The Human Truth Foundation

Benin (Republic of Benin)

By Vexen Crabtree 2013


Comments:
FB, LJ

#benin #charity #economics #happiness #homosexuality #intelligence #morals #the_environment

Benin
Republic of Benin
StatusIndependent State
CapitalPorto-Novo
Land Area 112 760km21
LocationAfrica
Population9.4m (2011)2
Life Expectancy59.76yrs (2017)3
GNI$1 979 (2017)4
ISO3166-1 CodesBJ, BEN, 2045
Internet Domain.bj6
CurrencyFranc (XOF)7
Telephone+2298

1. Overview

#brazil #france

Present day Benin was the site of Dahomey, a West African kingdom that rose to prominence in about 1600 and over the next two and half centuries became a regional power, largely based on its slave trade. Coastal areas of Dahomey began to be controlled by the French in the second half of the 19th century; the entire kingdom was conquered by 1894. French Dahomey achieved independence in 1960; it changed its name to the Republic of Benin in 1975. A succession of military governments ended in 1972 with the rise to power of Mathieu KEREKOU and the establishment of a government based on Marxist-Leninist principles. A move to representative government began in 1989. Two years later, free elections ushered in former Prime Minister Nicephore SOGLO as president, marking the first successful transfer of power in Africa from a dictatorship to a democracy. KEREKOU was returned to power by elections held in 1996 and 2001, though some irregularities were alleged. KEREKOU stepped down at the end of his second term in 2006 and was succeeded by Thomas YAYI Boni, a political outsider and independent. YAYI, who won a second five-year term in March 2011, has attempted to stem corruption and has strongly promoted accelerating Benin's economic growth.

CIA's The World Factbook (2013)9

Book CoverFor all its tumultuous past, Benin is an African success story, a beacon of stability in a tough neighbourhood and its people amongst Africa´s friendliest. The birthplace of voodoo and a pivotal platform of the slave trade for nearly three centuries, Benin is steeped in a rich and complex history still very much in evidence across the country. A visit to this small, club-shaped nation could therefore not be complete without exploring the Afro-Brazilian heritage of Ouidah, Abomey and Porto Novo, learning about spirits and fetishes. But Benin will also wow visitors with its natural beauty, from the palm-fringed beach idyll of the Atlantic coast to the rugged scenery of the north. The Parc National de la Pendjari is one of the best wildlife parks in West Africa. Lions, cheetahs, leopards, elephants and hundreds of other species thrive here.

... Benin is wonderfully tourist- friendly. There are good roads, a wide range of accommodation options and ecotourism initiatives that offer travellers the chance to delve deeper into Beninese life. Now is an ideal time to go because the country sits on the cusp of discovery.

"The World" by Lonely Planet (2014)10

2. Benin National and Social Development

#human_development

UN HDI (2016)11
Pos.Lower is better
Rank11
1Norway1
2Australia2
3Switzerland2
...
164Haiti163
165Sudan165
166Togo166
167Benin167
168Yemen168
169Afghanistan169
170Malawi170
171Ivory Coast171
World Avg94.3
q=188.
Social & Moral
Development Index
12
Pos.Higher is better
Points12
1Denmark84.2
2Sweden83.7
3Finland83.5
...
155Tanzania44.9
156Comoros44.8
157Liberia44.7
158Benin44.2
159Lesotho44.2
160Togo44.1
161Cambodia44.1
162Madagascar44.1
World Avg54.1
q=198.

The United Nations produces an annual Human Development Report which includes the Human Development Index. The factors taken into account include life expectancy, education and schooling and Gross National Income (GNI) amongst many others..

The Social and Moral Development Index concentrates on moral issues and human rights, violence, public health, equality, tolerance, freedom and effectiveness in climate change mitigation and environmentalism, and on some technological issues. A country scores higher for achieving well in those areas, and for sustaining that achievement in the long term. Those countries towards the top of this index can truly said to be setting good examples and leading humankind onwards into a bright, humane, and free future. See: What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life.

