The Human Truth Foundation

Ethiopia (Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia)

By Vexen Crabtree 2013

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#christianity #Ethiopia #israel #judaism #sudan

Ethiopia
Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia
StatusIndependent State
Social and Moral Index177th best
CapitalAddis Ababa
Land Area1 000 000 km21
LocationAfrica
Population 86.54 million (2011)2
Life Expectancy64.60yrs (2017)3
GNI$1 523 (2017)4
ISO3166-1 CodesET, ETH, 2315
Internet Domain.et6
CurrencyBirr (ETB)7
Telephone+2518

1. Overview

#eritrea #italy

Unique among African countries, the ancient Ethiopian monarchy maintained its freedom from colonial rule with the exception of a short-lived Italian occupation from 1936-41. In 1974, a military junta, the Derg, deposed Emperor Haile SELASSIE (who had ruled since 1930) and established a socialist state. Torn by bloody coups, uprisings, wide-scale drought, and massive refugee problems, the regime was finally toppled in 1991 by a coalition of rebel forces, the Ethiopian People's Revolutionary Democratic Front (EPRDF). A constitution was adopted in 1994, and Ethiopia's first multiparty elections were held in 1995. A border war with Eritrea late in the 1990s ended with a peace treaty in December 2000. In November 2007, the Eritrea-Ethiopia Border Commission (EEBC) issued specific coordinates as virtually demarcating the border and pronounced its work finished. Alleging that the EEBC acted beyond its mandate in issuing the coordinates, Ethiopia has not accepted them and has not withdrawn troops from previously contested areas pronounced by the EEBC as belonging to Eritrea.

CIA's The World Factbook (2013)9

2. Ethiopia National and Social Development

UN HDI (2016)10
CountryRank10
1Norway1
2Australia2
3Switzerland2
...
171Ivory Coast171
172Djibouti172
173Gambia173
174Ethiopia174
175Mali175
176Congo, DR176
177Liberia177
178Guinea-Bissau178
179Eritrea179
180Sierra Leone179
181Mozambique181
182S. Sudan181
183Guinea183
184Burundi184
185Burkina Faso185
186Chad186
Social and Moral Development
CountryScore
1Sweden88.2
2Iceland88.1
3Denmark85.9
...
174Rwanda41.7
175Angola40.8
176Pakistan40.0
177Ethiopia39.7
178Nigeria39.7
179Equatorial Guinea39.5
180Niger39.4
181Guinea-Bissau39.3
182Burundi38.4
183Mali37.9
184Iraq37.7
185Mauritania36.5
186Somalia34.9
187Central African Rep.34.8
Data Source

The United Nations produces an annual Human Development Report which includes the Human Development Index. The factors taken into account include life expectancy, education and schooling and Gross National Income (GNI) amongst many others..

The Social and Moral Development Index is a formulaic aggregation of many factors. It concentrates on moral issues and human rights, violence, equality, tolerance, freedom and effectiveness in climate change mitigation and environmentalism. A country scores higher for achieving well in those areas, and for sustaining that achievement in the long term. Those countries towards the top of this index can truly said to be setting good examples and leading humankind onwards into a bright, humane, and free future. See: "What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life" by Vexen Crabtree (2017).

3. Population and Life Expectancy

Life Expectancy (2015)11
CountryYears11
1Hong Kong84.16
2Japan83.68
3Italy83.34
...
145Namibia65.06
146Gabon64.94
147Rwanda64.75
148Ethiopia64.60
149Botswana64.51
150Eritrea64.19
151Yemen64.05
152Malawi63.88
Fertility Rate
1Korea, N.2.0
2Brunei2.0
3St Vincent & Grenadines2.0
...
138Papua New Guinea3.8
139Guatemala3.9
140Togo3.9
141Ethiopia3.9
142Ghana4.0
143Solomon Islands4.1
144Burundi4.1
145Ivory Coast4.3
Data Source
Population (m=millions)
CountryPeoplePer km2
1China1 353.6m145
2India1 258.35m423
3USA 315.79m35
...
11Mexico 116.15m60
12Philippines 96.47m324
13Vietnam 89.73m289
14Ethiopia 86.54m87
15Egypt 83.96m84
16Germany 81.99m235
17Iran 75.61m46
Data Source

Ethiopia's population is predicted to rise to 118.51 million by 2030. These millions of extra people will all need space to live, food to eat, energy to consume, and will increase the burden on the planet's resources. This country has a fertility rate of 3.91.

