal) from some countries (Burundi23, Eritrea23, Indonesia31) are a particular concern. The Walk Free Foundation, say that in 2016, 40.3 million people were living in modern slavery32.

5. Gender Equality

#gender #misogyny #politics #women

Gender Inequality (2015)33
Pos.Lower is better33
1Switzerland0.04
2Denmark0.04
3Netherlands0.04
...
63Costa Rica0.31
64Maldives0.31
65Chile0.32
66Tajikistan0.32
67Trinidad & Tobago0.32
68Azerbaijan0.33
69Turkey0.33
70Kuwait0.33
World Avg0.36
q=159.
Year Women Can Vote34
Pos.Lower is better
Year34
1New Zealand1893
2Australia1902
3Finland1906
...
26Armenia1921
27Georgia1921
28Ireland1922
29Tajikistan1924
30Mongolia1924
31St Lucia1924
32Turkmenistan1927
33UK1928
World Avg1930
q=189.

Gender inequality is not a necessary part of early human development. Although a separation of roles is almost universal due to different strengths between the genders, this does not have to mean that women are subdued, and, such patriarchialism is not universal in ancient history. Those cultures and peoples who shed, or never developed, the idea that mankind ought to dominate womankind, are better cultures and peoples than those who, even today, cling violently to those mores.

Tajikistan has made some steps towards ending gender inequality but much more needs to be done.

See:

6. Religion and Beliefs

#belief #buddhism #christianity #god #hinduism #islam #judaism #religion

Religiosity (2009)35
Pos.Lower is better
%35
1Estonia16
2Sweden17
3Denmark19
...
57Iraq84
58Nicaragua84
59S. Africa85
60Tajikistan85
61Malta86
62Dominican Rep.87
63Brazil87
64Lebanon87
World Avg75.1
q=114.
Disbelief In God (2007)36
Pos.Higher is better36
1Vietnam81
2Japan65
3Sweden64
...
67Angola2
68Chile2
69Central African Rep.2
70Tajikistan2
71Turkmenistan2
72Indonesia2
73Paraguay1
74Nicaragua1
World Avg9.9
q=137.

Data from the Pew Forum, a professional polling outfit, states that in 2010 the religious makeup of this country was as follows in the table below37:

Christian1.6%
Muslim96.7%
Hindu0.1%
Buddhist0.1%
Folk Religion0.1%
Jew0.1%
Unaffiliated1.5%

The CIA World Factbook has slightly different data, and states: Sunni Muslim 85%, Shia Muslim 5%, other 10% (2003 est.)38.

Links:

7. The Internet

#internet #it_security #the_internet

Internet Users (2016)39
Pos.Higher is better39
1Iceland100%
2Faroe Islands99%
3Norway98%
...
154Nicaragua19%
155Uganda19%
156Zambia19%
157Tajikistan19%
158Cameroon18%
159Pakistan18%
160Nepal17%
161Mauritania17%
World Avg48.1%
q=201.
IT Security (2013)40
Pos.Lower is better40
1Ireland0.11
2Luxembourg0.11
3Belize0.11
...
41Saudi Arabia0.93
42Malaysia0.96
43Canada0.96
44Tajikistan1.01
45Brazil1.02
46Indonesia1.05
47British Virgin Islands1.08
48Mali1.12
World Avg0.98
q=81.

Internet access has become an essential research tool. It facilitates an endless list of life improvements, from the ability to network and socialize without constraint, to access to a seemingly infinite repository of technical and procedural information on pretty much any task. The universal availability of data has sped up industrial development and personal learning at the national and personal level. Individuals can read any topic they wish regardless of the locality of expert teachers, and, entire nations can develop their technology and understanding of the world simply because they are now exposed to advanced societies and moral discourses online. Like every communications medium, the Internet has issues and causes a small range of problems, but these are insignificant compared to the advantages of having an online populace.

8. Public Health Issues

#alcohol #health #mental_health #parenting #population #smoking #suicide #vaccines

Adolescent Birth Rate (2015)33
Pos.Lower is better
Per 100033
1Korea, N.0.5
2Korea, S.1.6
3Switzerland2.9
...
87Botswana32.3
88Romania34.6
89Bulgaria37.7
90Tajikistan38.1
91Vietnam38.6
92Pakistan38.7
93Haiti39.3
94Syria39.4
World Avg47.9
q=185.
Alcohol Consumption (2010)41
Pos.Lower is better
Per Capita41
1Libya0.1
2Pakistan0.1
3Kuwait0.1
...
48Malawi2.5
49Sudan2.7
50Israel2.8
51Tajikistan2.8
52Kiribati3.0
53Papua New Guinea3.0
54Fiji3.0
55El Salvador3.2
World Avg6.2
q=191.
Infant Immunizations 2011-2015 (2015)42
Pos.Higher is better
Avg %42
1Hungary99.0
2China99.0
3Uzbekistan98.9
...
44St Kitts & Nevis96.3
45Bahamas96.2
46Maldives96.2
47Tajikistan96.1
48Rwanda96.1
49Sao Tome & Principe96.0
50Malaysia96.0
51Croatia95.9
World Avg88.3
q=194.