3. Population and Demographics

#Benin #demographics #health #immigration #life_expectancy #overpopulation #population

Old-Age Dependency Ratio (2016)13
Pos.Lower is better
Per 10013
1Uganda04.3
2Mali04.5
3Chad04.7
...
20Cameroon05.8
21Niger05.8
22Congo, DR05.8
23Benin05.8
24Burundi05.9
25Liberia05.9
26Iraq06.0
27Guinea06.1
World Avg18.3
q=185.
Emigrants (2010)14
Pos.
%14
1Dominica104.8
2Palestine68.4
3Samoa67.3
...
97Brunei6.0
98Netherlands6.0
99Italy5.8
100Benin5.8
101Laos5.7
102Turkey5.6
103Comoros5.6
104Congo, (Brazzaville)5.6
World Avg11.5
q=192.
Fertility Rate (2013)15
Pos.2.0 is best15
1Korea, N.2.00
2Brunei1.99
3St Vincent & Grenadines2.01
...
162Equatorial Guinea5.02
163Guinea5.08
164Liberia5.08
165Benin5.12
166Angola5.19
167Rwanda5.30
168Nigeria5.45
169Tanzania5.51
World Avg2.81
q=180.

Immigrants (2010)14
Pos.
%14
1Qatar86.5
2Monaco71.6
3UAE70.0
...
108Togo2.7
109Marshall Islands2.7
110Trinidad & Tobago2.6
111Benin2.5
112Paraguay2.5
113Slovakia2.4
114Micronesia2.4
115Uruguay2.4
World Avg9.2
q=192.
Life Expectancy (2015)16
Pos.Higher is better
Years16
1Hong Kong84.16
2Japan83.68
3Italy83.34
...
165Afghanistan60.70
166Gambia60.46
167Togo60.18
168Benin59.76
169Guinea59.22
170Uganda59.21
171Zimbabwe59.20
172Congo, DR59.06
World Avg71.27
q=190.
Population (2012)17
Pos.The Overpopulation of the Earth17
1China1.4b
2India1.3b
3USA315.8m
...
88Belarus9.5m
89Sweden9.5m
90Azerbaijan9.4m
91Benin9.4m
92Burundi8.7m
93Austria8.4m
94UAE8.1m
95Honduras7.9m
World Avg36.0m
q=195.

Benin's population is predicted to rise to 14.63 million by 2030. These millions of extra people will all need space to live, food to eat, energy to consume, and will increase the burden on the planet's resources. This country has a fertility rate of 5.12. The fertility rate is, in simple terms, the average amount of children that each woman has. The higher the figure, the quicker the population is growing, although, to calculate the rate you also need to take into account morbidity, i.e., the rate at which people die. If people live healthy and long lives and morbidity is low, then, 2.0 approximates to the replacement rate, which would keep the population stable. If all countries had such a fertility rate, population growth would end. The actual replacement rate in most developed countries is around 2.1.

4. Politics and Freedom

#Benin #burundi #corruption #eritrea #france #freedom #human_development #human_rights #indonesia #mass_media #peace #politics #slavery

Corruption (2012-2016)18
Pos.Higher is better
Avg Score18
1Denmark90.8
2New Zealand90.6
3Finland89.4
...
92Panama37.4
93Morocco37.2
94Peru37.0
95Benin36.8
96Colombia36.6
97Thailand36.6
98Maldives36.0
99Philippines35.6
World Avg43.05
q=176.
Global Peace Index (2012)19
Pos.Lower is better19
1Iceland1.11
2New Zealand1.24
3Denmark1.24
...
110El Salvador2.22
111Egypt2.22
112Jamaica2.22
113Benin2.23
114Armenia2.24
115Niger2.24
116Turkmenistan2.24
117Bahrain2.25
World Avg2.02
q=157.
Nominal Commitment to HR (2009)20
Pos.Higher is better
Treaties20
1Argentina24
2Chile23
3Costa Rica23
...
94Congo, DR16
95Burundi16
96Nigeria16
97Benin16
98Gabon16
99San Marino16
100Cambodia16
101Sierra Leone15
World Avg15.1
q=194.