The fertility rate is, in simple terms, the average amount of children that each woman has. The higher the figure, the quicker the population is growing, although, to calculate the rate you also need to take into account morbidity, i.e., the rate at which people die. If people live healthy and long lives and morbidity is low, then, 2.0 approximates to the replacement rate, which would keep the population stable. If all countries had such a fertility rate, population growth would end. The actual replacement rate in most developed countries is around 2.1.

4. Gender Equality

Female Vote and Stand
1New Zealand1893
2Australia1902
3Finland1906
...
104Eritrea1955
105Cambodia1955
106Peru1955
107Ethiopia1955
108Mali1956
109Benin1956
110Mauritius1956
111Somalia1956
Gender Inequality (2015)12
CountryValue12
1Switzerland0.04
2Denmark0.04
3Netherlands0.04
...
113Morocco0.49
114Guatemala0.49
115Nepal0.50
116Ethiopia0.50
117Guyana0.51
118Iran0.51
119Bangladesh0.52
120Senegal0.52

Gender inequality is not a necessary part of early human development. Although a separation of roles is almost universal due to different strengths between the genders, this does not have to mean that women are subdued, and, such patriarchialism is not universal in ancient history. Those cultures and peoples who shed, or never developed, the idea that mankind ought to dominate womankind, are better cultures and peoples than those who, even today, cling violently to those mores.

The 1950s saw a late rush of 43 countries, including Ethiopia and many developing nations, move to cease preventing women from voting.

See:

5. Religion and Beliefs

#buddhism #christianity #hinduism #islam #judaism

Disbelief In God
1Vietnam81%
2Japan65%
3Sweden64%
...
123Syria0%
124Sri Lanka0%
125Egypt0%
126Ethiopia0%
127Kuwait0%
128Afghanistan0%
129Senegal0%
130Tanzania0%
Data Source

Data from the Pew Forum, a professional polling outfit, states that in 2010 the religious makeup of this country was as follows in the table below13:

Christian62.8%
Muslim34.6%
Hindu0.1%
Buddhist0.1%
Folk Religion2.6%
Jew0.1%
Unaffiliated0.1%

The CIA World Factbook has slightly different data, and states: Orthodox 43.5%, Muslim 33.9%, Protestant 18.6%, traditional 2.6%, Catholic 0.7%, other 0.7% (2007 Census)14.

The International Humanist and Ethical Union produced a report in 2012 entitled "Freedom of Thought" (2012), in which they document bias and prejudice at the national level that is based on religion, belief and/or lack of belief. Their entry for Ethiopia states:

The constitution requires the separation of state and religion; however, under a 2008 law it is a crime to defame religious groups.

"Freedom of Thought" by IHEU (2012)15

In Ethiopia, Jews are organized as Beta Israel (House of Israel) and known to outsiders as the Falasha or Felasha16. Although they are traditionally said to be descendants of Queen Sheba and King Solomon, their ancestors are actually local converts to Judaism from between 100BCE to 100CE16. The Jewish Encyclopedia (1906) says that their origin is unknown but that the Falashas have never had any copies of any Jewish Hebrew texts and knew nothing of the Talmud17 (which would not be the case for descendants of Jewish royalty), and, DNA tests have now proven that the Falasha are indeed truly descendants of their fellow Ethiopians rather than from Hebrew stock18. After Ethiopia converted to Christianity in the 4th century CE, the Falasha Jews were persecuted violently for many centuries, until the Catholic Church in the 15th and 16th centuries eventually crushed them and confiscated all their lands. As the Catholic Church slowly lost its power, their "conditions improved in the late 19th and 20th centuries, at which time tens of thousands of Falasha lived in the region north of Lake Tana"16, near the border with Sudan. From 1975 they were permitted by Israel to immigrate and they began to do so slowly until the Sudanese civil war of 1991 threatened the entire community and 20,000 of them were evacuated to Israel19. As of 1997, only around 500 remained in Ethiopia19.