Smoking Rates (2014)43
Pos.Lower is better43
1Guinea 15
2Solomon Islands 26
3Kiribati 28
...
83Senegal 504
84Pakistan 511
85Cape Verde 515
86Tajikistan 533
87S. Africa 537
88Iceland 551
89Norway 556
90Gabon 559
World Avg 819
q=182.
Suicide Rate (2013)44
Pos.Lower is better
Per 100k44
1Haiti0
2Grenada0
3Egypt0.1
...
11Armenia3.9
12Dominican Rep.4.6
13St Lucia4.9
14Tajikistan5.2
15Venezuela6.5
16Malta6.9
17Greece7
18Paraguay7.1
World Avg20.93
q=91.

9. More Charts and Comparisons to Other Countries

Personal Charitability
(World Position, 2013-2016)
45
Pos.Lower is better45
1Myanmar (Burma)1.25
2USA1.5
3New Zealand3.5
...
74Ghana63.75
75Spain64
76Sudan64
77Tajikistan64.5
78Guinea65.75
79Cameroon66
80Suriname66
q=156.
Research and Development (2016)
Pos.Higher is better
% RDP PPP
1Korea, S.4.29
2Israel4.11
3Japan3.58
...
102Namibia0.14
103Georgia0.13
104Gambia0.13
105Tajikistan0.12
106Burundi0.12
107Madagascar0.11
108Philippines0.11
109Myanmar (Burma)0.11
q=126.
Life Satisfaction (2011)46
Pos.Higher is better46
1Denmark7.8
2Norway7.6
3Netherlands7.6
...
116Armenia4.4
117Kenya4.4
118Djibouti4.4
119Tajikistan4.3
120Georgia4.2
121Uganda4.2
122Macedonia4.2
123Ivory Coast4.2
q=150.
Gross National Income Per-Capita (2011)16
Pos.Higher is better
PPP $16
1Qatar$129 916
2Singapore$78 162
3Kuwait$76 075
...
156Kenya$2 881
157Vanuatu$2 805
158Papua New Guinea$2 712
159Tajikistan$2 601
160Kiribati$2 475
161Tanzania$2 467
162Syria$2 441
163Nepal$2 337
q=193.
Environmental Performance (2018)47
Pos.Higher is better47
1Switzerland87.4
2France84.0
3Denmark81.6
...
126Senegal49.5
127Malawi49.2
128Guyana47.9
129Tajikistan47.9
130Kenya47.3
131Bhutan47.2
132Vietnam47.0
133Indonesia46.9
q=180.
LGBT Equality (2017)48
Pos.Higher is better
Score48
1Netherlands103
2Belgium90
3Sweden86
...
106China12
107Djibouti11
108Mali11
109Tajikistan11
110Gabon10
111Bahamas10
112Kazakhstan8
113Korea, N.8
q=196.

Current edition: 2013 May 01
Last Modified: 2017 Jun 21
http://www.humantruth.info/tajikistan.html
Parent page: Compare International Statistics by Region and Continent

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Social Media

References: (What's this?)

Casely-Hayford, Gus
(2012) The Lost Kingdoms of Africa. Published by Bantram Press. A hardback book.

Charities Aid Foundation
World Giving Index. On www.cafonline.org.

CIA
(2013) World Factbook. The USA Government's Central Intelligence Agency (USA CIA) publishes The World Factbook, and the online version is frequently updated.

Crabtree, Vexen
(2018) "What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life" (2018). Accessed 2018 Aug 22.

The Fraser Institute
(2016) The Human Freedom Index. Published by The Cato Institute, The Fraser Institute and the Friedrich Naumann Foundation for Freedom. Covers data up to 2014. On www.fraserinstitute.org/.../human-freedom-index-2016.

Gallup
(2009) Religiosity. gallup.com/poll/142727/.... The survey question was "Is religion an important part of your daily life?" and results are charted for those who said "yes". 1000 adults were polled in each of 114 countries.

Klein, Naomi
(2004) No Logo. Originally published 2000, HarperCollins, London, UK. A paperback book.

Lonely Planet
(2014) The World. Subtitled: "A Traveller's Guide to the Planet". Published by Lonely Planet, London, UK. Each chapter is devoted to a specific country and includes a list of the most interesting places to visit and a few other cultural notes.

Lynn, Harvey & Nyborg
(2009) Average intelligence predicts atheism rates across 137 nations. Richard Lynn, John Harvey and Helmuth Nyborg. Published in Intelligence (2009 Jan/Feb) vol. 37 issue 1 pages 11-15. Online at www.sciencedirect.com, accessed 2009 Sep 15.

McCall, Andrew
(1979) The Medieval Underworld. 2004 edition. Published by Sutton Publishing. A paperback book.

Thomson, Oliver
(1993) A History of Sin. Published by Canongate Press. A hardback book.

