The Human Truth Foundation

Tonga (Kingdom of Tonga)

By Vexen Crabtree 2013

#tonga

Tonga
Kingdom of Tonga
StatusIndependent State
Social and Moral Index150th best
CapitalNuku'alofa
Land Area 720km21
LocationAustralasia, Polynesia
GroupingsSmall Islands
Population0.1m2
Life Expectancy72.99yrs (2017)3
GNI$5 284 (2017)4
ISO3166-1 CodesTO, TON, 7765
Internet Domain.to6
CurrencyPa'anga (TOP)7
Telephone+6768

1. Overview

Tonga - unique among Pacific nations - never completely lost its indigenous governance. The archipelagos of "The Friendly Islands" were united into a Polynesian kingdom in 1845. Tonga became a constitutional monarchy in 1875 and a British protectorate in 1900; it withdrew from the protectorate and joined the Commonwealth of Nations in 1970. Tonga remains the only monarchy in the Pacific.

CIA's The World Factbook (2013)9

Book CoverThink lush, reef-fringed islands with sandy foreshores that virtually glow in the tropical sunshine. In Tonga you´ll need to slow down to the pace of local island life. Say goodbye to tourist hype - you´re now in the Kingdom of Tonga. This `never colonised´ Polynesian kingdom is unique in its approach to tourism. This is a country that survives on international aid and remittances sent from Tongans living overseas. You may get the impression that most Tongans would prefer visitors to donate their dollars and not leave the airport; expats seem determined to build a tourist industry, but most of the locals just don´t seem to care. In some ways, this is incredibly refreshing and in others incredibly frustrating. You won´t have to try to gain a cultural experience - it´s all around!

There´s no doubting the natural beauty of Tonga. Travellers choose the pace of their adventure here, mixing sun-and-sand holidays, swimming with humpback whales, hiking in tropical rainforests or just lying on the beach and experiencing Tongan time. Throw away any preconceived ideas, slow down to the pace of local life, and you´ll love the place. Expect too much and you´ll likely leave frustrated.

"The World" by Lonely Planet (2014)10

2. Tonga National and Social Development

#economics #human_development

UN HDI (2016)11
Pos.Lower is better
Rank11
1Norway1
2Australia2
3Switzerland2
...
98Tunisia97
99Dominican Rep.99
100St Vincent & Grenadines99
101Tonga101
102Libya102
103Belize103
104Samoa104
105Maldives105
World Avg94.3
q=188.
Gross National Income Per-Capita (2011)12
Pos.Higher is better
PPP $12
1Qatar$129 916
2Singapore$78 162
3Kuwait$76 075
...
131Samoa$5 372
132Timor-Leste (E. Timor)$5 371
133Vietnam$5 335
134Tonga$5 284
135Palestine$5 256
136Laos$5 049
137Pakistan$5 031
138Moldova$5 026
World Avg$17 240
q=193.
Social & Moral
Development Index
13,14
Pos.Lower is better
Avg Rank13,14
1Taiwan30.2
2Denmark30.5
3Norway30.9
...
147Guinea110.2
148Madagascar110.5
149Ivory Coast110.8
150Tonga110.8
151Sao Tome & Principe110.8
152Gabon110.9
153Benin110.9
154Djibouti111.0
World Avg86.4
q=195.

The United Nations produces an annual Human Development Report which includes the Human Development Index. The factors taken into account include life expectancy, education and schooling and Gross National Income (GNI) amongst many others..

The Social and Moral Development Index concentrates on moral issues and human rights, violence, public health, equality, tolerance, freedom and effectiveness in climate change mitigation and environmentalism, and on some technological issues. A country scores higher for achieving well in those areas, and for sustaining that achievement in the long term. Those countries towards the top of this index can truly said to be setting good examples and leading humankind onwards into a bright, humane, and free future. See: Which are the Best Countries in the World? The Social and Moral Development Index.

3. Tonga's Demographics

#birth_control #demographics #health #immigration #life_expectancy #longevity #migration #overpopulation #population

Population:

Tonga's population is predicted to rise to 120 540 by 2030. This country has a fertility rate of 3.81. The fertility rate is, in simple terms, the average amount of children that each woman has. The higher the figure, the quicker the population is growing, although, to calculate the rate you also need to take into account morbidity, i.e., the rate at which people die. If people live healthy and long lives and morbidity is low, then, 2.0 approximates to the replacement rate, which would keep the population stable. If all countries had such a fertility rate, population growth would end. The actual replacement rate in most developed countries is around 2.1.

Population (2018)2
Pos.
Population2
1China1.4b
2India1.4b
3USA327.1m
...
180Micronesia0.1m
181Grenada0.1m
182St Vincent & Grenadines0.1m
183Tonga0.1m
184Seychelles97 096
185Antigua & Barbuda96 286
186Andorra77 006
187Dominica71 625
World Avg39.0m
q=195.
Life Expectancy (2015)12
Pos.Higher is better
Years12
1Hong Kong84.16
2Japan83.68
3Italy83.34
...
98Palestine73.07
99St Vincent & Grenadines73.04
100Paraguay73.00
101Tonga72.99
102Palau72.87
103Vanuatu72.11
104Guatemala72.06
105Bangladesh71.99
World Avg71.27
q=190.
Fertility Rate (2013)15
Pos.2.0 is best15
1N. Korea2.00
2Brunei1.99
3St Vincent & Grenadines2.01
...
134Djibouti3.61
135Vanuatu3.77
136Samoa3.77
137Tonga3.81
138Papua New Guinea3.83
139Guatemala3.86
140Togo3.90
141Ethiopia3.91
World Avg2.81
q=180.
Old-Age Dependency Ratio (2016)16
Pos.Lower is better
Per 10016
1Uganda04.3
2Mali04.5
3Chad04.7
...
81Maldives11.0
82Mongolia11.8
83Uzbekistan11.9
84Tonga11.9
85Kyrgyzstan12.1
86Indonesia12.4
87Myanmar (Burma)12.5
88India12.5
World Avg18.3
q=185.

Migration:

Immigrants (2017)17
Pos.
%17
1UAE88.4%
2Kuwait75.5%
3Qatar65.2%
...
84Palestine5.2%
85Argentina4.9%
86Panama4.7%
87Tonga4.6%
88Venezuela4.5%
89Lithuania4.3%
90St Vincent & Grenadines4.2%
91Czechia4.1%
World Avg9.4%
q=195.
Emigrants (2010)18
Pos.
%18
1Dominica104.8%
2Palestine68.4%
3Samoa67.3%
4Grenada65.5%
5St Kitts & Nevis61.1%
6Guyana56.9%
7Monaco56.3%
8Antigua & Barbuda47.6%
9Tonga45.4%
10Albania45.4%
11Barbados41.0%
12Suriname39.0%
World Avg11.5%
q=192.

4. Tonga's Human Rights, Equality & Tolerance

#equality #gender #gender_equality #homosexuality #human_rights #international_law #mass_media #misogyny #morals #politics #prejudice #tolerance #women

Human Rights, Equality & Tolerance (2020)19,20
Pos.Lower is better
Avg Rank19,20
1Denmark9.7
2Sweden10.0
3Norway16.1
...
185Cook Islands144.5
186Vanuatu145.5
187Djibouti146.2
188Tonga147.7
189Sao Tome & Principe147.8
190St Kitts & Nevis150.3
191Nauru153.3
192Micronesia157.0
193Somalia157.9
World Avg89.8
q=199.

The best countries in the world at ensuring human rights, fostering equality and promoting tolerance, are Denmark, Sweden and Norway19. These countries are displaying the best traits that humanity has to offer. The worst countries are Tuvalu, The Solomon Islands and Palestine19.

The data sets used to calculate points for each country are statistics on commentary in Human Rights Watch reports, its nominal commitment to Human Rights, speed of uptake of HR treaties, supporting personal, civil & economic freedoms, supporting press freedom, eliminating modern slavery, opposing gender inequality, the year from which women could participate in democracy, its success in fighting anti-semitic prejudice and LGBT equality. The regions with the best average results per country are Scandinavia, Baltic States and Europe19, whereas the worst are Micronesia, Melanesia and Australasia19.

Human Rights & Tolerance:

Nominal Commitment to HR (2009)21
Pos.Higher is better
Treaties21
1Argentina24
2Chile23
3Costa Rica23
...
180UAE7
181St Lucia6
182Brunei6
183Tonga6
184Pakistan6
185Tuvalu5
186Micronesia5
187Singapore5
World Avg15.1
q=194.
HR Treaties Lag (2019)22
Pos.Lower is better
Avg Yrs/Treaty22
1Ecuador2.15
2Uruguay2.25
3Tunisia3.65
...
182Singapore15.02
183Papua New Guinea15.23
184Brunei15.29
185Tonga15.55
186Micronesia15.55
187Somalia15.71
188Kiribati15.80
189Solomon Islands15.81
World Avg10.02
q=195.
Press Freedom (2013)23
Pos.Lower is better23
1Finland638
2Netherlands648
3Norway652
...
62Serbia2659
63Croatia2661
64Central African Rep.2661
65Tonga2670
66Mauritania2676
67Bosnia & Herzegovina2686
68Guyana2708
69Tanzania2734
World Avg3249
q=178.

Gender Equality:

Tonga culture has a severe problem with gender equality, with male rights dominating those of women. Things need to change.

See:

Gender Inequality (2015)24
Pos.Lower is better24
1Switzerland0.04
2Denmark0.04
3Netherlands0.04
...
149Central African Rep.0.65
150Liberia0.65
151Sierra Leone0.65
152Tonga0.66
153Congo, DR0.66
154Afghanistan0.67
155Ivory Coast0.67
156Mali0.69
World Avg0.36
q=159.
Year Women Can Vote
Pos.Lower is better
Year
1New Zealand1893
2Australia1902
3Finland1906
...
122Madagascar1959
123Tunisia1959
124Tanzania1959
125Tonga1960
126Cyprus1960
127Gambia1960
128El Salvador1961
129Rwanda1961
World Avg1930
q=189.

Prejudice:

LGBT Equality (2017)25
Pos.Higher is better
Score25
1Netherlands103
2Belgium90
3Sweden86
...
176Comoros-30
177Angola-30
178Uzbekistan-30
179Tonga-30
180Tuvalu-30
181Mauritania-32
182UAE-34
183Kuwait-37
World Avg12.6
q=196.

5. Tonga's Health

#alcohol #birth_control #demographics #health #life_expectancy #longevity #obesity #overpopulation #parenting #population #smoking #Tonga #vaccines

Health (2020)26,20
Pos.Lower is better
Avg Rank26,20
1Hong Kong18.0
2Singapore41.5
3Maldives43.3
...
133Malawi103.3
134Botswana103.4
135Afghanistan103.5
136Tonga103.6
137Bulgaria104.0
138Syria104.9
139Romania105.1
140Timor-Leste (E. Timor)105.3
141Lesotho105.8
World Avg92.3
q=187.

The countries with the best overall approach to public health, in terms of both public policy and individual lifestyle choices, are Hong Kong, Singapore and The Maldives26. These countries are worth emulating. And, although often through no fault of the average citizen, the worst countries are S. Sudan, Nigeria and Equatorial Guinea26.

The data sets used to calculate points for each country are its average life expectancy, its alcohol consumption rate, its fertility rate, its smoking rate, its suicide rate, its food aid and health contributions and WHO compliance, the prevalence of overweight adults, its adolescent birth rate and its immunizations take-up. The regions with the best average results per country are Scandinavia, Asia and Europe26, whereas the worst are Africa, Micronesia and Polynesia26.

Health:

Tonga has some poor policies and cultural issues which cause some public health problems. Tonga comes in the best 20 for its smoking rate27. It does better than average for its alcohol consumption rate28 and in its adolescent birth rate24 (amongst the best in Australasia). Tonga does not succeed in everything, however. It does worse than average in its average life expectancy12 (still high for Australasia), its fertility rate15 (one of the worst in Australasia) and in its immunizations take-up29. And finally, it falls into the worst 20 when it comes to its food aid and health contributions and WHO compliance30 (one of the highest in Australasia). The prevalence of overweight adults has increased by 14% over the last 40 years.
Life Expectancy (2015)12
Pos.Higher is better
Years12
1Hong Kong84.16
2Japan83.68
3Italy83.34
...
98Palestine73.07
99St Vincent & Grenadines73.04
100Paraguay73.00
101Tonga72.99
102Palau72.87
103Vanuatu72.11
104Guatemala72.06
105Bangladesh71.99
World Avg71.27
q=190.
Alcohol Consumption (2016)28
Pos.Lower is better
Per Capita28
1Bangladesh0.0
2Kuwait0.0
3Libya0.0
...
32Guinea1.3
33Mali1.3
34Solomon Islands1.4
35Tonga1.5
36Lebanon1.5
37Chad1.6
38Tuvalu1.7
39Madagascar1.9
World Avg6.2
q=189.
Fertility Rate (2013)15
Pos.2.0 is best15
1N. Korea2.00
2Brunei1.99
3St Vincent & Grenadines2.01
...
134Djibouti3.61
135Vanuatu3.77
136Samoa3.77
137Tonga3.81
138Papua New Guinea3.83
139Guatemala3.86
140Togo3.90
141Ethiopia3.91
World Avg2.81
q=180.
Smoking Rates (2014)27
Pos.Higher is worse27
182Montenegro4 125
181Belarus3 831
180Lebanon3 023
...
16Afghanistan 84
15Nepal 83
14Mozambique 82
13Tonga 81
12Malawi 80
11Suriname 79
10Guyana 77
9Vanuatu 76
World Avg 819
q=182.
Food Aid, Health Contributions & WHO Compliance (2017)30
Pos.Lower is better
Rank30
1Sweden1
2Ireland2
3Denmark3
...
146Samoa146
147Jamaica147
148Togo148
149Tonga149
150Nigeria150
151St Lucia151
152Trinidad & Tobago152
153Mozambique153
World Avg82.0
q=163.
Overweight Adults (2016)31
Pos.Lower is better
%31
1Vietnam18.3
2India19.7
3Bangladesh20.0
...
181Kuwait73.4
182Micronesia75.9
183Samoa77.6
184Tonga78.5
185Kiribati78.7
186Niue80.0
187Tuvalu81.9
188Marshall Islands83.5
World Avg49.0
q=191.

Children's Health:

Adolescent Birth Rate (2015)24
Pos.Lower is better
Per 100024
1N. Korea0.5
2S. Korea1.6
3Switzerland2.9
...
48UK14.6
49Sri Lanka14.8
50Micronesia15.0
51Tonga15.2
52Mongolia15.7
53Turkmenistan16.4
54Myanmar (Burma)16.5
55Malta16.6
World Avg47.9
q=185.
Infant Immunizations 2011-2015 (2015)29
Pos.Higher is better
Avg %29
1Hungary99.0
2China99.0
3Uzbekistan98.9
...
155Myanmar (Burma)80.3
156Benin80.1
157Guinea-Bissau80.1
158Tonga80.0
159Mauritania79.9
160Lebanon79.4
161San Marino79.3
162Gabon78.7
World Avg88.3
q=194.

6. Tonga's Modernity and Learning

#education #modernity #technology #the_internet

Modernity and Learning (2020)32
Pos.Lower is better
Avg Rank32
1Finland8.0
2Belgium9.1
3Denmark10.0
...
100Palestine74.8
101Uganda75.3
102Sri Lanka76.0
103Tonga76.0
104Oman76.1
105Maldives77.0
106Bhutan77.5
107Panama77.7
108Bolivia79.9
World Avg69.0
q=180.

Modernity and Education:

Secondary Education (2018)33
Pos.Higher is better33
1Luxembourg100.0%
2Estonia100.0%
3Austria100.0%
...
28Bulgaria95.1%
29Lithuania94.9%
30Ukraine94.6%
31Tonga93.7%
32Japan93.6%
33Tajikistan93.1%
34Barbados92.9%
35Albania92.9%
World Avg63.0%
q=169.
Length of Schooling (2018)34
Pos.Higher is better
Years34
1Australia22.1
2Belgium19.7
3Finland19.3
...
69Fiji14.4
70Brunei14.4
71Cuba14.4
72Tonga14.3
73Mexico14.3
74Romania14.3
75Luxembourg14.2
76Mongolia14.2
World Avg13.2
q=193.
Intellectual Endeavours (2017)30
Pos.Lower is better
Rank30
1Ukraine1
2Czechia2
3Hungary3
...
82Uganda82
83Mauritius83
84UAE84
85Tonga85
86Georgia86
87Benin87
88Pakistan88
89Seychelles89
World Avg82.0
q=163.

Technology and Information:

Internet Users (2016)35
Pos.Higher is better35
1Iceland100%
2Faroe Islands99%
3Norway98%
...
102Moldova48%
103Paraguay47%
104Fiji47%
105Tonga47%
106Nigeria46%
107Jordan46%
108Panama45%
109Mexico45%
World Avg48.1%
q=201.
IPv6 Uptake (2017)36
Pos.Higher is better
Ratio36
1Belgium55.4
2Germany41.8
3Switzerland35.1
...
128Djibouti0.0
129Guyana0.0
130Namibia0.0
131Tonga0.0
132Myanmar (Burma)0.0
133Morocco0.0
134Timor-Leste (E. Timor)0.0
135Honduras0.0
World Avg3.82
q=176.

7. National Culture

Creativity and Culture (2017)30
Pos.Lower is better
Rank30
1Belgium1
2Netherlands2
3Estonia3
...
67USA67
68Guyana68
69Bosnia & Herzegovina69
70Tonga70
71Trinidad & Tobago71
72Botswana72
73Dominica73
74Antigua & Barbuda74
World Avg82.0
q=163.
Open Trading, Aid and Development (2017)30
Pos.Lower is better
Rank30
1Ireland1
2Denmark2
3Sweden3
...
76Dominican Rep.76
77Slovenia77
78Guatemala78
79Tonga79
80Latvia80
81Romania81
82Costa Rica82
83Kuwait83
World Avg82.0
q=163.

8. Peace Versus Instability

Peacekeeping and Security (2017)30
Pos.Lower is better
Rank30
1Samoa1
2S. Africa2
3Tunisia3
...
156Swaziland156
157Yemen157
158Iraq158
159Bahrain159
160Slovenia160
161Tonga161
162Marshall Islands162
163Guinea-Bissau163
World Avg82.0
q=163.
Refugees and UN Treaties (2017)30
Pos.Lower is better
Rank30
1Austria1
2Germany2
3Netherlands3
...
156Ivory Coast156
157St Lucia157
158Vietnam158
159Laos159
160Equatorial Guinea160
161Fiji161
162Tonga162
163Brunei163
World Avg82.0
q=163.

9. The Natural Environment

#biodiversity #climate_change #over-exploitation #the_environment

Forest Area Change 1990-2015 (2015)37
Pos.Higher is better
%37
1Iceland205.6
2Bahrain144.4
3Uruguay131.3
...
82Yemen00.0
83Tuvalu00.0
84Libya00.0
85Tonga00.0
86Maldives00.0
87Vanuatu00.0
88Turkmenistan00.0
89Djibouti00.0
World Avg02.8
q=184.
Environmental Performance (2018)38
Pos.Higher is better38
1Switzerland87.4
2France84.0
3Denmark81.6
...
54Morocco63.5
55Cuba63.4
56Panama62.7
57Tonga62.5
58Tunisia62.4
59Azerbaijan62.3
60S. Korea62.3
61Kuwait62.3
World Avg56.4
q=180.
Convention on Biological Diversity
Pos.Earlier is better
Signed
1China1993 Dec 29
2Guinea1993 Dec 29
3Cook Islands1993 Dec 29
...
171Liechtenstein1998 Feb 17
172Macedonia1998 Mar 02
173Angola1998 Jun 30
174Tonga1998 Aug 17
175Palau1999 Apr 06
176Sao Tome & Principe1999 Dec 28
177UAE2000 May 10
178Azerbaijan2000 Nov 01
World Avg1899 Dec 30
q=197.

10. Economic Inequality and Poverty

#capitalism #economics #health #inequality #life_expectancy #social_development

Inequality in Life Expectancy (2019)39
Pos.Higher is worse39
184Chad40.90
183Central African Rep.40.10
182Sierra Leone39.00
...
84Jordan10.60
83St Lucia10.60
82Mexico10.50
81Tonga10.40
80Jamaica10.00
79Samoa10.00
78Moldova9.60
77Seychelles9.60
World Avg14.59
q=184.
Income Inequality (Gini Coefficient) (2017)40
Pos.Lower is better
%40
1Ukraine25.0
2Belarus25.4
3Slovenia25.4
...
77Bulgaria37.4
78Bhutan37.4
79Vanuatu37.6
80Tonga37.6
81Russia37.7
82Tanzania37.8
83Georgia37.9
84El Salvador38.0
World Avg38.1
q=152.

11. Religion and Beliefs

#buddhism #christianity #hinduism #islam #judaism

Data from the Pew Forum, a professional polling outfit, states that in 2010 the religious makeup of this country was as follows in the table below41:

Christian98.9%
Muslim0.1%
Hindu0.1%
Buddhist0.1%
Folk Religion0.1%
Jew0.1%
Unaffiliated0.1%

The CIA World Factbook has slightly different data, and states: Christian (Free Wesleyan Church claims over 30,000 adherents)42.

Links: