The Human Truth Foundation

Chad (Republic of Chad)

By Vexen Crabtree 2013


Comments:
FB, LJ

#chad #charity #economics #happiness #homosexuality #intelligence #morals #the_environment

Chad
Republic of Chad
StatusIndependent State
CapitalN'Djamena
Land Area1 259 200km21
LocationAfrica
Population11.8m (2011)2
Life Expectancy51.90yrs (2017)3
GNI$1 991 (2017)4
ISO3166-1 CodesTD, TCD, 1485
Internet Domain.td6
CurrencyFranc (XAF)7
Telephone+2358

1. Overview

#france #gambia #ghana #libya #sudan

Chad, part of France's African holdings until 1960, endured three decades of civil warfare as well as invasions by Libya before a semblance of peace was finally restored in 1990. The government eventually drafted a democratic constitution and held flawed presidential elections in 1996 and 2001. In 1998, a rebellion broke out in northern Chad, which has sporadically flared up despite several peace agreements between the government and the insurgents. In 2005, new rebel groups emerged in western Sudan and made probing attacks into eastern Chad despite signing peace agreements in December 2006 and October 2007. In June 2005, President Idriss DEBY held a referendum successfully removing constitutional term limits and won another controversial election in 2006. Sporadic rebel campaigns continued throughout 2006 and 2007. The capital experienced a significant insurrection in early 2008, but has had no significant rebel threats since then, in part due to Chad's 2010 rapprochement with Sudan, which previously used Chadian rebels as proxies. DEBY in 2011 was reelected to his fourth term in an election that international observers described as proceeding without incident. Power remains in the hands of an ethnic minority.

CIA's The World Factbook (2013)9

Book CoverWave goodbye to your comfort zone and say hello to Chad, a rugged, arid, wind-blasted place and an experience that you´ll never forget! If Ghana and Gambia are Africa for beginners, Chad is Africa for the hard core. Travel here is tough. Many of the roads are broken due to years of conflict and lack of maintenance. There are few comfortable hotels and there is plenty of bureaucracy and demands for cadeaux (gifts) to negotiate. Added to that, the summer heat is mind-melting, travel costs can be astronomical and the security situation remains unpredictable.

So why bother, you may ask? Well, we could list the sublime oases lost in the northern deserts, tell you about the stampeding herds of wildlife in the national parks or the deep blue lure of a boat trip on Lake Chad. You may partake in the nation´s feel good story as you strike out into the wild or you may find elegant, perfectly preserved shells of aquatic molluscs poking from the powdery sands of the Sahara. Chad offers an opportunity to break with a comfortable Western world and come to a place that promises experiences, good and bad, that you´ll be recalling forever.

"The World" by Lonely Planet (2014)10

2. Chad National and Social Development

#human_development

UN HDI (2016)11
Pos.Lower is better
Rank11
1Norway1
2Australia2
3Switzerland2
...
181Mozambique181
182S. Sudan181
183Guinea183
184Burundi184
185Burkina Faso185
186Chad186
187Niger187
188Central African Rep.188
World Avg94.3
q=188.
Social & Moral
Development Index
12
Pos.Higher is better
Points12
1Denmark84.2
2Sweden83.7
3Finland83.5
...
191Afghanistan34.2
192Central African Rep.34.2
193Somalia32.9
194Congo, DR32.5
195Iraq32.2
196Chad31.3
197Yemen30.8
198Angola30.7
World Avg54.1
q=198.

The United Nations produces an annual Human Development Report which includes the Human Development Index. The factors taken into account include life expectancy, education and schooling and Gross National Income (GNI) amongst many others..

The Social and Moral Development Index concentrates on moral issues and human rights, violence, public health, equality, tolerance, freedom and effectiveness in climate change mitigation and environmentalism, and on some technological issues. A country scores higher for achieving well in those areas, and for sustaining that achievement in the long term. Those countries towards the top of this index can truly said to be setting good examples and leading humankind onwards into a bright, humane, and free future. See: What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life.