United Nations
(2011) Human Development Report. Published by the UN Development Programme. This edition had the theme of Sustainability and Equity: A Better Future for All. Available on hdr.undp.org/... UN Development Program: About the Human Development Index.
(2013) Human Development Report. Published by the UN Development Programme. This edition had the theme of The Rise of the South: Human Progress in a Diverse World. Available on hdr.undp.org/... UN Development Program: About the Human Development Index.
(2017) Human Development Report. Published by the UN Development Programme. Data for 2015. Available on hdr.undp.org/.

Walk Free Foundation
(2018) Global Slavery Index. Published on www.walkfreefoundation.org/.

World Health Organisation. (WHO)
(2014) Global Status Report on Alcohol and Health. A copy can be found on the WHO website. Accessed 2015 Jan 04. It "presents a comprehensive perspective on the global, regional and country consumption of alcohol, patterns of drinking, health consequences and policy responses in Member States" and was published in Geneva on 2014 May 12.

Footnotes

  1. World Bank data on data.worldbank.org accessed 2013 Nov 04.^
  2. UN (2011) .^
  3. UN (2017). Table 1.^
  4. UN (2017). Gross National Income, per person. Table 1.^
  5. International Standards Organisation (ISO) standard ISO3166-1, on www.iso.org, accessed 2013 May 01.^
  6. Top level domains (TLDs) are managed by the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) on www.iana.org.^
  7. According to ISO4217.^
  8. According to ITU-T.^
  9. CIA (2013). Https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/ti.html accessed 2014 Apr 27.^
  10. Lonely Planet (2014). Chapter "Tajikistan".^
  11. UN (2017). Table 1. Lower is better.^
  12. "What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life" by Vexen Crabtree (2018)^
  13. UN (2017). Dashboard 2. Higher is worse. Old-age is counted as 65+, and ratio is of these to people ages 15-64. Projections are for 2030 based on medium-fertility variant of growth.^
  14. UN (2013). Table 11.^
  15. UN (2013). Table 14. Births per woman (2012), expressed as deviance (positive or negative) from the value of 2.0.^
  16. UN (2017). Table 1. Higher is better.^^
  17. UN (2013). Table 14.^
  18. Transparency International Corruption Perceptions Index (2017). Accessed 2017 Dec 30. The scores given are the TI average for the years 2012-2016.^
  19. ^
  20. Max possible=24. Total amount of treaties ratified. Nominal Commitment to Human Rights report published by UCL School of Public Policy, London, UK, at ucl.ac.uk/spp/research/research-projects/nchr accessed 2011 Apr 30.^
  21. Fraser Institute, the (2016). Covers data for 2014.^
  22. Reporters Without Borders Report "2013 World Press Freedom Index: Dashed hopes after spring" at fr.rsf.org/.../classement_2013_gb-bd.pdf accessed 2013 Feb.^
  23. Walk Free Foundation (2018) .^
  24. Thomson (1993). P28.^
  25. McCall (1979). P180.^
  26. Thomson (1993). P166.^
  27. Casely-Hayford (2012). P253.^
  28. Thomson (1993). P31.^
  29. Thomson (1993). P199.^
  30. Thomson (1993). P28-29.^
  31. Klein (2004) .^
  32. Walk Free Foundation (2018). P2.^
  33. UN (2017). Table 5. Lower is better.^^
  34. "What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life: 2.6. Women Stand for Election & Vote" by Vexen Crabtree (2018)^
  35. Gallup (2009) .^
  36. Zuckerman, P. (2007). Atheism: contemporary numbers and patterns. In M.Martin (Ed.), The Cambridge Companion to Atheism. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. In "Average intelligence predicts atheism rates across 137 nations" by Lynn et al. (2009)49.^
  37. Pew Forum (2012) publication "The Global Religious Landscape: A Report on the Size and Distribution of the World´s Major Religious Groups as of 2010" (2012 Dec 18) accessed 2013 May 01.^
  38. CIA (2013). Https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/ar.html accessed 2014 Apr 27.^
  39. internetlivestats.com/internet-users-by-country accessed 2017 Mar 10.^
  40. "What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life: 3.4. Malware and Email Spam" by Vexen Crabtree (2018)^
  41. WHO (2014). Appendix 1. Alcohol Per Capita Consumption in liters of pure alcohol, 15+ years age population, consumed in 2010. Lower is better.^
  42. World Health Organisation data for 2011-2015 from 7 data series accessed 2017 May 21. Details in "Immunizations: International Statistics on Vaccines and the Autism Scare: 3. World Health Organisation Statistics" by Vexen Crabtree (2017).^
  43. Annual Cigarette Consumption Per Adult (age 15 and above) - compustible cigarettes. Euromonitor International (2014), via tobaccoatlas.org/topic/cigarette-use-globally/ . Accessed 2017 Jun 20.^
  44. UN (2013). World Health Organisation statistics. Suicide Rates Per 100k.^
  45. Charities Aid Foundation. Average ranking across years 2013-2016. Lower is better.^
  46. UN (2013). Table 9. Higher is better. Table 9. The UN's data is the latest available from a range of data from 2007-2011.^
  47. Yale University Center for Environmental Law & Policy 2018 EPI.^
  48. Sources:^
  49. Lynn, Harvey & Nyborg (2009) .^

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