Links:

6. The Internet

Internet Freedom
1Estonia10
2USA12
3Germany15
...
39Bahrain71
40Vietnam73
41Myanmar (Burma)75
42Ethiopia75
43Uzbekistan77
44Syria83
45China85
46Cuba86
Data Source
IT Security Risks
271USA3.68
270Russia2.42
269India2.10
...
229Spain0.88
228Laos0.86
227Iran0.85
226Ethiopia0.84
225Ivory Coast0.82
224Burkina Faso0.79
223Cameroon0.77
222Kenya0.77
Data Source
Internet Users in Population
1Iceland95.64
2Norway93.28
3Netherlands90.70
...
176Burkina Faso1.40
177Papua New Guinea1.28
178Cambodia1.26
179Guinea1.00
180Niger0.83
181Ethiopia0.75
182Congo, DR0.72
183Timor-Leste (E. Timor)0.21
Data Source

Internet access has become an essential research tool. It facilitates an endless list of life improvements, from the ability to network and socialize without constraint, to access to a seemingly infinite repository of technical and procedural information on pretty much any task. The universal availability of data has sped up industrial development and personal learning at the national and personal level. Individuals can read any topic they wish regardless of the locality of expert teachers, and, entire nations can develop their technology and understanding of the world simply because they are now exposed to advanced societies and moral discourses online. Like every communications medium, the Internet has issues and causes a small range of problems, but these are insignificant compared to the advantages of having an online populace.

Links:

7. More Charts and Comparisons to Other Countries

Alcohol Consumption (2010)20
CountryPer Capita20
1Libya0.1
2Pakistan0.1
3Kuwait0.1
...
67Honduras4
68Zambia4
69Guinea-Bissau4
70Ethiopia4.2
71Kyrgyzstan4.3
72Kenya4.3
73Turkmenistan4.3
74UAE4.3
Personal Charitability
(World Position, 2013-2016)
21
CountryValue21
1Myanmar (Burma)1.25
2USA1.5
3New Zealand3.5
...
101Brazil88.5
102Mexico89.5
103India89.75
104Ethiopia90.5
105Zimbabwe92.75
106Ivory Coast93.33
107Burkina Faso93.75
Personal, Civil and Economic Freedom (2014)22
CountryRank22
1Hong Kong1
2Switzerland2
3New Zealand3
...
139Congo, (Brazzaville)139
140Nigeria140
141China141
142Ethiopia142
143Mauritania143
144Egypt144
145Saudi Arabia144
146Chad146
Global Peace Index
1Iceland1.11
2New Zealand1.24
3Denmark1.24
...
133Ivory Coast2.42
134Mexico2.44
135Lebanon2.46
136Ethiopia2.50
137Burundi2.52
138Myanmar (Burma)2.53
139Zimbabwe2.54
140Georgia2.54
Data Source
Average IQ
1Singapore108
2Korea, S.106
3Taiwan105
...
129Zimbabwe66
130Senegal66
131Cameroon64
132Central African Rep.64
133Congo, (Brazzaville)64
134Ethiopia64
135Mozambique64
136Sierra Leone64
Data Source
Human Rights Treaties
1Argentina24
2Ecuador23
3Germany23
...
140Kuwait12
141Angola12
142Dominica12
143Ethiopia12
144Trinidad & Tobago12
145Bahrain12
146Suriname12
147Haiti12
Data Source
Press Freedom Index
1Finland99.0
2Netherlands99.0
3Norway99.0
...
133Jordan99.4
134Thailand99.4
135Morocco99.4
136Ethiopia99.4
137Tunisia99.4
138Indonesia99.4
139India99.4
140Oman99.4
Data Source
R & D Spending
Country% RDP PPP
1Korea, S.4.2923
2Israel4.1123
3Japan3.5823
...
50Belarus0.6724
51Mali0.6625
52Bulgaria0.6524
53Ethiopia0.6124
54Latvia0.6024
55Gabon0.5826
56Argentina0.5827
57Senegal0.5425
Gross National Income Per-Capita (2011)11
CountryPPP $11
1Qatar$129 916
2Singapore$78 162
3Kuwait$76 075
...
176Gambia$1 541
177Burkina Faso$1 537
178Sierra Leone$1 529
179Ethiopia$1 523
180Eritrea$1 490
181Guinea-Bissau$1 369
182Comoros$1 335
183Madagascar$1 320
Happiness
1Denmark7.8
2Netherlands7.6
3Norway7.6
...
113Cameroon4.4
114Sudan4.4
115Djibouti4.4
116Ethiopia4.4
117Armenia4.4
118Madagascar4.4
119Tajikistan4.3
120Ivory Coast4.2
Data Source
Environmental Performance
1Iceland93.5
2Switzerland89.1
3Costa Rica86.4
...
137Papua New Guinea44.3
138Bangladesh44.0
139Burundi43.9
140Ethiopia43.1
141Mongolia42.8
142Uzbekistan42.3
143Senegal42.3
144Bahrain42.0
Data Source
Gay Equality
1Netherlands405
2Belgium350
3Canada280
...
149Korea, N.-20
150Swaziland-30
151Lebanon-30
152Ethiopia-30
153Somalia-30
154Uzbekistan-30
155Zimbabwe-30
156Ghana-30
Data Source

Current edition: 2013 May 01
Last Modified: 2015 Jan 03
http://www.humantruth.info/ethiopia.html
Parent page: The Human Truth Foundation

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References: (What's this?)

(1906) Jewish Encyclopedia. Published in 12 volumes between 1901-1906. A copy of the text can be accessed on www.jewishencyclopedia.com.

Breuilly, O'Brien & Palmer
(1997) Religions of the World. Hardback book. Subtitled: "The Illustrated Guide to Origins, Beliefs, Traditions, & Festivals". Published by Lionheart Books. By Elizabeth Breuilly, Joanne O'Brien & Martin Palmer. Published for Transedition Limited and Fernleigh Books.

Charities Aid Foundation
World Giving Index. On www.cafonline.org.

CIA
(2013) World Factbook. The USA Government's Central Intelligence Agency (USA CIA) publishes The World Factbook, and the online version is frequently updated.

Crabtree, Vexen
(2017) "What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life" (2017). Accessed 2017 Mar 24.

IHEU. International Humanist and Ethical Union.
(2012) Freedom of Thought. A copy can be found on iheu.org/...Freedom of Thought 2012.pdf, accessed 2013 Oct 28.

Lynn, Harvey & Nyborg
(2009) Average intelligence predicts atheism rates across 137 nations. Richard Lynn, John Harvey and Helmuth Nyborg article "Average intelligence predicts atheism rates across 137 nations" in Intelligence (2009 Jan/Feb) vol. 37 issue 1 pages 11-15. Online at www.sciencedirect.com, accessed 2009 Sep 15.

OECD
(2016) Research and development (R&D) - Gross domestic spending on R&D. Data from data.oecd.org. Accessed 2016 Sep 28.

The Fraser Institute
(2016) The Human Freedom Index. Published by The Cato Institute, The Fraser Institute and the Friedrich Naumann Foundation for Freedom. Covers data up to 2014. On www.fraserinstitute.org/.../human-freedom-index-2016..

United Nations
(2011) Human Development Report. This edition had the theme of Sustainability and Equity: A Better Future for All. Published on the United Nation's website at hdr.undp.org/.../HDR_2011_EN_Complete.pdf (accessed throughout 2013, Jan-Mar). UN Development Program: About the Human Development Index.
(2013) Human Development Report. This edition had the theme of The Rise of the South: Human Progress in a Diverse World. Published on the United Nation's HDR website at hdr.undp.org/.../hdr2013/ (accessed throughout 2013). UN Development Program: About the Human Development Index.
(2017) Human Development Report. Data for 2015. Available on hdr.undp.org/..

World Bank
Research and Development and a Percent of GDP PPP. Data from databank.worldbank.org. Accessed 2016 Sep 29.

World Health Organisation. (WHO)
(2014) Global Status Report on Alcohol and Health. A copy can be found on the WHO website. Accessed 2015 Jan 04. It "presents a comprehensive perspective on the global, regional and country consumption of alcohol, patterns of drinking, health consequences and policy responses in Member States" and was published in Geneva on 2014 May 12.

Footnotes

  1. World Bank data on data.worldbank.org accessed 2013 Nov 04.^
  2. UN (2011) .^
  3. UN (2017) Table 1.^
  4. UN (2017) Gross National Income, per person. Table 1.^
  5. International Standards Organisation (ISO) standard ISO3166-1, on www.iso.org, accessed 2013 May 01.^
  6. Top level domains (TLDs) are managed by the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) on www.iana.org.^
  7. According to ISO4217.^
  8. According to ITU-T.^
  9. CIA (2013) https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/et.html accessed 2014 Apr 27.^
  10. UN (2017) Table 1. Lower is better.^
  11. UN (2017) Table 1. Higher is better.^^
  12. UN (2017) Table 5. Lower is better.^
  13. Pew Forum (2012) publication "The Global Religious Landscape: A Report on the Size and Distribution of the World´s Major Religious Groups as of 2010" (2012 Dec 18) accessed 2013 May 01.^
  14. CIA (2013) https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/ar.html accessed 2014 Apr 27.^
  15. IHEU (2012) . Added to this page on 2013 Oct 28.^
  16. Encyclopædia Britannica article "Falasha" accessed 2015 Jan 03.^
  17. Jewish Encyclopedia (1906) article "Falashas" .^
  18. From Wikipedia (link), accessed 2015 Jan 03: A 1999 study by Lucotte and Smets studied the DNA of 38 unrelated Beta Israel males living in Israel and 104 Ethiopians living in regions located north of Addis Ababa. It concluded that "the distinctiveness of the Y-chromosome haplotype distribution of the Beta-Israel from conventional Jewish populations and their relatively greater similarity in haplotype profile to non-Jewish Ethiopians are consistent with the view that the Beta Israel people descended from ancient inhabitants of Ethiopia and not the Levant." This study confirmed the findings of a 1991 study by Zoossmann-Disken et al. Similarly, a 2000 study by Hammer et al. of Y-chromosome biallelic haplotypes of Jewish and non-Jewish groups suggested that "paternal gene pools of Jewish communities from Europe, North Africa, and the Middle East descended from a common Middle Eastern ancestral population", with the exception of the Beta Israel, who were "affiliated more closely with non-Beta Israel Ethiopians and other East Africans". A 2004 study by Shen et al. reached similar conclusions, that the Beta Israel were likely descended from local Ethiopian populations.^
  19. Breuilly, O'Brien & Palmer (1997) chapter 1 "Judaism" p41.^
  20. WHO (2014) Appendix 1. Alcohol Per Capita Consumption in liters of pure alcohol, 15+ years age population, consumed in 2010. Lower is better.^
  21. Charities Aid Foundation . Average ranking across years 2013-2016. Lower is better.^
  22. Fraser Institute, the (2016) . Covers data for 2014.^
  23. OECD (2016) data for year 2014.^
  24. World Bank data for year 2013.^
  25. World Bank data for year 2010.^
  26. World Bank data for year 2009.^
  27. OECD (2016) data for year 2013.^

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