3. Population and Demographics

#Chad #demographics #health #immigration #life_expectancy #overpopulation #population

Old-Age Dependency Ratio (2016)13
Pos.Lower is better
Per 10013
1Uganda04.3
2Mali04.5
3Chad04.7
4Burkina Faso04.7
5Sierra Leone04.8
6Zambia04.8
7Eritrea04.9
8Gambia04.9
9Angola05.0
10Afghanistan05.0
11Zimbabwe05.0
12Nigeria05.1
World Avg18.3
q=185.
Emigrants (2010)14
Pos.
%14
1Dominica104.8
2Palestine68.4
3Samoa67.3
...
151Cambodia2.3
152Uganda2.2
153Sudan2.2
154Chad2.1
155Australia2.1
156Serbia2.0
157Venezuela1.8
158S. Africa1.7
World Avg11.5
q=192.
Fertility Rate (2013)15
Pos.2.0 is best15
1Korea, N.2.00
2Brunei1.99
3St Vincent & Grenadines2.01
...
169Tanzania5.51
170Congo, DR5.54
171Burkina Faso5.77
172Chad5.79
173Uganda5.95
174Malawi5.98
175Timor-Leste (E. Timor)5.99
176Afghanistan6.03
World Avg2.81
q=180.

Immigrants (2010)14
Pos.
%14
1Qatar86.5
2Monaco71.6
3UAE70.0
...
94Argentina3.6
95Venezuela3.5
96Panama3.4
97Chad3.4
98Swaziland3.4
99Mauritius3.3
100Sao Tome & Principe3.2
101Nepal3.2
World Avg9.2
q=192.
Life Expectancy (2015)16
Pos.Higher is better
Years16
1Hong Kong84.16
2Japan83.68
3Italy83.34
...
182Mozambique55.48
183Nigeria53.06
184Angola52.70
185Chad51.90
186Ivory Coast51.89
187Central African Rep.51.46
188Sierra Leone51.32
189Lesotho50.08
World Avg71.27
q=190.
Population (2012)17
Pos.The Overpopulation of the Earth17
1China1.4b
2India1.3b
3USA315.8m
...
69Zambia13.9m
70Senegal13.1m
71Zimbabwe13.0m
72Chad11.8m
73Greece11.4m
74Rwanda11.3m
75Cuba11.2m
76Belgium10.8m
World Avg36.0m
q=195.

Chad's population is predicted to rise to 18.44 million by 2030. These millions of extra people will all need space to live, food to eat, energy to consume, and will increase the burden on the planet's resources. This country has a fertility rate of 5.79. The fertility rate is, in simple terms, the average amount of children that each woman has. The higher the figure, the quicker the population is growing, although, to calculate the rate you also need to take into account morbidity, i.e., the rate at which people die. If people live healthy and long lives and morbidity is low, then, 2.0 approximates to the replacement rate, which would keep the population stable. If all countries had such a fertility rate, population growth would end. The actual replacement rate in most developed countries is around 2.1.

4. Politics and Freedom

#burundi #Chad #corruption #eritrea #france #freedom #human_development #human_rights #indonesia #mass_media #peace #politics #slavery

Corruption (2012-2016)18
Pos.Higher is better
Avg Score18
1Denmark90.8
2New Zealand90.6
3Finland89.4
...
156Myanmar (Burma)21.4
157Zimbabwe21.0
158Cambodia21.0
159Chad20.4
160Burundi20.2
161Eritrea19.8
162Angola19.4
163Guinea-Bissau19.2
World Avg43.05
q=176.
Global Peace Index (2012)19
Pos.Lower is better19
1Iceland1.11
2New Zealand1.24
3Denmark1.24
...
141India2.55
142Yemen2.60
143Colombia2.63
144Chad2.67
145Nigeria2.80
146Syria2.83
147Libya2.83
148Pakistan2.83
World Avg2.02
q=157.
Nominal Commitment to HR (2009)20
Pos.Higher is better
Treaties20
1Argentina24
2Chile23
3Costa Rica23
...
99San Marino16
100Cambodia16
101Sierra Leone15
102Chad15
103Tanzania15
104St Vincent & Grenadines15
105Liberia15
106Libya15
World Avg15.1
q=194.

