The Human Truth Foundation

Ethiopia (Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia)

By Vexen Crabtree 2013

#ethiopia #israel #sudan

Ethiopia
Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia
StatusIndependent State
Social and Moral Index156th best
CapitalAddis Ababa
Land Area1 000 000km21
LocationAfrica
Population109.2m2
Life Expectancy64.60yrs (2017)3
GNI$1 523 (2017)4
ISO3166-1 CodesET, ETH, 2315
Internet Domain.et6
CurrencyBirr (ETB)7
Telephone+2518

1. Overview

#animism #christianity #egypt #eritrea #italy

Unique among African countries, the ancient Ethiopian monarchy maintained its freedom from colonial rule with the exception of a short-lived Italian occupation from 1936-41. In 1974, a military junta, the Derg, deposed Emperor Haile SELASSIE (who had ruled since 1930) and established a socialist state. Torn by bloody coups, uprisings, wide-scale drought, and massive refugee problems, the regime was finally toppled in 1991 by a coalition of rebel forces, the Ethiopian People's Revolutionary Democratic Front (EPRDF). A constitution was adopted in 1994, and Ethiopia's first multiparty elections were held in 1995. A border war with Eritrea late in the 1990s ended with a peace treaty in December 2000. In November 2007, the Eritrea-Ethiopia Border Commission (EEBC) issued specific coordinates as virtually demarcating the border and pronounced its work finished. Alleging that the EEBC acted beyond its mandate in issuing the coordinates, Ethiopia has not accepted them and has not withdrawn troops from previously contested areas pronounced by the EEBC as belonging to Eritrea.

CIA's The World Factbook (2013)9

Book CoverIn Ethiopia you´d be hard-pressed to find a better combination of nature and culture. The best part: there´ll be no crowds to hinder the experience. Ethiopia´s landscape impresses in both scale and beauty. Travellers will be thrilled by the amazing backdrop of canyons, chasms, lakes, savannah plains and high plateaus, not to mention the mesmerisingly desolate Danakil Depression, peppered with an astonishing 25% of Africa´s active volcanoes.

Ethiopia is one of the few African countries to have escaped European colonialism, so it has also retained much of its cultural identity. A highlight of any trip to the Horn is witnessing some of the many ceremonies and festivals that are an integral part of traditional culture in the region. They may be Christian, Islamic or animist festivals, or village events, such as a wedding, a rite-of-passage celebration or a local market day.

Its wide-ranging and fertile highlands are laden with historical treasures ranging from ancient Aksumite tombs and obelisks to 17th-century castles. It´s not dubbed the Cradle of Humanity for nothing: archaeologically speaking, Ethiopia is to sub-Saharan Africa what Egypt is to North Africa.

"The World" by Lonely Planet (2014)10

2. Ethiopia National and Social Development

#economics #human_development

UN HDI (2016)11
Pos.Lower is better
Rank11
1Norway1
2Australia2
3Switzerland2
...
171Ivory Coast171
172Djibouti172
173Gambia173
174Ethiopia174
175Mali175
176Congo, DR176
177Liberia177
178Guinea-Bissau178
World Avg94.3
q=188.
Gross National Income Per-Capita (2011)12
Pos.Higher is better
PPP $12
1Qatar$129 916
2Singapore$78 162
3Kuwait$76 075
...
176Gambia$1 541
177Burkina Faso$1 537
178Sierra Leone$1 529
179Ethiopia$1 523
180Eritrea$1 490
181Guinea-Bissau$1 369
182Comoros$1 335
183Madagascar$1 320
World Avg$17 240
q=193.
Social & Moral
Development Index
13,14
Pos.Lower is better
Avg Rank13,14
1Taiwan30.2
2Denmark30.5
3Norway30.9
...
153Benin110.9
154Djibouti111.0
155San Marino111.0
156Ethiopia111.2
157Cameroon111.3
158Pakistan111.4
159Gambia111.4
160Sierra Leone111.6
World Avg86.4
q=195.

The United Nations produces an annual Human Development Report which includes the Human Development Index. The factors taken into account include life expectancy, education and schooling and Gross National Income (GNI) amongst many others..

The Social and Moral Development Index concentrates on moral issues and human rights, violence, public health, equality, tolerance, freedom and effectiveness in climate change mitigation and environmentalism, and on some technological issues. A country scores higher for achieving well in those areas, and for sustaining that achievement in the long term. Those countries towards the top of this index can truly said to be setting good examples and leading humankind onwards into a bright, humane, and free future. See: Which are the Best Countries in the World? The Social and Moral Development Index.

3. Ethiopia's Demographics

#birth_control #demographics #health #immigration #life_expectancy #longevity #migration #overpopulation #population

Population:

Ethiopia's population is predicted to rise to 118.51 million by 2030. These millions of extra people will all need space to live, food to eat, energy to consume, and will increase the burden on the planet's resources. This country has a fertility rate of 3.91. The fertility rate is, in simple terms, the average amount of children that each woman has. The higher the figure, the quicker the population is growing, although, to calculate the rate you also need to take into account morbidity, i.e., the rate at which people die. If people live healthy and long lives and morbidity is low, then, 2.0 approximates to the replacement rate, which would keep the population stable. If all countries had such a fertility rate, population growth would end. The actual replacement rate in most developed countries is around 2.1.

Population (2018)2
Pos.
Population2
1China1.4b
2India1.4b
3USA327.1m
...
9Russia145.7m
10Japan127.2m
11Mexico126.2m
12Ethiopia109.2m
13Philippines106.7m
14Egypt98.4m
15Vietnam95.5m
16Congo, DR84.1m
World Avg39.0m
q=195.
Life Expectancy (2015)12
Pos.Higher is better
Years12
1Hong Kong84.16
2Japan83.68
3Italy83.34
...
145Namibia65.06
146Gabon64.94
147Rwanda64.75
148Ethiopia64.60
149Botswana64.51
150Eritrea64.19
151Yemen64.05
152Malawi63.88
World Avg71.27
q=190.
Fertility Rate (2013)15
Pos.2.0 is best15
1N. Korea2.00
2Brunei1.99
3St Vincent & Grenadines2.01
...
138Papua New Guinea3.83
139Guatemala3.86
140Togo3.90
141Ethiopia3.91
142Ghana4.03
143Solomon Islands4.08
144Burundi4.10
145Ivory Coast4.27
World Avg2.81
q=180.
Old-Age Dependency Ratio (2016)16
Pos.Lower is better
Per 10016
1Uganda04.3
2Mali04.5
3Chad04.7
...
37Papua New Guinea06.4
38Ghana06.5
39Palestine06.5
40Ethiopia06.6
41Swaziland06.6
42Central African Rep.06.8
43Sudan06.8
44Mauritania06.8
World Avg18.3
q=185.

Migration:

Immigrants (2017)17
Pos.
%17
1UAE88.4%
2Kuwait75.5%
3Qatar65.2%
...
148Sierra Leone1.3%
149Guinea-Bissau1.3%
150Vanuatu1.2%
151Ethiopia1.2%
152Sao Tome & Principe1.1%
153Congo, DR1.1%
154Bosnia & Herzegovina1.1%
155Guinea1.0%
World Avg9.4%
q=195.
Emigrants (2010)18
Pos.
%18
1Dominica104.8%
2Palestine68.4%
3Samoa67.3%
...
178Papua New Guinea0.9%
179USA0.8%
180Namibia0.7%
181Ethiopia0.7%
182Tanzania0.7%
183Brazil0.7%
184Saudi Arabia0.7%
185Qatar0.7%
World Avg11.5%
q=192.

