Afghanistan (Islamic State of Afghanistan)

#Afghanistan

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Afghanistan
Islamic State of Afghanistan
StatusIndependent State
Social and Moral Index191st best
CapitalKabul
Land Area1 652 230 km2
LocationAsia
Population2 33.4 million
Life Expectancy349.077yrs (2012)
GNI3$1 000
ISO3166-1 Codes4AF, AFG, 4
Internet Domain5.af
Currency6Afghani (AFN)
Telephone7+93

1. Overview

Ahmad Shah DURRANI unified the Pashtun tribes and founded Afghanistan in 1747. The country served as a buffer between the British and Russian Empires until it won independence from notional British control in 1919. A brief experiment in democracy ended in a 1973 coup and a 1978 Communist counter-coup. The Soviet Union invaded in 1979 to support the tottering Afghan Communist regime, touching off a long and destructive war. The USSR withdrew in 1989 under relentless pressure by internationally supported anti-Communist mujahedin rebels. A series of subsequent civil wars saw Kabul finally fall in 1996 to the Taliban, a hardline Pakistani-sponsored movement that emerged in 1994 to end the country's civil war and anarchy. Following the 11 September 2001 terrorist attacks, a US, Allied, and anti-Taliban Northern Alliance military action toppled the Taliban for sheltering Osama BIN LADIN. The UN-sponsored Bonn Conference in 2001 established a process for political reconstruction that included the adoption of a new constitution, a presidential election in 2004, and National Assembly elections in 2005. In December 2004, Hamid KARZAI became the first democratically elected president of Afghanistan and the National Assembly was inaugurated the following December. KARZAI was re-elected in August 2009 for a second term. Despite gains toward building a stable central government, a resurgent Taliban and continuing provincial instability - particularly in the south and the east - remain serious challenges for the Afghan Government.

CIA's The World Factbook (2013)8

2. Afghanistan National and Social Development

UN's Human Development Index
Country2012
score
Average
1980-2010
1Norway95.587.3
2Australia93.888.9
3USA93.787.8
...
172Zimbabwe39.738.2
173Ethiopia39.631.6
174Liberia38.832.2
175Afghanistan37.426.7
176Guinea-Bissau36.435.1
177Sierra Leone35.926.9
178Guinea35.534.2
179Burundi35.525.2
180Central African Rep.35.230.9
181Eritrea35.134.5
182Mali34.425.2
183Burkina Faso34.332.9
184Chad34.030.6
Data Source
Social and Moral Development
CountryScore
1Sweden89.1
2Iceland87.6
3Denmark87.2
...
178Ethiopia38.2
179Guinea-Bissau37.5
180Pakistan37.4
181Mali36.8
182Niger36.4
183Yemen35.5
184Chad35.1
185Central African Rep.35.0
186Iraq33.8
187Mauritania33.8
188Congo, DR31.1
189Somalia29.7
190Sudan27.7
191Afghanistan27.4
Data Source

The United Nations produces an annual Human Development Report which includes the Human Development Index. The factors taken into account include life expectancy, education and schooling and Gross National Income (GNI) amongst many others. The values in the chart are factored by 100.

The Social and Moral Development Index is a formulaic aggregation of many factors. It concentrates on moral issues and human rights, violence, equality, tolerance, freedom and effectiveness in climate change mitigation and environmentalism. A country scores higher for achieving well in those areas, and for sustaining that achievement in the long term. Those countries towards the top of this index can truly said to be setting good examples and leading humankind onwards into a bright, humane, and free future. See: "What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life" by Vexen Crabtree (2013).

3. Population and Life Expectancy

Life Expectancy (at birth)
1Japan83.6
2Hong Kong83
3Switzerland82.5
...
186Chad49.9
187Zambia49.4
188Swaziland48.9
189Afghanistan49.1
190Central African Rep.49.1
191Congo, DR48.7
192Lesotho48.7
193Guinea-Bissau48.6
Data Source
Fertility Rate
1Korea, N.2.0
2Brunei2.0
3St Vincent & Grenadines2.0
...
173Uganda6.0
174Malawi6.0
175Timor-Leste (E. Timor)6.0
176Afghanistan6.0
177Mali6.2
178Zambia6.3
179Somalia6.3
180Niger7.0
Data Source
Population (m=millions)
CountryPeoplePer km2
1China1 353.6m145
2India1 258.35m423
3USA 315.79m35
...
36Sudan 35.05m15
37Canada 34.67m4
38Iraq 33.7m78
39Afghanistan 33.4m51
40Morocco 32.6m73
41Nepal 31.01m216
42Venezuela 29.89m34
Data Source

Afghanistan's population is predicted to rise to 53.27 million by 2030. These millions of extra people will all need space to live, food to eat, energy to consume, and will increase the burden on the planet's resources. This country has a fertility rate of 6.03. The fertility rate is, in simple terms, the average amount of children that each woman has. The higher the figure, the quicker the population is growing, although, to calculate the rate you also need to take into account morbidity, i.e., the rate at which people die. If people live healthy and long lives and morbidity is low, then, 2.0 approximates to the replacement rate, which would keep the population stable. If all countries had such a fertility rate, population growth would end. The actual replacement rate in most developed countries is around 2.1.

4. Gender Equality

Female Vote and Stand
1New Zealand1893
2Australia1902
3Finland1906
...
136Monaco1962
137Uganda1962
138Algeria1962
139Afghanistan1963
140Equatorial Guinea1963
141Bahamas1963
142Fiji1963
143Iran1963
Gender Equality
1Netherlands0.04
2Sweden0.05
3Denmark0.06
...
141Mali0.65
142Central African Rep.0.65
143Liberia0.66
144Congo, DR0.68
145Saudi Arabia0.68
146Niger0.71
147Afghanistan0.71
148Yemen0.75
Data Source

Gender inequality is not a necessary part of early human development. Although a separation of roles is almost universal due to different strengths between the genders, this does not have to mean that women are subdued, and, such patriarchialism is not universal in ancient history. Those cultures and peoples who shed, or never developed, the idea that mankind ought to dominate womankind, are better cultures and peoples than those who, even today, cling violently to those mores.

Afghanistan culture has a severe problem with gender equality, with male rights dominating those of women. Things need to change.

See:

5. Religion and Beliefs

#Buddhism #Christianity #Hinduism #Islam #Judaism

Disbelief In God
1Vietnam81%
2Japan65%
3Sweden64%
...
89Nepal0%
90Bangladesh0%
91Burundi0%
92Afghanistan0%
93Morocco0%
94Algeria0%
95Benin0%
96Chad0%
Data Source
How Many Are Religious?
1Estonia16%
2Sweden17%
3Denmark19%
...
97Cambodia96%
98Cameroon96%
99Malaysia96%
100Afghanistan97%
101Thailand97%
102Comoros97%
103Morocco97%
104Egypt97%
Data Source

Data from the Pew Forum, a professional polling outfit, states that in 2010 the religious makeup of this country was as follows in the table below9:

Christian0.1%
Muslim99%
Hindu0.1%
Buddhist0.1%
Folk Religion0.1%
Jew0.1%
Unaffiliated0.1%

The CIA World Factbook has slightly different data, and states simply: Sunni Muslim 80%, Shia Muslim 19%, other 1%10.

The International Humanist and Ethical Union produced a report in 2012 entitled "Freedom of Thought" (2012), in which they document bias and prejudice at the national level that is based on religion, belief and/or lack of belief. Their entry for Afghanistan states:

The constitution states that Islam is the "religion of the state" and that "no law can be contrary to the beliefs and provisions of the sacred religion of Islam." The constitution and other laws and policies restrict freedom of religion or belief and, in practice, the government enforces these restrictions. Afghanistan's constitutional reliance on Sharia mandates the government to punish alleged blasphemers and apostates with sentences as serious as death by hanging. Non-Muslim minority groups, which together constitute approximately 1 percent of the population, are frequent targets of discrimination and persecution. The constitution requires that the president and vice president be Muslim.

Cases of Discrimination

In January 2008, the Afghan Senate supported the death penalty for the 23-year old journalist Sayed Pervez Kambaksh for blasphemy. He downloaded and distributed an article (written by Arash "The Atheist" Bikhoda) that critically discussed certain Qur'an verses about women. In October 2008, Kambaksh's sentence was commuted to 20 years imprisonment. In August 2009, Kambaksh left Afghanistan after a grant of amnesty by President Hamid Karzai.

"Freedom of Thought" by IHEU (2012)11

Links:

6. The Internet

IT Security Risks
271USA3.68
270Russia2.42
269India2.10
...
259Rwanda1.50
258Netherlands1.47
257Germany1.47
256Afghanistan1.46
255Nepal1.45
254Ukraine1.44
253Uganda1.44
252Mongolia1.42
Data Source
Internet Users in Population
1Iceland95.64
2Norway93.28
3Netherlands90.70
...
160Cameroon4.00
161Lesotho3.86
162Bangladesh3.70
163Afghanistan3.65
164Benin3.13
165Mauritania3.00
166Mali2.70
167Ivory Coast2.60
Data Source

Internet access has become an essential research tool. It facilitates an endless list of life improvements, from the ability to network and socialize without constraint, to access to a seemingly infinite repository of technical and procedural information on pretty much any task. The universal availability of data has sped up industrial development and personal learning at the national and personal level. Individuals can read any topic they wish regardless of the locality of expert teachers, and, entire nations can develop their technology and understanding of the world simply because they are now exposed to advanced societies and moral discourses online. Like every communications medium, the Internet has issues and causes a small range of problems, but these are insignificant compared to the advantages of having an online populace.

Links:

7. More Charts and Comparisons to Other Countries

Global Peace Index
1Iceland1.11
2New Zealand1.24
3Denmark1.24
...
150Central African Rep.2.87
151Korea, N.2.93
152Russia2.94
153Congo, DR3.07
154Iraq3.19
155Sudan3.19
156Afghanistan3.25
157Somalia3.39
Data Source
Average IQ
1Singapore108
2Korea, S.106
3Taiwan105
...
78Venezuela84
79Colombia84
80Iran84
81Afghanistan84
82Morocco84
83Saudi Arabia84
84Jordan84
85Libya83
Data Source
Human Rights Treaties
1Argentina24
2Ecuador23
3Germany23
...
132Antigua & Barbuda13
133Zambia13
134Malawi13
135Afghanistan13
136Gambia13
137Central African Rep.12
138Lebanon12
139Israel12
Data Source
Press Freedom Index
1Finland99.0
2Netherlands99.0
3Norway99.0
...
124Algeria99.4
125Ukraine99.4
126Honduras99.4
127Afghanistan99.4
128Colombia99.4
129Angola99.4
130Libya99.4
131Burundi99.4
Data Source
Gross National Income
1Qatar$87 478
2Liechtenstein$84 880
3Kuwait$52 793
...
169Haiti$1 070
170Guinea-Bissau$1 042
171Ethiopia$1 017
172Afghanistan$1 000
173Comoros$ 986
174Guinea$ 941
175Togo$ 928
176Mozambique$ 906
Data Source
Happiness
1Denmark7.8
2Netherlands7.6
3Norway7.6
...
139Mali3.8
140Nepal3.8
141Senegal3.8
142Afghanistan3.8
143Burundi3.8
144Haiti3.8
145Chad3.7
146Benin3.7
Data Source
Gay Equality
1Netherlands405
2Belgium350
3Canada280
...
204Tanzania-220
205Somaliland-500
206Saudi Arabia-520
207Sudan-520
208UAE-520
209Iran-520
210Yemen-520
211Afghanistan-520
Data Source

By Vexen Crabtree 2013 May 01
http://www.humantruth.info/afghanistan.html
Parent page: Vexing International Issues

Social Media

References: (What's this?)

CIA
(2013) World Factbook. The USA Government's Central Intelligence Agency (USA CIA) publishes The World Factbook, and the online version is frequently updated.

Crabtree, Vexen
(2013) "What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life" (2013). Accessed 2016 Nov 01.

Gallup
(2009) Religiosity. gallup.com/poll/142727/.... The survey question was "Is religion an important part of your daily life?" and results are charted for those who said "yes". 1000 adults were polled in each of 114 countries.

IHEU. International Humanist and Ethical Union.
(2012) Freedom of Thought. A copy can be found on iheu.org/...Freedom of Thought 2012.pdf, accessed 2013 Oct 28.

Lynn, Harvey & Nyborg
(2009) Average intelligence predicts atheism rates across 137 nations. Richard Lynn, John Harvey and Helmuth Nyborg article "Average intelligence predicts atheism rates across 137 nations" in Intelligence (2009 Jan/Feb) vol. 37 issue 1 pages 11-15. Online at www.sciencedirect.com, accessed 2009 Sep 15.

United Nations
(2011) Human Development Report. This edition had the theme of Sustainability and Equity: A Better Future for All. Published on the United Nation's website at hdr.undp.org/.../HDR_2011_EN_Complete.pdf (accessed throughout 2013, Jan-Mar). UN Development Program: About the Human Development Index.
(2013) Human Development Report. This edition had the theme of The Rise of the South: Human Progress in a Diverse World. Published on the United Nation's HDR website at hdr.undp.org/.../hdr2013/ (accessed throughout 2013). UN Development Program: About the Human Development Index.

Footnotes

  1. World Bank data on data.worldbank.org accessed 2013 Nov 04.^
  2. UN (2011).^
  3. UN (2013).^
  4. International Standards Organisation (ISO) standard ISO3166-1, on www.iso.org, accessed 2013 May 01.^
  5. Top level domains (TLDs) are managed by the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) on www.iana.org.^
  6. According to ISO4217.^
  7. According to ITU-T.^
  8. CIA (2013) https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/af.html accessed 2014 Apr 27.^
  9. Pew Forum (2012) publication "The Global Religious Landscape: A Report on the Size and Distribution of the World´s Major Religious Groups as of 2010" (2012 Dec 18) accessed 2013 May 01.^
  10. CIA (2013) https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/ar.html accessed 2014 Apr 27.^
  11. IHEU (2012) Added to this page on 2013 Oct 28.^

© 2016 Vexen Crabtree. All rights reserved.