The Human Truth Foundation

Ethiopia (Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia)

By Vexen Crabtree 2013

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#ethiopia #israel #sudan

Ethiopia
Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia
StatusIndependent State
Social and Moral Index172nd best
CapitalAddis Ababa
Land Area1 000 000km21
LocationAfrica
Population86.5m (2011)2
Life Expectancy64.60yrs (2017)3
GNI$1 523 (2017)4
ISO3166-1 CodesET, ETH, 2315
Internet Domain.et6
CurrencyBirr (ETB)7
Telephone+2518

1. Overview

#animism #christianity #egypt #eritrea #italy

Unique among African countries, the ancient Ethiopian monarchy maintained its freedom from colonial rule with the exception of a short-lived Italian occupation from 1936-41. In 1974, a military junta, the Derg, deposed Emperor Haile SELASSIE (who had ruled since 1930) and established a socialist state. Torn by bloody coups, uprisings, wide-scale drought, and massive refugee problems, the regime was finally toppled in 1991 by a coalition of rebel forces, the Ethiopian People's Revolutionary Democratic Front (EPRDF). A constitution was adopted in 1994, and Ethiopia's first multiparty elections were held in 1995. A border war with Eritrea late in the 1990s ended with a peace treaty in December 2000. In November 2007, the Eritrea-Ethiopia Border Commission (EEBC) issued specific coordinates as virtually demarcating the border and pronounced its work finished. Alleging that the EEBC acted beyond its mandate in issuing the coordinates, Ethiopia has not accepted them and has not withdrawn troops from previously contested areas pronounced by the EEBC as belonging to Eritrea.

CIA's The World Factbook (2013)9

Book CoverIn Ethiopia you´d be hard-pressed to find a better combination of nature and culture. The best part: there´ll be no crowds to hinder the experience. Ethiopia´s landscape impresses in both scale and beauty. Travellers will be thrilled by the amazing backdrop of canyons, chasms, lakes, savannah plains and high plateaus, not to mention the mesmerisingly desolate Danakil Depression, peppered with an astonishing 25% of Africa´s active volcanoes.

Ethiopia is one of the few African countries to have escaped European colonialism, so it has also retained much of its cultural identity. A highlight of any trip to the Horn is witnessing some of the many ceremonies and festivals that are an integral part of traditional culture in the region. They may be Christian, Islamic or animist festivals, or village events, such as a wedding, a rite-of-passage celebration or a local market day.

Its wide-ranging and fertile highlands are laden with historical treasures ranging from ancient Aksumite tombs and obelisks to 17th-century castles. It´s not dubbed the Cradle of Humanity for nothing: archaeologically speaking, Ethiopia is to sub-Saharan Africa what Egypt is to North Africa.

"The World" by Lonely Planet (2014)

2. Ethiopia National and Social Development

UN HDI (2016)
Lower is better

Rank10
1Norway1
2Australia2
3Switzerland2
...
171Ivory Coast171
172Djibouti172
173Gambia173
174Ethiopia174
175Mali175
176Congo, DR176
177Liberia177
178Guinea-Bissau178
World Avg94.3
q=188.
Social & Moral
Development Index
Higher is better

Points11
1Iceland84.1
2Sweden80.8
3Norway80.0
...
169Palau42.8
170Tuvalu42.8
171Zambia42.8
172Ethiopia42.7
173Cameroon42.7
174Gabon42.4
175Gambia42.2
176Zimbabwe41.9
World Avg54.5
q=198.

The United Nations produces an annual Human Development Report which includes the Human Development Index. The factors taken into account include life expectancy, education and schooling and Gross National Income (GNI) amongst many others..

The Social and Moral Development Index concentrates on moral issues and human rights, violence, public health, equality, tolerance, freedom and effectiveness in climate change mitigation and environmentalism, and on some technological issues. A country scores higher for achieving well in those areas, and for sustaining that achievement in the long term. Those countries towards the top of this index can truly said to be setting good examples and leading humankind onwards into a bright, humane, and free future. See: What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life.

3. Population and Demographics

Old-Age Dependency Ratio (2016)
Lower is better

Per 10012
1Uganda04.3
2Mali04.5
3Chad04.7
...
37Papua New Guinea06.4
38Ghana06.5
39Palestine06.5
40Ethiopia06.6
41Swaziland06.6
42Central African Rep.06.8
43Sudan06.8
44Mauritania06.8
World Avg18.3
q=185.
Emigrants (2010)
%13
1Dominica104.8
2Palestine68.4
3Samoa67.3
...
178Papua New Guinea0.9
179USA0.8
180Namibia0.7
181Ethiopia0.7
182Tanzania0.7
183Brazil0.7
184Saudi Arabia0.7
185Qatar0.7
World Avg11.5
q=192.
Fertility Rate (2013)
2.0 is best
14
1Korea, N.2.00
2Brunei1.99
3St Vincent & Grenadines2.01
...
138Papua New Guinea3.83
139Guatemala3.86
140Togo3.90
141Ethiopia3.91
142Ghana4.03
143Solomon Islands4.08
144Burundi4.10
145Ivory Coast4.27
World Avg2.81
q=180.

Immigrants (2010)
%13
1Qatar86.5
2Monaco71.6
3UAE70.0
...
160Mexico0.7
161Congo, DR0.7
162El Salvador0.7
163Ethiopia0.6
164Romania0.6
165Philippines0.5
166India0.4
167Guatemala0.4
World Avg9.2
q=192.
Life Expectancy (2015)
Higher is better

Years15
1Hong Kong84.16
2Japan83.68
3Italy83.34
...
145Namibia65.06
146Gabon64.94
147Rwanda64.75
148Ethiopia64.60
149Botswana64.51
150Eritrea64.19
151Yemen64.05
152Malawi63.88
World Avg71.27
q=190.
Population (2012)16
1China1.4b
2India1.3b
3USA315.8m
...
11Mexico116.1m
12Philippines96.5m
13Vietnam89.7m
14Ethiopia86.5m
15Egypt84.0m
16Germany82.0m
17Iran75.6m
18Turkey74.5m
World Avg36.0m
q=195.

Ethiopia's population is predicted to rise to 118.51 million by 2030. These millions of extra people will all need space to live, food to eat, energy to consume, and will increase the burden on the planet's resources. This country has a fertility rate of 3.91. The fertility rate is, in simple terms, the average amount of children that each woman has. The higher the figure, the quicker the population is growing, although, to calculate the rate you also need to take into account morbidity, i.e., the rate at which people die. If people live healthy and long lives and morbidity is low, then, 2.0 approximates to the replacement rate, which would keep the population stable. If all countries had such a fertility rate, population growth would end. The actual replacement rate in most developed countries is around 2.1.

4. Gender Equality

Gender Inequality (2015)
Lower is better17
1Switzerland0.04
2Denmark0.04
3Netherlands0.04
...
113Morocco0.49
114Guatemala0.49
115Nepal0.50
116Ethiopia0.50
117Guyana0.51
118Iran0.51
119Bangladesh0.52
120Senegal0.52
World Avg0.36
q=159.
Year Women Can Vote
Lower is better

Year18
1New Zealand1893
2Australia1902
3Finland1906
...
100Belize1954
101Ghana1954
102Nicaragua1955
103Ethiopia1955
104Peru1955
105Eritrea1955
106Honduras1955
107Cambodia1955
World Avg1930
q=189.

Gender inequality is not a necessary part of early human development. Although a separation of roles is almost universal due to different strengths between the genders, this does not have to mean that women are subdued, and, such patriarchialism is not universal in ancient history. Those cultures and peoples who shed, or never developed, the idea that mankind ought to dominate womankind, are better cultures and peoples than those who, even today, cling violently to those mores.

The 1950s saw a late rush of 43 countries, including Ethiopia and many developing nations, move to cease preventing women from voting. Ethiopia is an unequal country, with male rights dominating those of women.

See:

5. Religion and Beliefs

#buddhism #christianity #hinduism #islam #judaism

Disbelief In God (2007)
Higher is better19
1Vietnam81
2Japan65
3Sweden64
...
112Jordan0
113Gambia0
114Kenya0
115Ethiopia0
116Afghanistan0
117Egypt0
118Liberia0
119Libya0
World Avg9.9
q=137.

Data from the Pew Forum, a professional polling outfit, states that in 2010 the religious makeup of this country was as follows in the table below20:

Christian62.8%
Muslim34.6%
Hindu0.1%
Buddhist0.1%
Folk Religion2.6%
Jew0.1%
Unaffiliated0.1%

The CIA World Factbook has slightly different data, and states: Orthodox 43.5%, Muslim 33.9%, Protestant 18.6%, traditional 2.6%, Catholic 0.7%, other 0.7% (2007 Census)21.

The International Humanist and Ethical Union produced a report in 2012 entitled "Freedom of Thought" (2012), in which they document bias and prejudice at the national level that is based on religion, belief and/or lack of belief. Their entry for Ethiopia states:

The constitution requires the separation of state and religion; however, under a 2008 law it is a crime to defame religious groups.

"Freedom of Thought" by IHEU (2012)22

In Ethiopia, Jews are organized as Beta Israel (House of Israel) and known to outsiders as the Falasha or Felasha23. Although they are traditionally said to be descendants of Queen Sheba and King Solomon, their ancestors are actually local converts to Judaism from between 100BCE to 100CE23. The Jewish Encyclopedia (1906) says that their origin is unknown but that the Falashas have never had any copies of any Jewish Hebrew texts and knew nothing of the Talmud24 (which would not be the case for descendants of Jewish royalty), and, DNA tests have now proven that the Falasha are indeed truly descendants of their fellow Ethiopians rather than from Hebrew stock25. After Ethiopia converted to Christianity in the 4th century CE, the Falasha Jews were persecuted violently for many centuries, until the Catholic Church in the 15th and 16th centuries eventually crushed them and confiscated all their lands. As the Catholic Church slowly lost its power, their "conditions improved in the late 19th and 20th centuries, at which time tens of thousands of Falasha lived in the region north of Lake Tana"23, near the border with Sudan. From 1975 they were permitted by Israel to immigrate and they began to do so slowly until the Sudanese civil war of 1991 threatened the entire community and 20,000 of them were evacuated to Israel26. As of 1997, only around 500 remained in Ethiopia26.

Links:

6. The Internet

Freedom On The Internet (2012)
Lower is better
27
1Estonia10
2USA12
3Germany15
...
38Bahrain71
39Saudi Arabia71
40Vietnam73
41Ethiopia75
42Myanmar (Burma)75
43Uzbekistan77
44Syria83
45China85
World Avg46.7
q=47.
Internet Users (2016)
Higher is better
28
1Iceland100%
2Faroe Islands99%
3Norway98%
...
187Tanzania5%
188Central African Rep.5%
189Madagascar4%
190Ethiopia4%
191Congo, DR4%
192Guinea-Bissau4%
193Chad3%
194Myanmar (Burma)3%
World Avg48.1%
q=201.
IT Security (2013)
Lower is better
29
1Ireland0.11
2Luxembourg0.11
3Belize0.11
...
33Cameroon0.77
34Burkina Faso0.79
35Ivory Coast0.82
36Ethiopia0.84
37Iran0.85
38Laos0.86
39Spain0.88
40Kuwait0.93
World Avg0.98
q=81.

Internet access has become an essential research tool. It facilitates an endless list of life improvements, from the ability to network and socialize without constraint, to access to a seemingly infinite repository of technical and procedural information on pretty much any task. The universal availability of data has sped up industrial development and personal learning at the national and personal level. Individuals can read any topic they wish regardless of the locality of expert teachers, and, entire nations can develop their technology and understanding of the world simply because they are now exposed to advanced societies and moral discourses online. Like every communications medium, the Internet has issues and causes a small range of problems, but these are insignificant compared to the advantages of having an online populace.

7. Public Health Issues

Adolescent Birth Rate (2015)
Lower is better

Per 100017
1Korea, N.0.5
2Korea, S.1.6
3Switzerland2.9
...
118Costa Rica56.5
119Seychelles57.4
120Paraguay57.4
121Ethiopia58.4
122Palestine58.6
123Jamaica59.7
124Azerbaijan59.8
125Yemen61.5
World Avg47.9
q=185.
Alcohol Consumption (2010)
Lower is better

Per Capita30
1Libya0.1
2Pakistan0.1
3Kuwait0.1
...
67Honduras4.0
68Zambia4.0
69Guinea-Bissau4.0
70Ethiopia4.2
71Kyrgyzstan4.3
72Kenya4.3
73Turkmenistan4.3
74UAE4.3
World Avg6.2
q=191.
Infant Immunizations 2011-2015 (2015)
Higher is better

Avg %31
1Hungary99.0
2China99.0
3Uzbekistan98.9
...
169Indonesia76.4
170Mali76.0
171India75.1
172Ethiopia73.9
173Pakistan73.0
174Liberia72.6
175S. Africa72.5
176Angola71.9
World Avg88.3
q=194.

Smoking Rates (2014)
Lower is better
32
1Guinea 15
2Solomon Islands 26
3Kiribati 28
4Uganda 41
5Rwanda 53
6Samoa 54
7Congo, DR 74
8Ethiopia 76
9Vanuatu 76
10Guyana 77
11Suriname 79
12Malawi 80
World Avg 819
q=182.

8. Politics and Freedom

Nominal Commitment to HR (2009)
Higher is better

Treaties33
1Argentina24
2Chile23
3Costa Rica23
...
134Antigua & Barbuda13
135Nepal13
136Djibouti13
137Ethiopia12
138Haiti12
139Dominica12
140Central African Rep.12
141Bahrain12
World Avg15.1
q=194.
Personal, Civil & Economic Freedom (2014)
Lower is better

Rank34
1Hong Kong1
2Switzerland2
3New Zealand3
...
139Congo, (Brazzaville)139
140Nigeria140
141China141
142Ethiopia142
143Mauritania143
144Egypt144
145Saudi Arabia144
146Chad146
World Avg79.7
q=159.
Press Freedom (2013)
Lower is better
35
1Finland638
2Netherlands648
3Norway652
...
133Jordan3847
134Thailand3860
135Morocco3904
136Ethiopia3957
137Tunisia3993
138Indonesia4105
139India4122
140Oman4151
World Avg3249
q=178.

9. More Charts and Comparisons to Other Countries

Personal Charitability
(World Position, 2013-2016)
Lower is better
36
1Myanmar (Burma)1.25
2USA1.5
3New Zealand3.5
...
101Brazil88.5
102Mexico89.5
103India89.75
104Ethiopia90.5
105Zimbabwe92.75
106Ivory Coast93.33
107Burkina Faso93.75
q=156.
Global Peace Index (2012)
Lower is better
37
1Iceland1.11
2New Zealand1.24
3Denmark1.24
...
133Ivory Coast2.42
134Mexico2.45
135Lebanon2.46
136Ethiopia2.50
137Burundi2.52
138Myanmar (Burma)2.53
139Zimbabwe2.54
140Georgia2.54
q=157.
Research and Development
Higher is better

% RDP PPP
1Korea, S.4.29
2Israel4.11
3Japan3.58
...
50Belarus0.67
51Mali0.66
52Bulgaria0.65
53Ethiopia0.61
54Latvia0.60
55Gabon0.58
56Argentina0.58
57Mexico0.54
q=126.
Life Satisfaction (2011)
Higher is better
38
1Denmark7.8
2Norway7.6
3Netherlands7.6
...
111Bahrain4.5
112Sudan4.4
113Cameroon4.4
114Ethiopia4.4
115Madagascar4.4
116Armenia4.4
117Kenya4.4
118Djibouti4.4
q=150.
Gross National Income Per-Capita (2011)
Higher is better
PPP $15
1Qatar$129 916
2Singapore$78 162
3Kuwait$76 075
...
176Gambia$1 541
177Burkina Faso$1 537
178Sierra Leone$1 529
179Ethiopia$1 523
180Eritrea$1 490
181Guinea-Bissau$1 369
182Comoros$1 335
183Madagascar$1 320
q=193.
Environmental Performance (2010)
Higher is better
39
1Iceland93.5
2Switzerland89.1
3Costa Rica86.4
...
137Bolivia44.3
138Bangladesh44.0
139Burundi43.9
140Ethiopia43.1
141Mongolia42.8
142Uzbekistan42.3
143Senegal42.3
144Bahrain42.0
q=162.
LGBT Equality (2013)
Higher is better

Score40
1Netherlands405
2Belgium350
3Canada280
...
147Djibouti-20
148Egypt-20
149Guinea-20
150Ethiopia-30
151Swaziland-30
152Lebanon-30
153Somalia-30
154Ghana-30
q=211.
IQ (2006)
Higher is better41
1Singapore108
2Hong Kong108
3Korea, S.106
...
131Senegal66
132Gambia66
133Congo, (Brazzaville)64
134Central African Rep.64
135Cameroon64
136Sierra Leone64
137Mozambique64
138Ethiopia64
q=138.

Current edition: 2013 May 01
Last Modified: 2017 Jun 21
http://www.humantruth.info/ethiopia.html
Parent page: Compare International Statistics by Region and Continent

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References: (What's this?)

(1906) Jewish Encyclopedia. Published in 12 volumes between 1901-1906. A copy of the text can be accessed on www.jewishencyclopedia.com.

Breuilly, O'Brien & Palmer
(1997) Religions of the World. Hardback book. Subtitled: "The Illustrated Guide to Origins, Beliefs, Traditions, & Festivals". Published by Lionheart Books. By Elizabeth Breuilly, Joanne O'Brien & Martin Palmer. Published for Transedition Limited and Fernleigh Books.

Charities Aid Foundation
World Giving Index. On www.cafonline.org.

CIA
(2013) World Factbook. The USA Government's Central Intelligence Agency (USA CIA) publishes The World Factbook, and the online version is frequently updated.

Crabtree, Vexen
(2017) "What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life" (2017). Accessed 2017 Aug 01.

IHEU. International Humanist and Ethical Union.
(2012) Freedom of Thought. A copy can be found on iheu.org/...Freedom of Thought 2012.pdf, accessed 2013 Oct 28.

Lonely Planet
(2014) The World. Subtitled: "A Traveller's Guide to the Planet". Published by Lonely Planet, London, UK. Each chapter is devoted to a specific country and includes a list of the most interesting places to visit and a few other cultural notes..

Lynn, Harvey & Nyborg
(2009) Average intelligence predicts atheism rates across 137 nations. Richard Lynn, John Harvey and Helmuth Nyborg article "Average intelligence predicts atheism rates across 137 nations" in Intelligence (2009 Jan/Feb) vol. 37 issue 1 pages 11-15. Online at www.sciencedirect.com, accessed 2009 Sep 15.

The Fraser Institute
(2016) The Human Freedom Index. Published by The Cato Institute, The Fraser Institute and the Friedrich Naumann Foundation for Freedom. Covers data up to 2014. On www.fraserinstitute.org/.../human-freedom-index-2016..

United Nations
(2011) Human Development Report. This edition had the theme of Sustainability and Equity: A Better Future for All. Published on the United Nation's website at hdr.undp.org/.../HDR_2011_EN_Complete.pdf (accessed throughout 2013, Jan-Mar). UN Development Program: About the Human Development Index.
(2013) Human Development Report. This edition had the theme of The Rise of the South: Human Progress in a Diverse World. Published on the United Nation's HDR website at hdr.undp.org/.../hdr2013/ (accessed throughout 2013). UN Development Program: About the Human Development Index.
(2017) Human Development Report. Published by the UN Development Programme. Data for 2015. Analysis conducted by the UN Development Report Office. Available on hdr.undp.org/..

World Health Organisation. (WHO)
(2014) Global Status Report on Alcohol and Health. A copy can be found on the WHO website. Accessed 2015 Jan 04. It "presents a comprehensive perspective on the global, regional and country consumption of alcohol, patterns of drinking, health consequences and policy responses in Member States" and was published in Geneva on 2014 May 12.

Footnotes

  1. World Bank data on data.worldbank.org accessed 2013 Nov 04.^
  2. UN (2011) .^
  3. UN (2017) Table 1.^
  4. UN (2017) Gross National Income, per person. Table 1.^
  5. International Standards Organisation (ISO) standard ISO3166-1, on www.iso.org, accessed 2013 May 01.^
  6. Top level domains (TLDs) are managed by the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) on www.iana.org.^
  7. According to ISO4217.^
  8. According to ITU-T.^
  9. CIA (2013) https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/et.html accessed 2014 Apr 27.^
  10. UN (2017) Table 1. Lower is better.^
  11. "What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life" by Vexen Crabtree (2017)^
  12. UN (2017) Dashboard 2. Higher is worse. Old-age is counted as 65+, and ratio is of these to people ages 15-64. Projections are for 2030 based on medium-fertility variant of growth.^
  13. UN (2013) Table 11.^
  14. UN (2013) Table 14. Births per woman (2012), expressed as deviance (positive or negative) from the value of 2.0.^
  15. UN (2017) Table 1. Higher is better.^^
  16. UN (2013) Table 14.^
  17. UN (2017) Table 5. Lower is better.^^
  18. "What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life: 3.6. Women Stand for Election & Vote (1893+) New Zealand, Australia, Finland" by Vexen Crabtree (2017)^
  19. Zuckerman, P. (2007). Atheism: contemporary numbers and patterns. In M.Martin (Ed.), The Cambridge Companion to Atheism. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. In "Average intelligence predicts atheism rates across 137 nations" by Lynn et al. (2009).^
  20. Pew Forum (2012) publication "The Global Religious Landscape: A Report on the Size and Distribution of the World´s Major Religious Groups as of 2010" (2012 Dec 18) accessed 2013 May 01.^
  21. CIA (2013) https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/ar.html accessed 2014 Apr 27.^
  22. IHEU (2012) . Added to this page on 2013 Oct 28.^
  23. Encyclopædia Britannica article "Falasha" accessed 2015 Jan 03.^
  24. Jewish Encyclopedia (1906) article "Falashas" .^
  25. From Wikipedia (link), accessed 2015 Jan 03: A 1999 study by Lucotte and Smets studied the DNA of 38 unrelated Beta Israel males living in Israel and 104 Ethiopians living in regions located north of Addis Ababa. It concluded that "the distinctiveness of the Y-chromosome haplotype distribution of the Beta-Israel from conventional Jewish populations and their relatively greater similarity in haplotype profile to non-Jewish Ethiopians are consistent with the view that the Beta Israel people descended from ancient inhabitants of Ethiopia and not the Levant." This study confirmed the findings of a 1991 study by Zoossmann-Disken et al. Similarly, a 2000 study by Hammer et al. of Y-chromosome biallelic haplotypes of Jewish and non-Jewish groups suggested that "paternal gene pools of Jewish communities from Europe, North Africa, and the Middle East descended from a common Middle Eastern ancestral population", with the exception of the Beta Israel, who were "affiliated more closely with non-Beta Israel Ethiopians and other East Africans". A 2004 study by Shen et al. reached similar conclusions, that the Beta Israel were likely descended from local Ethiopian populations.^
  26. Breuilly, O'Brien & Palmer (1997) chapter 1 "Judaism" p41.^
  27. Freedom House publication "Freedom on the Net 2012" at www.freedomhouse.org/.../FOTN%202012%20-%20Tables%20and%20Charts%20FINAL.pdf accessed 2013 Feb 05.^
  28. internetlivestats.com/internet-users-by-country accessed 2017 Mar 10.^
  29. "What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life: 4.4. Malware and Email Spam (2010-2) " by Vexen Crabtree (2017)^
  30. WHO (2014) Appendix 1. Alcohol Per Capita Consumption in liters of pure alcohol, 15+ years age population, consumed in 2010. Lower is better.^
  31. World Health Organisation data for 2011-2015 from 7 data series accessed 2017 May 21. Details in "Immunizations: International Statistics on Vaccines and the Autism Scare: 3. World Health Organisation Statistics" by Vexen Crabtree (2017).^
  32. Annual Cigarette Consumption Per Adult (age 15 and above) - compustible cigarettes. Euromonitor International (2014), via tobaccoatlas.org/topic/cigarette-use-globally/ . Accessed 2017 Jun 20.^
  33. Max possible=24. Total amount of treaties ratified. Nominal Commitment to Human Rights report published by UCL School of Public Policy, London, UK, at ucl.ac.uk/spp/research/research-projects/nchr accessed 2011 Apr 30.^
  34. Fraser Institute, the (2016) . Covers data for 2014.^
  35. Reporters Without Borders Report "2013 World Press Freedom Index: Dashed hopes after spring" at fr.rsf.org/.../classement_2013_gb-bd.pdf accessed 2013 Feb.^
  36. Charities Aid Foundation . Average ranking across years 2013-2016. Lower is better.^
  37. ^
  38. UN (2013) Table 9. Higher is better. Table 9. The UN's data is the latest available from a range of data from 2007-2011.^
  39. UN (2011) Table 6. Higher is better.^
  40. Higher is better. Sources:^
  41. Lynn, Harvey & Nyborg (2009) .^

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