4. Human Rights, Equality & Tolerance

#equality #ethiopia #freedom #human_rights #politics #tolerance

Ethiopia is amongst the worst places in the world at ensuring human rights and freedom, and it has severe cultural issues when it comes to tolerance and equality. Ethiopia does worse than average when it comes to commentary in Human Rights Watch reports19, speed of uptake of HR treaties20, opposing gender inequality21 (still good for Africa), supporting press freedom22, its nominal commitment to Human Rights23 and in LGBT equality24. And finally, it sits amongst the bottom 20 when it comes to supporting personal, civil & economic freedoms25. There are severe restrictions on independent media, political life and civil society, with "arbitrary detention of those who do not actively support the government"26. In 2017, security forces killed over 1000 protesters and detailed "tens of thousands more"26.

For tables, charts and commentary, see:

5. Ethiopia's Health

#alcohol #birth_control #demographics #Ethiopia #health #life_expectancy #longevity #obesity #overpopulation #parenting #population #smoking #vaccines

Health (2020)27,28
Pos.Lower is better
Avg Rank27,28
1Hong Kong18.0
2Singapore41.5
3Maldives43.3
...
95Georgia92.4
96Rwanda92.4
97Mongolia92.5
98Ethiopia92.9
99Latvia93.8
100Mexico93.8
101St Vincent & Grenadines93.9
102Sao Tome & Principe94.0
103Cambodia94.0
World Avg92.3
q=187.

The countries with the best overall approach to public health, in terms of both public policy and individual lifestyle choices, are Hong Kong, Singapore and The Maldives27. These countries are worth emulating. And, although often through no fault of the average citizen, the worst countries are S. Sudan, Nigeria and Equatorial Guinea27.

The data sets used to calculate points for each country are its average life expectancy, its alcohol consumption rate, its fertility rate, its smoking rate, its suicide rate, its food aid and health contributions and WHO compliance, the prevalence of overweight adults, its adolescent birth rate and its immunizations take-up. The regions with the best average results per country are Scandinavia, Asia and Europe27, whereas the worst are Africa, Micronesia and Polynesia27.

Health:

Ethiopia has some poor policies and cultural issues which cause some public health problems. Ethiopia comes in the best 20 when it comes to its smoking rate29. It does better than average in its alcohol consumption rate30. When it comes to most other metrics, Ethiopia does not do well. It does worse than average in its adolescent birth rate21 (still low for Africa), its fertility rate15 (still good for Africa), its average life expectancy12 (still high for Africa) and in its immunizations take-up31. The prevalence of overweight adults has increased by 14% over the last 40 years.
Life Expectancy (2015)12
Pos.Higher is better
Years12
1Hong Kong84.16
2Japan83.68
3Italy83.34
...
145Namibia65.06
146Gabon64.94
147Rwanda64.75
148Ethiopia64.60
149Botswana64.51
150Eritrea64.19
151Yemen64.05
152Malawi63.88
World Avg71.27
q=190.
Alcohol Consumption (2016)30
Pos.Lower is better
Per Capita30
1Bangladesh0.0
2Kuwait0.0
3Libya0.0
...
52Uzbekistan2.7
53Ghana2.7
54Maldives2.7
55Ethiopia2.9
56Fiji3.0
57Benin3.0
58Togo3.1
59Central African Rep.3.3
World Avg6.2
q=189.
Fertility Rate (2013)15
Pos.2.0 is best15
1N. Korea2.00
2Brunei1.99
3St Vincent & Grenadines2.01
...
138Papua New Guinea3.83
139Guatemala3.86
140Togo3.90
141Ethiopia3.91
142Ghana4.03
143Solomon Islands4.08
144Burundi4.10
145Ivory Coast4.27
World Avg2.81
q=180.
Smoking Rates (2014)29
Pos.Higher is worse29
182Montenegro4 125
181Belarus3 831
180Lebanon3 023
...
11Suriname 79
10Guyana 77
9Vanuatu 76
8Ethiopia 76
7Congo, DR 74
6Samoa 54
5Rwanda 53
4Uganda 41
World Avg 819
q=182.
Overweight Adults (2016)32
Pos.Lower is better
%32
1Vietnam18.3
2India19.7
3Bangladesh20.0
4Ethiopia20.9
5Nepal21.0
6Timor-Leste (E. Timor)21.6
7Cambodia21.7
8Niger22.0
9Eritrea22.0
10Burundi22.2
11Uganda22.4
12Afghanistan23.0
World Avg49.0
q=191.

Children's Health:

Adolescent Birth Rate (2015)21
Pos.Lower is better
Per 100021
1N. Korea0.5
2S. Korea1.6
3Switzerland2.9
...
118Costa Rica56.5
119Seychelles57.4
120Paraguay57.4
121Ethiopia58.4
122Palestine58.6
123Jamaica59.7
124Azerbaijan59.8
125Yemen61.5
World Avg47.9
q=185.
Infant Immunizations 2011-2015 (2015)31
Pos.Higher is better
Avg %31
1Hungary99.0
2China99.0
3Uzbekistan98.9
...
169Indonesia76.4
170Mali76.0
171India75.1
172Ethiopia73.9
173Pakistan73.0
174Liberia72.6
175S. Africa72.5
176Angola71.9
World Avg88.3
q=194.

6. Ethiopia's Modernity and Learning

#education #intelligence #it_security #modernity #politics #research #science #technology #the_internet

Modernity and Learning (2020)33
Pos.Lower is better
Avg Rank33
1Finland8.0
2Belgium9.1
3Denmark10.0
...
112Indonesia82.8
113Dominica83.3
114Cameroon83.3
115Ethiopia83.5
116Zimbabwe83.8
117Ghana84.1
118Nepal84.5
119Tajikistan84.5
120Mongolia85.4
World Avg69.0
q=180.

Modernity and Education:

Research and Development (2016)
Pos.Higher is better
% RDP PPP
1S. Korea4.2934
2Israel4.1134
3Japan3.5834
...
50Belarus0.6735
51Mali0.6636
52Bulgaria0.6535
53Ethiopia0.6135
54Latvia0.6035
55Gabon0.5837
56Argentina0.5838
57Mexico0.5434
World Avg0.84
q=126.
Secondary Education (2018)39
Pos.Higher is better39
1Luxembourg100.0%
2Estonia100.0%
3Austria100.0%
...
156Mauritania18.8%
157Senegal17.6%
158Sudan17.5%
159Ethiopia17.1%
160Rwanda16.3%
161Tanzania14.3%
162Mali13.1%
163Papua New Guinea12.5%
World Avg63.0%
q=169.
Length of Schooling (2018)40
Pos.Higher is better
Years40
1Australia22.1
2Belgium19.7
3Finland19.3
...
178Senegal9.0
179Burkina Faso8.9
180Syria8.9
181Ethiopia8.7
182Yemen8.7
183Mauritania8.5
184Pakistan8.5
185Tanzania8.0
World Avg13.2
q=193.
IQ (2006)41
Pos.Higher is better41
1Hong Kong108
2Singapore108
3S. Korea106
...
131Zimbabwe66
132Senegal66
133Sierra Leone64
134Mozambique64
135Ethiopia64
136Central African Rep.64
137Congo, (Brazzaville)64
138Cameroon64
World Avg85.6
q=138.

Technology and Information:

Internet Users (2016)42
Pos.Higher is better42
1Iceland100%
2Faroe Islands99%
3Norway98%
...
187Tanzania5%
188Central African Rep.5%
189Madagascar4%
190Ethiopia4%
191Congo, DR4%
192Guinea-Bissau4%
193Chad3%
194Myanmar (Burma)3%
World Avg48.1%
q=201.
Freedom On The Internet (2012)43
Pos.Lower is better43
1Estonia10
2USA12
3Germany15
...
38Bahrain71
39Saudi Arabia71
40Vietnam73
41Ethiopia75
42Myanmar (Burma)75
43Uzbekistan77
44Syria83
45China85
World Avg46.7
q=47.
IT Security (2013)44
Pos.Lower is better44
1Ireland0.11
2Luxembourg0.11
3Belize0.11
...
33Cameroon0.77
34Burkina Faso0.79
35Ivory Coast0.82
36Ethiopia0.84
37Iran0.85
38Laos0.86
39Spain0.88
40Kuwait0.93
World Avg0.98
q=81.

7. National Culture

#charity #corruption #happiness #morals #politics

Personal Charitability
(World Position, 2013-2016)
45
Pos.Lower is better45
1Myanmar (Burma)1.25
2USA1.5
3New Zealand3.5
...
101Brazil88.5
102Mexico89.5
103India89.75
104Ethiopia90.5
105Zimbabwe92.75
106Ivory Coast93.33
107Burkina Faso93.75
108Belarus94.75
World Avg68.1185897435897
q=156.
Corruption (2012-2016)46
Pos.Higher is better
Avg Score46
1Denmark90.8
2New Zealand90.6
3Finland89.4
...
110Malawi33.8
111Kosovo33.8
112Moldova33.8
113Ethiopia33.2
114Mexico32.8
115Ecuador32.6
116Belarus32.6
117Mali32.2
World Avg43.05
q=176.
Happiness (2018)47
Pos.Higher is better47
1Finland7.6
2Norway7.6
3Denmark7.6
...
124Kenya4.4
125Zambia4.4
126Mauritania4.4
127Ethiopia4.4
128Georgia4.3
129Armenia4.3
130Myanmar (Burma)4.3
131Chad4.3
World Avg5.38
q=156.

8. Peace Versus Instability

#extremism #human_development #peace #politics #religious_violence #terrorism

Global Peace Index (2012)48
Pos.Lower is better48
1Iceland1.11
2New Zealand1.24
3Denmark1.24
...
133Ivory Coast2.42
134Mexico2.45
135Lebanon2.46
136Ethiopia2.50
137Burundi2.52
138Myanmar (Burma)2.53
139Zimbabwe2.54
140Georgia2.54
World Avg2.02
q=157.
Impact of Terrorism (2019)49
Pos.Lower is better
Score49
1Togo0.00
2Mongolia0.00
3Swaziland0.00
...
119Palestine5.18
120Bangladesh5.21
121Saudi Arabia5.24
122Ethiopia5.35
123UK5.41
124Burkina Faso5.42
125Myanmar (Burma)5.51
126Mozambique5.54
World Avg2.78
q=150.

9. The Natural Environment

#biodiversity #climate_change #over-exploitation #the_environment

Forest Area Change 1990-2015 (2015)50
Pos.Higher is better
%50
1Iceland205.6
2Bahrain144.4
3Uruguay131.3
...
150Equatorial Guinea-15.7
151Haiti-16.4
152Tanzania-17.6
153Ethiopia-17.8
154Malawi-19.2
155Botswana-21.0
156Namibia-21.0
157Burkina Faso-21.9
World Avg02.8
q=184.
Environmental Performance (2018)51
Pos.Higher is better51
1Switzerland87.4
2France84.0
3Denmark81.6
...
138Myanmar (Burma)45.3
139Ivory Coast45.3
140Gabon45.1
141Ethiopia44.8
142S. Africa44.7
143Guinea-Bissau44.7
144Vanuatu44.6
145Uganda44.3
World Avg56.4
q=180.
Energy to GDP Efficiency (2014)52
Pos.Higher is better52
1Hong Kong26.32
2Sri Lanka20.00
3Panama17.86
...
111Bahrain04.10
112Ukraine03.28
113Togo02.88
114Ethiopia02.81
115Mozambique02.47
116Iceland02.41
117Zimbabwe02.31
118Trinidad & Tobago02.07
World Avg09.29
q=119.
Convention on Biological Diversity
Pos.Earlier is better
Signed
1China1993 Dec 29
2Guinea1993 Dec 29
3Cook Islands1993 Dec 29
...
51Cuba1994 Jun 06
52Namibia1997 Aug 14
53Sri Lanka1994 Jun 21
54Ethiopia1994 Jul 04
55Dominica1994 Jul 05
56Italy1994 Jul 14
57Bangladesh1994 Aug 01
58Luxembourg1994 Aug 07
World Avg1899 Dec 30
q=197.