Personal, Civil & Economic Freedom (2014)21
Pos.Lower is better
Rank21
1Hong Kong1
2Switzerland2
3New Zealand3
...
143Mauritania143
144Egypt144
145Saudi Arabia144
146Chad146
147Pakistan146
148Zimbabwe148
149Guinea149
150Angola150
World Avg79.7
q=159.
Press Freedom (2013)22
Pos.Lower is better22
1Finland638
2Netherlands648
3Norway652
...
117Nepal3461
118Ecuador3469
119Cameroon3478
120Chad3487
121Brunei3545
122Tajikistan3571
123S. Sudan3620
124Algeria3654
World Avg3249
q=178.
Slavery (2018)23
Pos.Lower is better
% Victims23
1Japan0.03
2Canada0.05
3Taiwan0.05
...
150Myanmar (Burma)1.10
151Turkmenistan1.12
152Rwanda1.16
153Chad1.20
154Sudan1.20
155Mongolia1.23
156Congo, DR1.37
157Somalia1.55
World Avg0.65
q=167.

The taking of slaves has been an unwholesome feature of Human cultures since prehistory24. Private households and national endeavours have frequently been augmented with the use of slaves. The Egyptian and Roman empires both thrived on them for both purposes. Aside from labourers they are often abused sexually by their owners and their owners' friends25. The era of colonialism and the beginnings of globalisation changed nothing: the imprisonment and forced movements of labour continued to destroy many lives except that new justifications were invented based on Christian doctrine and the effort to convert non-Christians. By 1786 over 12 million slaves had been extracted from Africa and sent to colonial labour camps, with a truly atrocious condition of life26. But they were not the only ones to blame; in Africa internal nations such as the Asantes sold and bought tens of thousands of slaves27.

The abolition of the slave trade was a long and slow process. Until a relatively modern time, even philosophers, religious leaders and those concerned with ethics justified, or ignored, the problem of slavery28. The first abolitionists were always the slaves themselves. Their protests and rebellions caused the industry to become too expensive to continue. After that, it was the economic costs of maintain slave colonies that led the British to reject and then oppose the slave trade globally. Finally, the enlightenment-era thinkers of France encouraged moral and ethical thinking including the declaration of the inherent value of human life and human dignity29. A long-overdue wave of compassionate and conscientious movements swept across the West, eliminating public support for slavery, until the industries and churches that supported it had no choice but to back down.

'Modern slavery' includes forced labour (often of the under-age), debt bondage (especially generational), sexual slavery, chattel slavery and other forms of abuse, some of which can be surprisingly difficult to detect, but often target those fleeing from warzones and the vulnerable.30. Some industries (diamond, clothing, coal) from some countries (Burundi23, Eritrea23, Indonesia31) are a particular concern. The Walk Free Foundation, say that in 2016, 40.3 million people were living in modern slavery32.

5. Gender Equality

#Chad #gender #misogyny #politics #women

Gender Inequality (2015)33
Pos.Lower is better33
1Switzerland0.04
2Denmark0.04
3Netherlands0.04
...
152Tonga0.66
153Congo, DR0.66
154Afghanistan0.67
155Ivory Coast0.67
156Mali0.69
157Chad0.69
158Niger0.70
159Yemen0.77
World Avg0.36
q=159.
Year Women Can Vote34
Pos.Lower is better
Year34
1New Zealand1893
2Australia1902
3Finland1906
...
115Malaysia1957
116Laos1958
117Hungary1958
118Chad1958
119Nigeria1958
120Burkina Faso1958
121Guinea1958
122Madagascar1959
World Avg1930
q=189.

Gender inequality is not a necessary part of early human development. Although a separation of roles is almost universal due to different strengths between the genders, this does not have to mean that women are subdued, and, such patriarchialism is not universal in ancient history. Those cultures and peoples who shed, or never developed, the idea that mankind ought to dominate womankind, are better cultures and peoples than those who, even today, cling violently to those mores.

The 1950s saw a late rush of 43 countries, including Chad and many developing nations, move to cease preventing women from voting. Chad culture has a severe problem with gender equality, with male rights dominating those of women. Things need to change.

See:

6. Religion and Beliefs

#belief #buddhism #christianity #god #hinduism #islam #judaism #religion

Religiosity (2009)35
Pos.Lower is better
%35
1Estonia16
2Sweden17
3Denmark19
...
88Zambia95
89Ghana95
90Mali95
91Chad95
92Algeria95
93Rwanda95
94Cambodia96
95Senegal96
World Avg75.1
q=114.
Disbelief In God (2007)36
Pos.Higher is better36
1Vietnam81
2Japan65
3Sweden64
...
128Madagascar0
129Nigeria0
130Malawi0
131Chad0
132Nepal0
133Morocco0
134Mauritania0
135Mali0
World Avg9.9
q=137.

Data from the Pew Forum, a professional polling outfit, states that in 2010 the religious makeup of this country was as follows in the table below37:

Christian40.6%
Muslim55.3%
Hindu0.1%
Buddhist0.1%
Folk Religion1.4%
Jew0.1%
Unaffiliated2.5%

The CIA World Factbook has slightly different data, and states: Muslim 53.1%, Catholic 20.1%, Protestant 14.2%, animist 7.3%, other 0.5%, unknown 1.7%, atheist 3.1% (1993 census)38.

The International Humanist and Ethical Union produced a report in 2012 entitled "Freedom of Thought" (2012)39, in which they document bias and prejudice at the national level that is based on religion, belief and/or lack of belief. Their entry for Chad states:

The constitution provides that the country shall be a secular state. However, some policies favor Islam in practice40. A committee composed of members of the High Council for Islamic Affairs (HCIA) and the Directorate of Religious and Traditional Affairs in the Ministry of the Interior (MOI) organized trips to Mecca for the Hajj (pilgrimage during the 12th month of the Islamic calendar) and Umrah (pilgrimage). The Director of Religious and Traditional Affairs oversees religious matters. The HCIA oversees Islamic religious activities, including the supervision of some Arabic-language schools and higher institutions of learning, and the representation of the country in international Islamic meetings. The HCIA, in coordination with the president, appoints the grand imam, a spiritual leader for Muslims, who oversees each region's high imam and serves as head of the council. In principle, although not consistently in practice, the grand imam has the authority to restrict proselytizing by Islamic groups, regulate the content of mosque sermons, and exert control over activities of Islamic charities. Religious leaders are involved in managing the country's wealth. A representative of the religious community sits on the Revenue Management College, the body that oversees use of Chad's oil revenues. The seat rotates between Muslim and Christian leaders every four years.

While the government is legally obligated to treat all religious groups or denominations equally, some non-Muslims allege that Muslims receive preferential status, particularly concerning use of public lands for building places of worship.

"Freedom of Thought" by IHEU (2012)41

Links:

7. The Internet

#Chad #internet #the_internet

Internet Users (2016)42
Pos.Higher is better42
1Iceland100%
2Faroe Islands99%
3Norway98%
...
190Ethiopia4%
191Congo, DR4%
192Guinea-Bissau4%
193Chad3%
194Myanmar (Burma)3%
195Sierra Leone2%
196Niger2%
197Guinea2%
World Avg48.1%
q=201.

Internet access has become an essential research tool. It facilitates an endless list of life improvements, from the ability to network and socialize without constraint, to access to a seemingly infinite repository of technical and procedural information on pretty much any task. The universal availability of data has sped up industrial development and personal learning at the national and personal level. Individuals can read any topic they wish regardless of the locality of expert teachers, and, entire nations can develop their technology and understanding of the world simply because they are now exposed to advanced societies and moral discourses online. Like every communications medium, the Internet has issues and causes a small range of problems, but these are insignificant compared to the advantages of having an online populace.

8. Public Health Issues

#alcohol #Chad #health #parenting #population #smoking #vaccines

Adolescent Birth Rate (2015)33
Pos.Lower is better
Per 100033
1Korea, N.0.5
2Korea, S.1.6
3Switzerland2.9
...
175Sierra Leone118.2
176Tanzania118.6
177Congo, DR122.6
178Chad133.5
179Ivory Coast135.5
180Malawi136.2
181Mozambique139.7
182Guinea140.6
World Avg47.9
q=185.
Alcohol Consumption (2010)43
Pos.Lower is better
Per Capita43
1Libya0.1
2Pakistan0.1
3Kuwait0.1
...
73Turkmenistan4.3
74UAE4.3
75India4.3
76Chad4.4
77Uzbekistan4.6
78Liberia4.7
79Ghana4.8
80Jamaica4.9
World Avg6.2
q=191.
Food Aid, Health Contributions & WHO Compliance (2017)44
Pos.Lower is better
Rank44
1Sweden1
2Ireland2
3Denmark3
...
137Congo, (Brazzaville)137
138Albania138
139Ghana139
140Chad140
141Rwanda141
142Mali142
143Niger143
144Marshall Islands144
World Avg82.0
q=163.

Infant Immunizations 2011-2015 (2015)45
Pos.Higher is better
Avg %45
1Hungary99.0
2China99.0
3Uzbekistan98.9
...
186Guinea63.3
187Syria62.4
188Ukraine55.2
189Chad52.5
190Nigeria50.0
191Central African Rep.49.4
192Somalia46.0
193S. Sudan45.7
World Avg88.3
q=194.
Smoking Rates (2014)46
Pos.Lower is better46
1Guinea 15
2Solomon Islands 26
3Kiribati 28
...
31Zimbabwe 134
32Mauritania 135
33Bhutan 155
34Chad 156
35Zambia 165
36Gambia 166
37Paraguay 166
38Nigeria 173
World Avg 819
q=182.

9. More Charts and Comparisons to Other Countries

Personal Charitability
(World Position, 2013-2016)
47
Pos.Lower is better47
1Myanmar (Burma)1.25
2USA1.5
3New Zealand3.5
...
128Ecuador111
129Egypt112.25
130Croatia113
131Chad113.75
132Madagascar114
133Benin114.25
134Niger115
q=156.
Intellectual Endeavours (2017)44
Pos.Lower is better
Rank44
1Ukraine1
2Czechia2
3Hungary3
...
121El Salvador121
122Dominican Rep.122
123Oman123
124Chad124
125Brunei125
126Ivory Coast126
127Kuwait127
q=163.
Creativity and Culture (2017)44
Pos.Lower is better
Rank44
1Belgium1
2Netherlands2
3Estonia3
...
132Guinea132
133Timor-Leste (E. Timor)133
134Mali134
135Chad135
136Saudi Arabia136
137Congo, (Brazzaville)137
138Algeria138
q=163.
Peacekeeping and Security (2017)44
Pos.Lower is better
Rank44
1Samoa1
2S. Africa2
3Tunisia3
...
124Malta124
125Burundi125
126Barbados126
127Chad127
128Montenegro128
129Dominican Rep.129
130Papua New Guinea130
q=163.
Refugees and UN Treaties (2017)44
Pos.Lower is better
Rank44
1Austria1
2Germany2
3Netherlands3
...
142Syria142
143Mauritania143
144Rwanda144
145Chad145
146Central African Rep.146
147El Salvador147
148Bahamas148
q=163.
Open Trading, Aid and Development (2017)44
Pos.Lower is better
Rank44
1Ireland1
2Denmark2
3Sweden3
...
123Pakistan123
124Lithuania124
125St Lucia125
126Chad126
127Bahamas127
128Liberia128
129Sierra Leone129
q=163.
Life Satisfaction (2011)48
Pos.Higher is better48
1Denmark7.8
2Norway7.6
3Netherlands7.6
...
143Burundi3.8
144Afghanistan3.8
145Yemen3.7
146Chad3.7
147Benin3.7
148Central African Rep.3.6
149Botswana3.6
150Togo2.8
q=150.
Gross National Income Per-Capita (2011)16
Pos.Higher is better
PPP $16
1Qatar$129 916
2Singapore$78 162
3Kuwait$76 075
...
164Yemen$2 300
165Senegal$2 250
166Mali$2 218
167Chad$1 991
168Benin$1 979
169S. Sudan$1 882
170Afghanistan$1 871
171Uganda$1 670
q=193.
Environmental Performance (2018)49
Pos.Higher is better49
1Switzerland87.4
2France84.0
3Denmark81.6
...
134Guinea46.6
135Mozambique46.4
136Uzbekistan45.9
137Chad45.3
138Myanmar (Burma)45.3
139Ivory Coast45.3
140Gabon45.1
141Ethiopia44.8
q=180.
LGBT Equality (2017)50
Pos.Higher is better
Score50
1Netherlands103
2Belgium90
3Sweden86
...
114Rwanda7
115Congo, (Brazzaville)5
116Madagascar5
117Chad5
118Indonesia1
119Ivory Coast1
120Russia1
121Benin1
q=196.
IQ (2006)51
Pos.Higher is better51
1Hong Kong108
2Singapore108
3Korea, S.106
...
120Mali69
121Burundi69
122Nigeria69
123Chad68
124Burkina Faso68
125Somalia68
126Angola68
127Guinea67
q=138.

Current edition: 2013 May 01
Last Modified: 2017 Jun 18
http://www.humantruth.info/chad.html
Parent page: Compare International Statistics by Region and Continent

All #tags used on this page - click for more:

#alcohol #belief #buddhism #burundi #Chad #charity #christianity #corruption #demographics #economics #eritrea #france #freedom #gambia #gender #ghana #god #happiness #health #hinduism #homosexuality #human_development #human_rights #immigration #indonesia #intelligence #internet #islam #judaism #libya #life_expectancy #mass_media #misogyny #morals #overpopulation #parenting #peace #politics #population #religion #slavery #smoking #sudan #the_environment #the_internet #vaccines #women

Social Media

References: (What's this?)

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Casely-Hayford, Gus
(2012) The Lost Kingdoms of Africa. Published by Bantram Press. A hardback book.

Charities Aid Foundation
World Giving Index. On www.cafonline.org.

CIA
(2013) World Factbook. The USA Government's Central Intelligence Agency (USA CIA) publishes The World Factbook, and the online version is frequently updated.

Crabtree, Vexen
(2018) "What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life" (2018). Accessed 2018 Aug 22.

The Fraser Institute
(2016) The Human Freedom Index. Published by The Cato Institute, The Fraser Institute and the Friedrich Naumann Foundation for Freedom. Covers data up to 2014. On www.fraserinstitute.org/.../human-freedom-index-2016.

Gallup
(2009) Religiosity. gallup.com/poll/142727/.... The survey question was "Is religion an important part of your daily life?" and results are charted for those who said "yes". 1000 adults were polled in each of 114 countries.

IHEU. International Humanist and Ethical Union.
(2012) Freedom of Thought. A copy can be found on iheu.org/...Freedom of Thought 2012.pdf, accessed 2013 Oct 28.

Klein, Naomi
(2004) No Logo. Originally published 2000, HarperCollins, London, UK. A paperback book.

Lonely Planet
(2014) The World. Subtitled: "A Traveller's Guide to the Planet". Published by Lonely Planet, London, UK. Each chapter is devoted to a specific country and includes a list of the most interesting places to visit and a few other cultural notes.

Lynn, Harvey & Nyborg
(2009) Average intelligence predicts atheism rates across 137 nations. Richard Lynn, John Harvey and Helmuth Nyborg. Published in Intelligence (2009 Jan/Feb) vol. 37 issue 1 pages 11-15. Online at www.sciencedirect.com, accessed 2009 Sep 15.

McCall, Andrew
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Thomson, Oliver
(1993) A History of Sin. Published by Canongate Press. A hardback book.

United Nations
(2011) Human Development Report. Published by the UN Development Programme. This edition had the theme of Sustainability and Equity: A Better Future for All. Available on hdr.undp.org/... UN Development Program: About the Human Development Index.
(2013) Human Development Report. Published by the UN Development Programme. This edition had the theme of The Rise of the South: Human Progress in a Diverse World. Available on hdr.undp.org/... UN Development Program: About the Human Development Index.
(2017) Human Development Report. Published by the UN Development Programme. Data for 2015. Available on hdr.undp.org/.

Walk Free Foundation
(2018) Global Slavery Index. Published on www.walkfreefoundation.org/.

World Health Organisation. (WHO)
(2014) Global Status Report on Alcohol and Health. A copy can be found on the WHO website. Accessed 2015 Jan 04. It "presents a comprehensive perspective on the global, regional and country consumption of alcohol, patterns of drinking, health consequences and policy responses in Member States" and was published in Geneva on 2014 May 12.

Footnotes

  1. World Bank data on data.worldbank.org accessed 2013 Nov 04.^
  2. UN (2011) .^
  3. UN (2017). Table 1.^
  4. UN (2017). Gross National Income, per person. Table 1.^
  5. International Standards Organisation (ISO) standard ISO3166-1, on www.iso.org, accessed 2013 May 01.^
  6. Top level domains (TLDs) are managed by the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) on www.iana.org.^
  7. According to ISO4217.^
  8. According to ITU-T.^
  9. CIA (2013). Https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/cd.html accessed 2014 Apr 27.^
  10. Lonely Planet (2014). Chapter "Chad".^
  11. UN (2017). Table 1. Lower is better.^
  12. "What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life" by Vexen Crabtree (2018)^
  13. UN (2017). Dashboard 2. Higher is worse. Old-age is counted as 65+, and ratio is of these to people ages 15-64. Projections are for 2030 based on medium-fertility variant of growth.^
  14. UN (2013). Table 11.^
  15. UN (2013). Table 14. Births per woman (2012), expressed as deviance (positive or negative) from the value of 2.0.^
  16. UN (2017). Table 1. Higher is better.^^
  17. UN (2013). Table 14.^
  18. Transparency International Corruption Perceptions Index (2017). Accessed 2017 Dec 30. The scores given are the TI average for the years 2012-2016.^
  19. ^
  20. Max possible=24. Total amount of treaties ratified. Nominal Commitment to Human Rights report published by UCL School of Public Policy, London, UK, at ucl.ac.uk/spp/research/research-projects/nchr accessed 2011 Apr 30.^
  21. Fraser Institute, the (2016). Covers data for 2014.^
  22. Reporters Without Borders Report "2013 World Press Freedom Index: Dashed hopes after spring" at fr.rsf.org/.../classement_2013_gb-bd.pdf accessed 2013 Feb.^
  23. Walk Free Foundation (2018) .^
  24. Thomson (1993). P28.^
  25. McCall (1979). P180.^
  26. Thomson (1993). P166.^
  27. Casely-Hayford (2012). P253.^
  28. Thomson (1993). P31.^
  29. Thomson (1993). P199.^
  30. Thomson (1993). P28-29.^
  31. Klein (2004) .^
  32. Walk Free Foundation (2018). P2.^
  33. UN (2017). Table 5. Lower is better.^^
  34. "What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life: 2.6. Women Stand for Election & Vote" by Vexen Crabtree (2018)^
  35. Gallup (2009) .^
  36. Zuckerman, P. (2007). Atheism: contemporary numbers and patterns. In M.Martin (Ed.), The Cambridge Companion to Atheism. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. In "Average intelligence predicts atheism rates across 137 nations" by Lynn et al. (2009)51.^
  37. Pew Forum (2012) publication "The Global Religious Landscape: A Report on the Size and Distribution of the World´s Major Religious Groups as of 2010" (2012 Dec 18) accessed 2013 May 01.^
  38. CIA (2013). Https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/ar.html accessed 2014 Apr 27.^
  39. IHEU (2012) .^
  40. 2010 IRF report (US International Religious Freedom report). In IHEU 2012.^
  41. IHEU (2012) .Added to this page on 2013 Oct 28.^
  42. internetlivestats.com/internet-users-by-country accessed 2017 Mar 10.^
  43. WHO (2014). Appendix 1. Alcohol Per Capita Consumption in liters of pure alcohol, 15+ years age population, consumed in 2010. Lower is better.^
  44. The Good Country Index (2017) .^^
  45. World Health Organisation data for 2011-2015 from 7 data series accessed 2017 May 21. Details in "Immunizations: International Statistics on Vaccines and the Autism Scare: 3. World Health Organisation Statistics" by Vexen Crabtree (2017).^
  46. Annual Cigarette Consumption Per Adult (age 15 and above) - compustible cigarettes. Euromonitor International (2014), via tobaccoatlas.org/topic/cigarette-use-globally/ . Accessed 2017 Jun 20.^
  47. Charities Aid Foundation. Average ranking across years 2013-2016. Lower is better.^
  48. UN (2013). Table 9. Higher is better. Table 9. The UN's data is the latest available from a range of data from 2007-2011.^
  49. Yale University Center for Environmental Law & Policy 2018 EPI.^
  50. Sources:^
  51. Lynn, Harvey & Nyborg (2009) .^

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