Personal, Civil & Economic Freedom (2014)21
Pos.Lower is better
Rank21
1Hong Kong1
2Switzerland2
3New Zealand3
...
78Mexico77
79Trinidad & Tobago79
80Bhutan79
81Benin79
82Brazil82
83Tajikistan83
84Nepal84
85Barbados85
World Avg79.7
q=159.
Press Freedom (2013)22
Pos.Lower is better22
1Finland638
2Netherlands648
3Norway652
...
75Congo, (Brazzaville)2820
76Kuwait2828
77Nicaragua2831
78Benin2833
79Dominican Rep.2834
80Lesotho2836
81Bhutan2842
82Togo2845
World Avg3249
q=178.
Slavery (2018)23
Pos.Lower is better
% Victims23
1Japan0.03
2Canada0.05
3Taiwan0.05
...
102Russia0.55
103Moldova0.55
104Egypt0.55
105Benin0.55
106Venezuela0.56
107Haiti0.56
108Zambia0.57
109Gambia0.58
World Avg0.65
q=167.

The taking of slaves has been an unwholesome feature of Human cultures since prehistory24. Private households and national endeavours have frequently been augmented with the use of slaves. The Egyptian and Roman empires both thrived on them for both purposes. Aside from labourers they are often abused sexually by their owners and their owners' friends25. The era of colonialism and the beginnings of globalisation changed nothing: the imprisonment and forced movements of labour continued to destroy many lives except that new justifications were invented based on Christian doctrine and the effort to convert non-Christians. By 1786 over 12 million slaves had been extracted from Africa and sent to colonial labour camps, with a truly atrocious condition of life26. But they were not the only ones to blame; in Africa internal nations such as the Asantes sold and bought tens of thousands of slaves27.

The abolition of the slave trade was a long and slow process. Until a relatively modern time, even philosophers, religious leaders and those concerned with ethics justified, or ignored, the problem of slavery28. The first abolitionists were always the slaves themselves. Their protests and rebellions caused the industry to become too expensive to continue. After that, it was the economic costs of maintain slave colonies that led the British to reject and then oppose the slave trade globally. Finally, the enlightenment-era thinkers of France encouraged moral and ethical thinking including the declaration of the inherent value of human life and human dignity29. A long-overdue wave of compassionate and conscientious movements swept across the West, eliminating public support for slavery, until the industries and churches that supported it had no choice but to back down.

'Modern slavery' includes forced labour (often of the under-age), debt bondage (especially generational), sexual slavery, chattel slavery and other forms of abuse, some of which can be surprisingly difficult to detect, but often target those fleeing from warzones and the vulnerable.30. Some industries (diamond, clothing, coal) from some countries (Burundi23, Eritrea23, Indonesia31) are a particular concern. The Walk Free Foundation, say that in 2016, 40.3 million people were living in modern slavery32.

5. Gender Equality

#Benin #gender #misogyny #politics #women

Gender Inequality (2015)33
Pos.Lower is better33
1Switzerland0.04
2Denmark0.04
3Netherlands0.04
...
141Congo, (Brazzaville)0.59
142Haiti0.59
143Papua New Guinea0.59
144Benin0.61
145Malawi0.61
146Burkina Faso0.62
147Mauritania0.63
148Gambia0.64
World Avg0.36
q=159.
Year Women Can Vote34
Pos.Lower is better
Year34
1New Zealand1893
2Australia1902
3Finland1906
...
106Honduras1955
107Cambodia1955
108Mali1956
109Benin1956
110Mauritius1956
111Somalia1956
112Gabon1956
113Egypt1956
World Avg1930
q=189.

Gender inequality is not a necessary part of early human development. Although a separation of roles is almost universal due to different strengths between the genders, this does not have to mean that women are subdued, and, such patriarchialism is not universal in ancient history. Those cultures and peoples who shed, or never developed, the idea that mankind ought to dominate womankind, are better cultures and peoples than those who, even today, cling violently to those mores.

The 1950s saw a late rush of 43 countries, including Benin and many developing nations, move to cease preventing women from voting. Benin is an unequal country, with male rights dominating those of women.

See:

6. Religion and Beliefs

#belief #buddhism #christianity #god #hinduism #islam #judaism #religion

Disbelief In God (2007)35
Pos.Higher is better35
1Vietnam81
2Japan65
3Sweden64
...
94Sierra Leone0
95Thailand0
96Togo0
97Benin0
98Tunisia0
99Uganda0
100Bangladesh0
101UAE0
World Avg9.9
q=137.

Data from the Pew Forum, a professional polling outfit, states that in 2010 the religious makeup of this country was as follows in the table below36:

Christian53%
Muslim23.8%
Hindu0.1%
Buddhist0.1%
Folk Religion18.1%
Jew0.1%
Unaffiliated5%

The CIA World Factbook has slightly different data, and states: Catholic 27.1%, Muslim 24.4%, Vodoun 17.3%, Protestant 10.4% (Celestial 5%, Methodist 3.2%, other Protestant 2.2%), other Christian 5.3%, other 15.5% (2002 census)37.

Links:

7. The Internet

#Benin #internet #the_internet

Internet Users (2016)38
Pos.Higher is better38
1Iceland100%
2Faroe Islands99%
3Norway98%
...
183Afghanistan7%
184Malawi7%
185Mozambique6%
186Benin6%
187Tanzania5%
188Central African Rep.5%
189Madagascar4%
190Ethiopia4%
World Avg48.1%
q=201.

Internet access has become an essential research tool. It facilitates an endless list of life improvements, from the ability to network and socialize without constraint, to access to a seemingly infinite repository of technical and procedural information on pretty much any task. The universal availability of data has sped up industrial development and personal learning at the national and personal level. Individuals can read any topic they wish regardless of the locality of expert teachers, and, entire nations can develop their technology and understanding of the world simply because they are now exposed to advanced societies and moral discourses online. Like every communications medium, the Internet has issues and causes a small range of problems, but these are insignificant compared to the advantages of having an online populace.

8. Public Health Issues

#alcohol #Benin #health #parenting #population #smoking #vaccines

Adolescent Birth Rate (2015)33
Pos.Lower is better
Per 100033
1Korea, N.0.5
2Korea, S.1.6
3Switzerland2.9
...
148Venezuela79.4
149Guatemala80.7
150Bangladesh83.0
151Benin83.2
152Iraq84.0
153Sao Tome & Principe84.3
154Guyana88.0
155Nicaragua88.8
World Avg47.9
q=185.
Alcohol Consumption (2010)39
Pos.Lower is better
Per Capita39
1Libya0.1
2Pakistan0.1
3Kuwait0.1
...
39Singapore2.0
40Turkey2.0
41Bahrain2.1
42Benin2.1
43Nepal2.2
44Azerbaijan2.3
45Mozambique2.3
46Togo2.3
World Avg6.2
q=191.
Food Aid, Health Contributions & WHO Compliance (2017)40
Pos.Lower is better
Rank40
1Sweden1
2Ireland2
3Denmark3
...
106Serbia106
107Zimbabwe107
108Central African Rep.108
109Benin109
110Costa Rica110
111Dominica111
112Romania112
113Peru113
World Avg82.0
q=163.

Infant Immunizations 2011-2015 (2015)41
Pos.Higher is better
Avg %41
1Hungary99.0
2China99.0
3Uzbekistan98.9
...
153Mozambique81.4
154Venezuela80.6
155Myanmar (Burma)80.3
156Benin80.1
157Guinea-Bissau80.1
158Tonga80.0
159Mauritania79.9
160Lebanon79.4
World Avg88.3
q=194.
Smoking Rates (2014)42
Pos.Lower is better42
1Guinea 15
2Solomon Islands 26
3Kiribati 28
...
27Peru 116
28Somalia 117
29Ghana 121
30Benin 122
31Zimbabwe 134
32Mauritania 135
33Bhutan 155
34Chad 156
World Avg 819
q=182.

9. More Charts and Comparisons to Other Countries

Personal Charitability
(World Position, 2013-2016)
43
Pos.Lower is better43
1Myanmar (Burma)1.25
2USA1.5
3New Zealand3.5
...
130Croatia113
131Chad113.75
132Madagascar114
133Benin114.25
134Niger115
135Angola115
136Mali115.25
q=156.
Intellectual Endeavours (2017)40
Pos.Lower is better
Rank40
1Ukraine1
2Czechia2
3Hungary3
...
84UAE84
85Tonga85
86Georgia86
87Benin87
88Pakistan88
89Seychelles89
90Iran90
q=163.
Creativity and Culture (2017)40
Pos.Lower is better
Rank40
1Belgium1
2Netherlands2
3Estonia3
...
140Paraguay140
141Sri Lanka141
142Malawi142
143Benin143
144Cameroon144
145Laos145
146Nigeria146
q=163.
Peacekeeping and Security (2017)40
Pos.Lower is better
Rank40
1Samoa1
2S. Africa2
3Tunisia3
...
114Suriname114
115Greece115
116Trinidad & Tobago116
117Benin117
118Venezuela118
119Angola119
120Ivory Coast120
q=163.
Refugees and UN Treaties (2017)40
Pos.Lower is better
Rank40
1Austria1
2Germany2
3Netherlands3
...
124Congo, (Brazzaville)124
125Swaziland125
126Madagascar126
127Benin127
128Yemen128
129Pakistan129
130Samoa130
q=163.
Open Trading, Aid and Development (2017)40
Pos.Lower is better
Rank40
1Ireland1
2Denmark2
3Sweden3
...
63Congo, DR63
64Honduras64
65Korea, S.65
66Benin66
67Lesotho67
68Panama68
69New Zealand69
q=163.
Life Satisfaction (2011)44
Pos.Higher is better44
1Denmark7.8
2Norway7.6
3Netherlands7.6
...
143Burundi3.8
144Afghanistan3.8
145Yemen3.7
146Chad3.7
147Benin3.7
148Central African Rep.3.6
149Botswana3.6
150Togo2.8
q=150.
Gross National Income Per-Capita (2011)16
Pos.Higher is better
PPP $16
1Qatar$129 916
2Singapore$78 162
3Kuwait$76 075
...
165Senegal$2 250
166Mali$2 218
167Chad$1 991
168Benin$1 979
169S. Sudan$1 882
170Afghanistan$1 871
171Uganda$1 670
172Haiti$1 657
q=193.
Environmental Performance (2018)45
Pos.Higher is better45
1Switzerland87.4
2France84.0
3Denmark81.6
...
164Papua New Guinea39.4
165Eritrea39.3
166Mauritania39.2
167Benin38.2
168Afghanistan37.7
169Pakistan37.5
170Angola37.4
171Central African Rep.36.4
q=180.
LGBT Equality (2017)46
Pos.Higher is better
Score46
1Netherlands103
2Belgium90
3Sweden86
...
118Indonesia1
119Ivory Coast1
120Russia1
121Benin1
122Niger1
123Bahrain-2
124Sierra Leone-3
125Grenada-5
q=196.
IQ (2006)47
Pos.Higher is better47
1Hong Kong108
2Singapore108
3Korea, S.106
...
113Togo70
114Botswana70
115Rwanda70
116Benin70
117Ivory Coast69
118Malawi69
119Niger69
120Mali69
q=138.

Current edition: 2013 May 01
Last Modified: 2017 Jun 17
http://www.humantruth.info/benin.html
Parent page: Compare International Statistics by Region and Continent

All #tags used on this page - click for more:

#alcohol #belief #Benin #brazil #buddhism #burundi #charity #christianity #corruption #demographics #economics #eritrea #france #freedom #gender #god #happiness #health #hinduism #homosexuality #human_development #human_rights #immigration #indonesia #intelligence #internet #islam #judaism #life_expectancy #mass_media #misogyny #morals #overpopulation #parenting #peace #politics #population #religion #slavery #smoking #the_environment #the_internet #vaccines #women

Social Media

References: (What's this?)

Book Cover

The Good Country Index. Published by The Good Country Inc., New York, USA. Website: goodcountry.org. The Good Country Index gauges how well countries are doing in helping international development. Edition 1.2 (2017) has 35 criteria.

Casely-Hayford, Gus
(2012) The Lost Kingdoms of Africa. Published by Bantram Press. A hardback book.

Charities Aid Foundation
World Giving Index. On www.cafonline.org.

CIA
(2013) World Factbook. The USA Government's Central Intelligence Agency (USA CIA) publishes The World Factbook, and the online version is frequently updated.

Crabtree, Vexen
(2018) "What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life" (2018). Accessed 2018 Aug 22.

The Fraser Institute
(2016) The Human Freedom Index. Published by The Cato Institute, The Fraser Institute and the Friedrich Naumann Foundation for Freedom. Covers data up to 2014. On www.fraserinstitute.org/.../human-freedom-index-2016.

Klein, Naomi
(2004) No Logo. Originally published 2000, HarperCollins, London, UK. A paperback book.

Lonely Planet
(2014) The World. Subtitled: "A Traveller's Guide to the Planet". Published by Lonely Planet, London, UK. Each chapter is devoted to a specific country and includes a list of the most interesting places to visit and a few other cultural notes.

Lynn, Harvey & Nyborg
(2009) Average intelligence predicts atheism rates across 137 nations. Richard Lynn, John Harvey and Helmuth Nyborg. Published in Intelligence (2009 Jan/Feb) vol. 37 issue 1 pages 11-15. Online at www.sciencedirect.com, accessed 2009 Sep 15.

McCall, Andrew
(1979) The Medieval Underworld. 2004 edition. Published by Sutton Publishing. A paperback book.

Thomson, Oliver
(1993) A History of Sin. Published by Canongate Press. A hardback book.

United Nations
(2011) Human Development Report. Published by the UN Development Programme. This edition had the theme of Sustainability and Equity: A Better Future for All. Available on hdr.undp.org/... UN Development Program: About the Human Development Index.
(2013) Human Development Report. Published by the UN Development Programme. This edition had the theme of The Rise of the South: Human Progress in a Diverse World. Available on hdr.undp.org/... UN Development Program: About the Human Development Index.
(2017) Human Development Report. Published by the UN Development Programme. Data for 2015. Available on hdr.undp.org/.

Walk Free Foundation
(2018) Global Slavery Index. Published on www.walkfreefoundation.org/.

World Health Organisation. (WHO)
(2014) Global Status Report on Alcohol and Health. A copy can be found on the WHO website. Accessed 2015 Jan 04. It "presents a comprehensive perspective on the global, regional and country consumption of alcohol, patterns of drinking, health consequences and policy responses in Member States" and was published in Geneva on 2014 May 12.

Footnotes

  1. World Bank data on data.worldbank.org accessed 2013 Nov 04.^
  2. UN (2011) .^
  3. UN (2017). Table 1.^
  4. UN (2017). Gross National Income, per person. Table 1.^
  5. International Standards Organisation (ISO) standard ISO3166-1, on www.iso.org, accessed 2013 May 01.^
  6. Top level domains (TLDs) are managed by the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) on www.iana.org.^
  7. According to ISO4217.^
  8. According to ITU-T.^
  9. CIA (2013). Https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/bn.html accessed 2014 Apr 27.^
  10. Lonely Planet (2014). Chapter "Benin".^
  11. UN (2017). Table 1. Lower is better.^
  12. "What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life" by Vexen Crabtree (2018)^
  13. UN (2017). Dashboard 2. Higher is worse. Old-age is counted as 65+, and ratio is of these to people ages 15-64. Projections are for 2030 based on medium-fertility variant of growth.^
  14. UN (2013). Table 11.^
  15. UN (2013). Table 14. Births per woman (2012), expressed as deviance (positive or negative) from the value of 2.0.^
  16. UN (2017). Table 1. Higher is better.^^
  17. UN (2013). Table 14.^
  18. Transparency International Corruption Perceptions Index (2017). Accessed 2017 Dec 30. The scores given are the TI average for the years 2012-2016.^
  19. ^
  20. Max possible=24. Total amount of treaties ratified. Nominal Commitment to Human Rights report published by UCL School of Public Policy, London, UK, at ucl.ac.uk/spp/research/research-projects/nchr accessed 2011 Apr 30.^
  21. Fraser Institute, the (2016). Covers data for 2014.^
  22. Reporters Without Borders Report "2013 World Press Freedom Index: Dashed hopes after spring" at fr.rsf.org/.../classement_2013_gb-bd.pdf accessed 2013 Feb.^
  23. Walk Free Foundation (2018) .^
  24. Thomson (1993). P28.^
  25. McCall (1979). P180.^
  26. Thomson (1993). P166.^
  27. Casely-Hayford (2012). P253.^
  28. Thomson (1993). P31.^
  29. Thomson (1993). P199.^
  30. Thomson (1993). P28-29.^
  31. Klein (2004) .^
  32. Walk Free Foundation (2018). P2.^
  33. UN (2017). Table 5. Lower is better.^^
  34. "What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life: 2.6. Women Stand for Election & Vote" by Vexen Crabtree (2018)^
  35. Zuckerman, P. (2007). Atheism: contemporary numbers and patterns. In M.Martin (Ed.), The Cambridge Companion to Atheism. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. In "Average intelligence predicts atheism rates across 137 nations" by Lynn et al. (2009)47.^
  36. Pew Forum (2012) publication "The Global Religious Landscape: A Report on the Size and Distribution of the World´s Major Religious Groups as of 2010" (2012 Dec 18) accessed 2013 May 01.^
  37. CIA (2013). Https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/ar.html accessed 2014 Apr 27.^
  38. internetlivestats.com/internet-users-by-country accessed 2017 Mar 10.^
  39. WHO (2014). Appendix 1. Alcohol Per Capita Consumption in liters of pure alcohol, 15+ years age population, consumed in 2010. Lower is better.^
  40. The Good Country Index (2017) .^^
  41. World Health Organisation data for 2011-2015 from 7 data series accessed 2017 May 21. Details in "Immunizations: International Statistics on Vaccines and the Autism Scare: 3. World Health Organisation Statistics" by Vexen Crabtree (2017).^
  42. Annual Cigarette Consumption Per Adult (age 15 and above) - compustible cigarettes. Euromonitor International (2014), via tobaccoatlas.org/topic/cigarette-use-globally/ . Accessed 2017 Jun 20.^
  43. Charities Aid Foundation. Average ranking across years 2013-2016. Lower is better.^
  44. UN (2013). Table 9. Higher is better. Table 9. The UN's data is the latest available from a range of data from 2007-2011.^
  45. Yale University Center for Environmental Law & Policy 2018 EPI.^
  46. Sources:^
  47. Lynn, Harvey & Nyborg (2009) .^

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