10. Economic Inequality and Poverty

#capitalism #economics #health #inequality #life_expectancy #poverty #social_development

Inequality in Life Expectancy (2019)53
Pos.Higher is worse53
184Chad40.90
183Central African Rep.40.10
182Sierra Leone39.00
...
153Tanzania25.30
152Malawi25.10
151Swaziland25.10
150Ethiopia24.90
149Yemen24.70
148Kiribati24.70
147Zimbabwe24.20
146Ghana24.20
World Avg14.59
q=184.
Income Inequality (Gini Coefficient) (2017)54
Pos.Lower is better
%54
1Ukraine25.0
2Belarus25.4
3Slovenia25.4
...
91Samoa38.7
92Israel38.9
93Tuvalu39.1
94Ethiopia39.1
95Morocco39.5
96Uruguay39.5
97Sri Lanka39.8
98Iran40.0
World Avg38.1
q=152.
Multidimensional Poverty (2018)55
Pos.Lower is better
Severity55
1Armenia.001
2Ukraine.001
3Serbia.001
...
94Madagascar.453
95Mali.457
96Central African Rep..465
97Ethiopia.489
98Burkina Faso.519
99Chad.533
100S. Sudan.580
101Niger.590
World Avg.154
q=101.

11. Religion and Beliefs

#belief #buddhism #christianity #god #hinduism #islam #judaism #religion

Disbelief In God (2007)56
Pos.Higher is better
%56
1Vietnam81
2Japan65
3Sweden64
...
112Jordan0
113Gambia0
114Kenya0
115Ethiopia0
116Afghanistan0
117Egypt0
118Liberia0
119Libya0
World Avg9.9
q=137.

Data from the Pew Forum, a professional polling outfit, states that in 2010 the religious makeup of this country was as follows in the table below57:

Christian62.8%
Muslim34.6%
Hindu0.1%
Buddhist0.1%
Folk Religion2.6%
Jew0.1%
Unaffiliated0.1%

The CIA World Factbook has slightly different data, and states: Orthodox 43.5%, Muslim 33.9%, Protestant 18.6%, traditional 2.6%, Catholic 0.7%, other 0.7% (2007 Census)58.

The International Humanist and Ethical Union produced a report in 2012 entitled "Freedom of Thought" (2012)59, in which they document bias and prejudice at the national level that is based on religion, belief and/or lack of belief. Their entry for Ethiopia states:

The constitution requires the separation of state and religion; however, under a 2008 law it is a crime to defame religious groups.

"Freedom of Thought" by IHEU (2012)60

In Ethiopia, Jews are organized as Beta Israel (House of Israel) and known to outsiders as the Falasha or Felasha61. Although they are traditionally said to be descendants of Queen Sheba and King Solomon, their ancestors are actually local converts to Judaism from between 100BCE to 100CE61. The Jewish Encyclopedia (1906)62 says that their origin is unknown but that the Falashas have never had any copies of any Jewish Hebrew texts and knew nothing of the Talmud63 (which would not be the case for descendants of Jewish royalty), and, DNA tests have now proven that the Falasha are indeed truly descendants of their fellow Ethiopians rather than from Hebrew stock64. After Ethiopia converted to Christianity in the 4th century CE, the Falasha Jews were persecuted violently for many centuries, until the Catholic Church in the 15th and 16th centuries eventually crushed them and confiscated all their lands. As the Catholic Church slowly lost its power, their "conditions improved in the late 19th and 20th centuries, at which time tens of thousands of Falasha lived in the region north of Lake Tana"61, near the border with Sudan. From 1975 they were permitted by Israel to immigrate and they began to do so slowly until the Sudanese civil war of 1991 threatened the entire community and 20,000 of them were evacuated to Israel65. As of 1997, only around 500 remained in Ethiopia65.

Links: