The Human Truth Foundation

The Ivory Coast (Republic of Cote d'Ivoire)

By Vexen Crabtree 2013

#ivory_coast

Ivory Coast
Republic of Cote d'Ivoire
StatusIndependent State
Social and Moral Index149th best
CapitalYamoussoukro
Land Area 318 000km21
LocationAfrica
Population25.1m2
Life Expectancy51.89yrs (2017)3
GNI$3 163 (2017)4
ISO3166-1 CodesCI, CIV, 3845
Internet Domain.ci6
CurrencyFranc (XOF)7
Telephone+2258

1. Overview

#france

Close ties to France following independence in 1960, the development of cocoa production for export, and foreign investment all made Cote d'Ivoire one of the most prosperous of the West African states but did not protect it from political turmoil. In December 1999, a military coup - the first ever in Cote d'Ivoire's history - overthrew the government. Junta leader Robert GUEI blatantly rigged elections held in late 2000 and declared himself the winner. Popular protest forced him to step aside and brought Laurent GBAGBO into power. Ivorian dissidents and disaffected members of the military launched a failed coup attempt in September 2002 that developed into a rebellion and then a civil war. The war ended in 2003 with a cease fire that left the country divided with the rebels holding the north, the government the south, and peacekeeping forces a buffer zone between the two. In March 2007, President GBAGBO and former New Forces rebel leader Guillaume SORO signed an agreement in which SORO joined GBAGBO's government as prime minister and the two agreed to reunite the country by dismantling the buffer zone, integrating rebel forces into the national armed forces, and holding elections. Difficulties in preparing electoral registers delayed balloting until 2010. In November 2010, Alassane Dramane OUATTARA won the presidential election over GBAGBO, but GBAGBO refused to hand over power, resulting in a five-month stand-off. In April 2011, after widespread fighting, GBAGBO was formally forced from office by armed OUATTARA supporters with the help of UN and French forces. Several thousand UN peacekeepers and several hundred French troops remain in Cote d'Ivoire to support the transition process. OUATTARA is focused on rebuilding the country's infrastructure and military after the five months of post-electoral fighting, and faces ongoing threats from GBAGBO supporters many of whom have sought shelter in Ghana. GBAGBO is in The Hague awaiting trial for crimes against humanity.

CIA's The World Factbook (2013)9

Book CoverCôte d´Ivoire is on the rebound, emerging from a difficult decade, revelling in a melange of modernity and a tradition with a penchant for partying. Côte d´Ivoire is a stunner, shingled with starfish-studded sands, and forest roads so orange they resemble strips of bronzing powder. After almost a decade of making headlines for all the wrong reasons, it is making a tentative comeback.

Once lauded as West Africa´s success story - the country was a magnet for workers from across the region, and travellers drawn by idyllic beaches and intriguing cultural traditions - Côte d´Ivoire´s descent into civil war in the early years of the millennium was especially tragic.

With a fragile peace holding, the outlook is more positive and travellers are beginning to return, albeit at a trickle. In the south, the Parc National de Taï hides secrets, species and nut-cracking chimps amidst its trees, while the peaks and valleys of Man offer a highland climate, fresh air and local art. Beach resorts of Assinie and arty Grand Bassam were made for weekend retreats from Abidjan, the capital in all but name, where lagoons linger between skyscrapers and cathedral spires pierce the blue heavens.

"The World" by Lonely Planet (2014)10

2. Ivory Coast National and Social Development

#economics #human_development

UN HDI (2016)11
Pos.Lower is better
Rank11
1Norway1
2Australia2
3Switzerland2
...
168Yemen168
169Afghanistan169
170Malawi170
171Ivory Coast171
172Djibouti172
173Gambia173
174Ethiopia174
175Mali175
World Avg94.3
q=188.
Gross National Income Per-Capita (2011)12
Pos.Higher is better
PPP $12
1Qatar$129 916
2Singapore$78 162
3Kuwait$76 075
...
148Lesotho$3 319
149Micronesia$3 291
150Djibouti$3 216
151Ivory Coast$3 163
152Kyrgyzstan$3 097
153Cambodia$3 095
154Sao Tome & Principe$3 070
155Cameroon$2 894
World Avg$17 240
q=193.
Social & Moral
Development Index
13,14
Pos.Lower is better
Avg Rank13,14
1Taiwan30.2
2Denmark30.5
3Norway30.9
...
146Mali110.1
147Guinea110.2
148Madagascar110.5
149Ivory Coast110.8
150Tonga110.8
151Sao Tome & Principe110.8
152Gabon110.9
153Benin110.9
World Avg86.4
q=195.

The United Nations produces an annual Human Development Report which includes the Human Development Index. The factors taken into account include life expectancy, education and schooling and Gross National Income (GNI) amongst many others..

The Social and Moral Development Index concentrates on moral issues and human rights, violence, public health, equality, tolerance, freedom and effectiveness in climate change mitigation and environmentalism, and on some technological issues. A country scores higher for achieving well in those areas, and for sustaining that achievement in the long term. Those countries towards the top of this index can truly said to be setting good examples and leading humankind onwards into a bright, humane, and free future. See: Which are the Best Countries in the World? The Social and Moral Development Index.

3. Ivory Coast's Demographics

#birth_control #demographics #health #immigration #life_expectancy #longevity #migration #overpopulation #population

Population:

The Ivory Coast's population is predicted to rise to 29.82 million by 2030. These millions of extra people will all need space to live, food to eat, energy to consume, and will increase the burden on the planet's resources. This country has a fertility rate of 4.27. The fertility rate is, in simple terms, the average amount of children that each woman has. The higher the figure, the quicker the population is growing, although, to calculate the rate you also need to take into account morbidity, i.e., the rate at which people die. If people live healthy and long lives and morbidity is low, then, 2.0 approximates to the replacement rate, which would keep the population stable. If all countries had such a fertility rate, population growth would end. The actual replacement rate in most developed countries is around 2.1.

Population (2018)2
Pos.
Population2
1China1.4b
2India1.4b
3USA327.1m
...
51Madagascar26.3m
52N. Korea25.5m
53Cameroon25.2m
54Ivory Coast25.1m
55Australia24.9m
56Niger22.4m
57Sri Lanka21.2m
58Burkina Faso19.8m
World Avg39.0m
q=195.
Life Expectancy (2015)12
Pos.Higher is better
Years12
1Hong Kong84.16
2Japan83.68
3Italy83.34
...
183Nigeria53.06
184Angola52.70
185Chad51.90
186Ivory Coast51.89
187Central African Rep.51.46
188Sierra Leone51.32
189Lesotho50.08
190Swaziland48.94
World Avg71.27
q=190.
Fertility Rate (2013)15
Pos.2.0 is best15
1N. Korea2.00
2Brunei1.99
3St Vincent & Grenadines2.01
...
142Ghana4.03
143Solomon Islands4.08
144Burundi4.10
145Ivory Coast4.27
146Eritrea4.28
147Palestine4.31
148Cameroon4.33
149Mauritania4.40
World Avg2.81
q=180.
Old-Age Dependency Ratio (2016)16
Pos.Lower is better
Per 10016
1Uganda04.3
2Mali04.5
3Chad04.7
...
13Qatar05.1
14Somalia05.4
15Togo05.4
16Ivory Coast05.6
17Malawi05.6
18Senegal05.6
19Yemen05.7
20Cameroon05.8
World Avg18.3
q=185.

Migration:

Immigrants (2017)17
Pos.
%17
1UAE88.4%
2Kuwait75.5%
3Qatar65.2%
...
60Gambia9.8%
61Dominica9.2%
62Serbia9.1%
63Ivory Coast9.0%
64Malaysia8.5%
65Portugal8.5%
66Suriname8.5%
67Costa Rica8.4%
World Avg9.4%
q=195.
Emigrants (2010)18
Pos.
%18
1Dominica104.8%
2Palestine68.4%
3Samoa67.3%
...
103Comoros5.6%
104Congo, (Brazzaville)5.6%
105Togo5.4%
106Ivory Coast5.4%
107Switzerland5.4%
108Malaysia5.3%
109Guinea5.2%
110Turkmenistan5.0%
World Avg11.5%
q=192.

4. Human Rights, Equality & Tolerance

#equality #freedom #human_rights #Ivory_Coast #politics #tolerance

The Ivory Coast is generally poor at ensuring human rights and freedom compared to the rest of the world. The Ivory Coast does better than average when it comes to its success in fighting anti-semitic prejudice19 and in commentary in Human Rights Watch reports20 (one of the best in Africa). Human Rights Watch in 2017 reported some improvement in the legal defence of human rights, including in press freedom21 and judicial abuses and arbitrary arrests were decreasing in number21. When it comes to most other metrics, The Ivory Coast does not do well. It does worse than average when it comes to supporting press freedom22, supporting personal, civil & economic freedoms23, LGBT equality24 (still high for Africa), its nominal commitment to Human Rights25 and in speed of uptake of HR treaties26. And finally, it sits amongst the bottom 20 in opposing gender inequality27 (one of the worst in Africa). Prosecutions against historical human rights abusers is still rare and perpetrators of post-election abuse and violence in 2010-11 largely remained unaccountable21.

For tables, charts and commentary, see:

5. Ivory Coast's Health

#alcohol #birth_control #demographics #health #Ivory_Coast #life_expectancy #longevity #obesity #overpopulation #parenting #population #smoking #vaccines

Health (2020)28,29
Pos.Lower is better
Avg Rank28,29
1Hong Kong18.0
2Singapore41.5
3Maldives43.3
...
179Papua New Guinea122.0
180Congo, (Brazzaville)123.1
181Gabon131.4
182Iraq132.0
183Ivory Coast132.4
184Angola135.0
185Equatorial Guinea136.4
186Nigeria140.8
187S. Sudan143.3
World Avg92.3
q=187.

The countries with the best overall approach to public health, in terms of both public policy and individual lifestyle choices, are Hong Kong, Singapore and The Maldives28. These countries are worth emulating. And, although often through no fault of the average citizen, the worst countries are S. Sudan, Nigeria and Equatorial Guinea28.

The data sets used to calculate points for each country are its average life expectancy, its alcohol consumption rate, its fertility rate, its smoking rate, its suicide rate, its food aid and health contributions and WHO compliance, the prevalence of overweight adults, its adolescent birth rate and its immunizations take-up. The regions with the best average results per country are Scandinavia, Asia and Europe28, whereas the worst are Africa, Micronesia and Polynesia28.

Health:

The Ivory Coast is a pretty unhealthy country. The Ivory Coast does better than average in terms of its smoking rate30 (but bad for Africa). When it comes to most other metrics, The Ivory Coast does not do well. It does worse than average for its alcohol consumption rate31, its food aid and health contributions and WHO compliance32, its fertility rate15 and in its immunizations take-up33. And finally, it falls into the worst 20 in terms of its adolescent birth rate27 and in its average life expectancy12. The prevalence of overweight adults has increased by 14% between 1976 and 2016.
Life Expectancy (2015)12
Pos.Higher is better
Years12
1Hong Kong84.16
2Japan83.68
3Italy83.34
...
183Nigeria53.06
184Angola52.70
185Chad51.90
186Ivory Coast51.89
187Central African Rep.51.46
188Sierra Leone51.32
189Lesotho50.08
190Swaziland48.94
World Avg71.27
q=190.
Alcohol Consumption (2016)31
Pos.Lower is better
Per Capita31
1Bangladesh0.0
2Kuwait0.0
3Libya0.0
...
123St Vincent & Grenadines8.2
124Dominica8.2
125Thailand8.3
126Ivory Coast8.4
127Botswana8.4
128Trinidad & Tobago8.4
129Vietnam8.4
130Ukraine8.6
World Avg6.2
q=189.
Fertility Rate (2013)15
Pos.2.0 is best15
1N. Korea2.00
2Brunei1.99
3St Vincent & Grenadines2.01
...
142Ghana4.03
143Solomon Islands4.08
144Burundi4.10
145Ivory Coast4.27
146Eritrea4.28
147Palestine4.31
148Cameroon4.33
149Mauritania4.40
World Avg2.81
q=180.
Smoking Rates (2014)30
Pos.Higher is worse30
182Montenegro4 125
181Belarus3 831
180Lebanon3 023
...
81Honduras 489
80Angola 489
79Nicaragua 488
78Ivory Coast 477
77Djibouti 476
76Syria 459
75Botswana 449
74Costa Rica 432
World Avg 819
q=182.
Food Aid, Health Contributions & WHO Compliance (2017)32
Pos.Lower is better
Rank32
1Sweden1
2Ireland2
3Denmark3
...
126Mauritius126
127Congo, DR127
128Gabon128
129Ivory Coast129
130Mongolia130
131Afghanistan131
132Suriname132
133Grenada133
World Avg82.0
q=163.
Overweight Adults (2016)34
Pos.Lower is better
%34
1Vietnam18.3
2India19.7
3Bangladesh20.0
...
46Maldives30.6
47Congo, (Brazzaville)30.9
48Liberia30.9
49Ivory Coast31.6
50Singapore31.8
51Gambia31.9
52Ghana32.0
53China32.3
World Avg49.0
q=191.

Children's Health:

Adolescent Birth Rate (2015)27
Pos.Lower is better
Per 100027
1N. Korea0.5
2S. Korea1.6
3Switzerland2.9
...
176Tanzania118.6
177Congo, DR122.6
178Chad133.5
179Ivory Coast135.5
180Malawi136.2
181Mozambique139.7
182Guinea140.6
183Angola164.3
World Avg47.9
q=185.
Infant Immunizations 2011-2015 (2015)33
Pos.Higher is better
Avg %33
1Hungary99.0
2China99.0
3Uzbekistan98.9
...
163Micronesia78.2
164Philippines77.9
165Sweden77.8
166Ivory Coast76.9
167Congo, DR76.5
168Timor-Leste (E. Timor)76.5
169Indonesia76.4
170Mali76.0
World Avg88.3
q=194.

6. Ivory Coast's Modernity and Learning

#education #intelligence #it_security #modernity #religion #technology #the_internet

Modernity and Learning (2020)35
Pos.Lower is better
Avg Rank35
1Finland8.0
2Belgium9.1
3Denmark10.0
...
135Cape Verde93.5
136Botswana93.5
137Namibia94.2
138Ivory Coast94.3
139Suriname94.8
140Nigeria95.3
141St Vincent & Grenadines95.5
142Burkina Faso95.7
143Benin97.0
World Avg69.0
q=180.

Modernity and Education:

Secondary Education (2018)36
Pos.Higher is better36
1Luxembourg100.0%
2Estonia100.0%
3Austria100.0%
...
146Yemen28.0%
147Benin26.5%
148Sierra Leone26.3%
149Ivory Coast26.1%
150Afghanistan26.1%
151Myanmar (Burma)25.8%
152Central African Rep.22.1%
153Malawi21.8%
World Avg63.0%
q=169.
Length of Schooling (2018)37
Pos.Higher is better
Years37
1Australia22.1
2Belgium19.7
3Finland19.3
...
169Mozambique9.7
170Nigeria9.7
171Congo, DR9.7
172Ivory Coast9.6
173Liberia9.6
174Haiti9.5
175Gambia9.5
176Equatorial Guinea9.2
World Avg13.2
q=193.
Intellectual Endeavours (2017)32
Pos.Lower is better
Rank32
1Ukraine1
2Czechia2
3Hungary3
...
123Oman123
124Chad124
125Brunei125
126Ivory Coast126
127Kuwait127
128Vietnam128
129Azerbaijan129
130Bangladesh130
World Avg82.0
q=163.
Religiosity (2009)38
Pos.Lower is better
%38
1Estonia16
2Sweden17
3Denmark19
...
62Dominican Rep.87
63Brazil87
64Lebanon87
65Ivory Coast88
66Guatemala88
67Zimbabwe88
68Panama88
69Bolivia89
World Avg75.1
q=114.
IQ (2006)39
Pos.Higher is better39
1Hong Kong108
2Singapore108
3S. Korea106
...
114Botswana70
115Rwanda70
116Benin70
117Ivory Coast69
118Malawi69
119Niger69
120Mali69
121Burundi69
World Avg85.6
q=138.

Technology and Information:

Internet Users (2016)40
Pos.Higher is better40
1Iceland100%
2Faroe Islands99%
3Norway98%
...
141Yemen25%
142Senegal23%
143Angola23%
144Ivory Coast22%
145Honduras22%
146Botswana21%
147Libya21%
148Zimbabwe21%
World Avg48.1%
q=201.
IT Security (2013)41
Pos.Lower is better41
1Ireland0.11
2Luxembourg0.11
3Belize0.11
...
32Kenya0.77
33Cameroon0.77
34Burkina Faso0.79
35Ivory Coast0.82
36Ethiopia0.84
37Iran0.85
38Laos0.86
39Spain0.88
World Avg0.98
q=81.
IPv6 Uptake (2017)42
Pos.Higher is better
Ratio42
1Belgium55.4
2Germany41.8
3Switzerland35.1
...
139Congo, (Brazzaville)0.0
140Sao Tome & Principe0.0
141Kiribati0.0
142Ivory Coast0.0
143Mauritania0.0
144Iraq0.0
145Oman0.0
146Papua New Guinea0.0
World Avg3.82
q=176.

7. National Culture

#charity #corruption #happiness #morals #politics

Personal Charitability
(World Position, 2013-2016)
43
Pos.Lower is better43
1Myanmar (Burma)1.25
2USA1.5
3New Zealand3.5
...
103India89.75
104Ethiopia90.5
105Zimbabwe92.75
106Ivory Coast93.33
107Burkina Faso93.75
108Belarus94.75
109Poland96.5
110Macedonia98.75
World Avg68.1185897435897
q=156.
Corruption (2012-2016)44
Pos.Higher is better
Avg Score44
1Denmark90.8
2New Zealand90.6
3Finland89.4
...
118Tanzania32.2
119Vietnam31.4
120Dominican Rep.31.4
121Ivory Coast30.8
122Timor-Leste (E. Timor)30.8
123Togo30.4
124Sierra Leone30.2
125Mozambique30.0
World Avg43.05
q=176.
Happiness (2018)45
Pos.Higher is better45
1Finland7.6
2Norway7.6
3Denmark7.6
...
104Palestine4.7
105S. Africa4.7
106Iran4.7
107Ivory Coast4.7
108Ghana4.7
109Senegal4.6
110Laos4.6
111Tunisia4.6
World Avg5.38
q=156.
Creativity and Culture (2017)32
Pos.Lower is better
Rank32
1Belgium1
2Netherlands2
3Estonia3
...
113Argentina113
114Qatar114
115Afghanistan115
116Ivory Coast116
117Panama117
118Colombia118
119Brazil119
120Honduras120
World Avg82.0
q=163.
Open Trading, Aid and Development (2017)32
Pos.Lower is better
Rank32
1Ireland1
2Denmark2
3Sweden3
...
92Burundi92
93Mozambique93
94Guinea94
95Ivory Coast95
96Peru96
97Libya97
98Czechia98
99Israel99
World Avg82.0
q=163.

8. Peace Versus Instability

#extremism #human_development #peace #politics #religious_violence #terrorism

Global Peace Index (2012)46
Pos.Lower is better46
1Iceland1.11
2New Zealand1.24
3Denmark1.24
...
130Kyrgyzstan2.36
131Azerbaijan2.36
132Philippines2.42
133Ivory Coast2.42
134Mexico2.45
135Lebanon2.46
136Ethiopia2.50
137Burundi2.52
World Avg2.02
q=157.
Peacekeeping and Security (2017)32
Pos.Lower is better
Rank32
1Samoa1
2S. Africa2
3Tunisia3
...
117Benin117
118Venezuela118
119Angola119
120Ivory Coast120
121Kyrgyzstan121
122Guinea122
123Israel123
124Malta124
World Avg82.0
q=163.
Refugees and UN Treaties (2017)32
Pos.Lower is better
Rank32
1Austria1
2Germany2
3Netherlands3
...
153Angola153
154Guyana154
155Congo, DR155
156Ivory Coast156
157St Lucia157
158Vietnam158
159Laos159
160Equatorial Guinea160
World Avg82.0
q=163.
Impact of Terrorism (2019)47
Pos.Lower is better
Score47
1Togo0.00
2Mongolia0.00
3Swaziland0.00
...
76Kuwait2.49
77Malaysia2.50
78Brazil2.53
79Ivory Coast2.60
80Australia2.65
81Congo, (Brazzaville)2.69
82Ireland2.69
83Zimbabwe2.83
World Avg2.78
q=150.

9. The Natural Environment

#biodiversity #climate_change #over-exploitation #the_environment

Forest Area Change 1990-2015 (2015)48
Pos.Higher is better
%48
1Iceland205.6
2Bahrain144.4
3Uruguay131.3
...
66Georgia02.6
67Austria02.5
68Finland01.8
69Ivory Coast01.8
70Czechia01.5
71Germany01.2
72Estonia01.2
73Seychelles01.1
World Avg02.8
q=184.
Environmental Performance (2018)49
Pos.Higher is better49
1Switzerland87.4
2France84.0
3Denmark81.6
...
136Uzbekistan45.9
137Chad45.3
138Myanmar (Burma)45.3
139Ivory Coast45.3
140Gabon45.1
141Ethiopia44.8
142S. Africa44.7
143Guinea-Bissau44.7
World Avg56.4
q=180.
Energy to GDP Efficiency (2014)50
Pos.Higher is better50
1Hong Kong26.32
2Sri Lanka20.00
3Panama17.86
...
101Kenya05.24
102Kazakhstan05.10
103Moldova05.03
104Ivory Coast04.85
105Tanzania04.81
106Kyrgyzstan04.78
107Benin04.69
108Bosnia & Herzegovina04.52
World Avg09.29
q=119.
Convention on Biological Diversity
Pos.Earlier is better
Signed
1China1993 Dec 29
2Guinea1993 Dec 29
3Cook Islands1993 Dec 29
...
101Argentina1995 Feb 20
102Myanmar (Burma)1995 Feb 23
103Colombia1995 Feb 26
104Ivory Coast1995 Feb 27
105Congo, DR1995 Mar 03
106Equatorial Guinea1995 Mar 06
107Sierra Leone1995 Mar 12
108Lebanon1995 Mar 15
World Avg1899 Dec 30
q=197.
Rational Beliefs on the Environment (2011)51
Pos.Higher is better
%51
1Argentina78.3%
2Greece77.6%
3Brazil77.1%
...
18Panama64.6%
19Peru63.9%
20Chile63.8%
21Ivory Coast63.7%
22Madagascar62.8%
23Uruguay62.4%
24Angola62.4%
25Bangladesh61.5%
World Avg39.9%
q=145.

10. Economic Inequality and Poverty

#capitalism #economics #health #inequality #life_expectancy #poverty #social_development

Inequality in Life Expectancy (2019)52
Pos.Higher is worse52
184Chad40.90
183Central African Rep.40.10
182Sierra Leone39.00
...
176Benin34.90
175Equatorial Guinea34.60
174Cameroon33.50
173Ivory Coast33.30
172Lesotho33.10
171Guinea-Bissau32.30
170Haiti32.20
169Burkina Faso32.00
World Avg14.59
q=184.
Income Inequality (Gini Coefficient) (2017)53
Pos.Lower is better
%53
1Ukraine25.0
2Belarus25.4
3Slovenia25.4
...
104Malaysia41.0
105Haiti41.1
106USA41.5
107Ivory Coast41.5
108Djibouti41.6
109Papua New Guinea41.9
110Turkey41.9
111Congo, DR42.1
World Avg38.1
q=152.
Multidimensional Poverty (2018)54
Pos.Lower is better
Severity54
1Armenia.001
2Ukraine.001
3Serbia.001
...
67Pakistan.198
68Haiti.200
69Timor-Leste (E. Timor).210
70Ivory Coast.236
71Yemen.241
72Cameroon.243
73Malawi.243
74Togo.249
World Avg.154
q=101.

11. Religion and Beliefs

#belief #buddhism #christianity #god #hinduism #islam #judaism #religion

Religiosity (2009)38
Pos.Lower is better
%38
1Estonia16
2Sweden17
3Denmark19
...
62Dominican Rep.87
63Brazil87
64Lebanon87
65Ivory Coast88
66Guatemala88
67Zimbabwe88
68Panama88
69Bolivia89
World Avg75.1
q=114.
Disbelief In God (2007)55
Pos.Higher is better
%55
1Vietnam81
2Japan65
3Sweden64
...
117Egypt0
118Liberia0
119Libya0
120Ivory Coast0
121Pakistan0
122Niger0
123Saudi Arabia0
124Rwanda0
World Avg9.9
q=137.

Data from the Pew Forum, a professional polling outfit, states that in 2010 the religious makeup of this country was as follows in the table below56:

Christian44.1%
Muslim37.5%
Hindu0.1%
Buddhist0.1%
Folk Religion10.2%
Jew0.1%
Unaffiliated8%

The CIA World Factbook has slightly different data, and states: Muslim 38.6%, Christian 32.8%, indigenous 11.9%, none 16.7% (2008 est.). note: the majority of foreigners (migratory workers) are Muslim (70%) and Christian (20%)57.

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