The Human Truth Foundation

Haiti (Republic of Haiti)

By Vexen Crabtree 2013


Comments:
FB, LJ

#africa #benin #charity #economics #ghana #haiti #happiness #intelligence #monotheism #morals #nigeria #the_environment #togo

Haiti
Republic of Haiti
StatusIndependent State
CapitalPort-au-Prince
Land Area 27 560km21
LocationNorth America, The Americas, Caribbean
GroupingsSmall Islands
Population10.3m (2011)2
Life Expectancy63.12yrs (2017)3
GNI$1 657 (2017)4
ISO3166-1 CodesHT, HTI, 3325
Internet Domain.ht6
CurrencyGourde (HTG)7
Telephone+5098

1. Overview

#france #spain

The native Taino - who inhabited the island of Hispaniola when it was discovered by Christopher COLUMBUS in 1492 - were virtually annihilated by Spanish settlers within 25 years. In the early 17th century, the French established a presence on Hispaniola. In 1697, Spain ceded to the French the western third of the island, which later became Haiti. The French colony, based on forestry and sugar-related industries, became one of the wealthiest in the Caribbean but only through the heavy importation of African slaves and considerable environmental degradation. In the late 18th century, Haiti's nearly half million slaves revolted under Toussaint L'OUVERTURE. After a prolonged struggle, Haiti became the first post-colonial black-led nation in the world, declaring its independence in 1804. Currently the poorest country in the Western Hemisphere, Haiti has experienced political instability for most of its history. After an armed rebellion led to the forced resignation and exile of President Jean-Bertrand ARISTIDE in February 2004, an interim government took office to organize new elections under the auspices of the United Nations. Continued instability and technical delays prompted repeated postponements, but Haiti inaugurated a democratically elected president and parliament in May of 2006. This was followed by contested elections in 2010 that resulted in the election of Haiti's current President, Michel MARTELLY. A massive magnitude 7.0 earthquake struck Haiti in January 2010 with an epicenter about 25 km (15 mi) west of the capital, Port-au-Prince. Estimates are that over 300,000 people were killed and some 1.5 million left homeless. The earthquake was assessed as the worst in this region over the last 200 years.

CIA's The World Factbook (2013)9

Book CoverHaiti is still struggling with the aftermath of the devastating 2010 earthquake. But this is a proud country, born of revolution, and its people are determined to rebuild for a better future. Forget for a moment the rubble that still clogs parts of the capital. In actual fact, Haiti was once at the forefront of Caribbean tourism. In the 1950s, Port-au-Prince was rivaled only by Havana as a destination for the rich and famous; its jazz clubs and casinos a favored getaway for the Hollywood elite.

With a modicum of stability, Haiti could yet become the Caribbean´s alternative travel destination par excellence: it has palm-fringed beaches to rival any of its neighbors. But lazing on the sand isn´t really the point of Haiti (although you can do that, too). The richness of the country lies in its history and culture, closer to its African roots than any other Caribbean nation and ever present in its vibrant art and music scenes.

Haiti isn´t the easiest country to travel in. You frequently need to keep an ear out for the news, and it can be more expensive than you´d expect. However, once you´re there, travel is not only possible, but also incredibly rewarding. It´s an addictive country to visit.

"The World" by Lonely Planet (2014)10

2. The Aftermath of Hurricane Matthew 11

Here is the summary from Human Rights Watch's report on the year 2017:

Political instability in 2017 hindered the Haitian government´s ability to meet the basic needs of its people, resolve long-standing human rights problems, or address continuing humanitarian crises. The United Nations peacekeeping mission operating in Haiti for the past 13 years ended in October. A smaller mission replaced it.

More than 175,000 individuals remained displaced in the aftermath of October 2016´s Hurricane Matthew, and many more faced food insecurity due to widespread damage to crops and livestock. As of September 2017, authorities had failed to assist many of the nearly 38,000 individuals still living in displacement camps since the 2010 earthquake in resettling or returning to their places of origin. The country´s most vulnerable communities continue to face environmental risks, such as widespread deforestation, pollution from industry, and limited access to safe water and sanitation. Almost one-third of people live with food insecurity due to the ongoing drought affecting much of the country.

Since its introduction by UN peacekeepers in 2010, cholera has claimed more than 9,500 lives and infected more than 800,000 people. Cholera cases surged in October 2016 in communities most impacted by Hurricane Matthew. There were more than 41,000 suspected cases and 440 deaths in 2016. The number of cases has since declined significantly due to intensified cholera control efforts, including an ambitious campaign in which more than 800,000 people were vaccinated. Only 11,916 suspected cases of cholera and 118 deaths had been reported from January to October 2017.

"World Report 2018" by Human Rights Watch (2018)12

3. Haiti National and Social Development

#human_development

UN HDI (2016)13
Pos.Lower is better
Rank13
1Norway1
2Australia2
3Switzerland2
...
161Lesotho160
162Senegal162
163Uganda163
164Haiti163
165Sudan165
166Togo166
167Benin167
168Yemen168
World Avg94.3
q=188.
Social & Moral
Development Index
14
Pos.Higher is better
Points14
1Denmark84.0
2Sweden83.9
3Finland83.5
...
135Solomon Islands47.0
136Sao Tome & Principe46.9
137Saudi Arabia46.8
138Haiti46.5
139Gambia46.4
140Laos46.0
141Uganda45.8
142Tonga45.6
World Avg53.8
q=198.

The United Nations produces an annual Human Development Report which includes the Human Development Index. The factors taken into account include life expectancy, education and schooling and Gross National Income (GNI) amongst many others..

The Social and Moral Development Index concentrates on moral issues and human rights, violence, public health, equality, tolerance, freedom and effectiveness in climate change mitigation and environmentalism, and on some technological issues. A country scores higher for achieving well in those areas, and for sustaining that achievement in the long term. Those countries towards the top of this index can truly said to be setting good examples and leading humankind onwards into a bright, humane, and free future. See: What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life.

4. Population and Demographics

#demographics #Haiti #health #immigration #life_expectancy #overpopulation #population

Old-Age Dependency Ratio (2016)15
Pos.Lower is better
Per 10015
1Uganda04.3
2Mali04.5
3Chad04.7
...
64Kiribati09.5
65Guatemala09.5
66Saudi Arabia09.5
67Haiti09.6
68Vanuatu09.9
69Cape Verde10.0
70Philippines10.3
71Cambodia10.4
World Avg18.3
q=185.
Emigrants (2010)16
Pos.
%16
1Dominica104.8
2Palestine68.4
3Samoa67.3
...
67Hong Kong10.2
68Dominican Rep.10.1
69Zimbabwe9.9
70Haiti9.9
71San Marino9.9
72Burkina Faso9.7
73Slovakia9.6
74Morocco9.3
World Avg11.5
q=192.
Fertility Rate (2013)17
Pos.2.0 is best17
1N. Korea2.00
2Brunei1.99
3St Vincent & Grenadines2.01
...
124Namibia3.08
125Zimbabwe3.15
126Tajikistan3.19
127Haiti3.19
128Gabon3.20
129Swaziland3.21
130Bolivia3.25
131Pakistan3.25
World Avg2.81
q=180.

Immigrants (2010)16
Pos.
%16
1Qatar86.5
2Monaco71.6
3UAE70.0
...
169Papua New Guinea0.4
170Brazil0.4
171Angola0.3
172Haiti0.3
173Vanuatu0.3
174Tunisia0.3
175Honduras0.3
176Eritrea0.3
World Avg9.2
q=192.
Life Expectancy (2015)18
Pos.Higher is better
Years18
1Hong Kong84.16
2Japan83.68
3Italy83.34
...
153Sudan63.73
154Comoros63.57
155Mauritania63.24
156Haiti63.12
157Congo, (Brazzaville)62.89
158Papua New Guinea62.77
159Djibouti62.30
160Kenya62.16
World Avg71.27
q=190.
Population (2012)19
Pos.The Overpopulation of the Earth19
1China1.4b
2India1.3b
3USA315.8m
...
79S. Sudan10.7m
80Czechia10.6m
81Guinea10.5m
82Haiti10.3m
83Bolivia10.2m
84Dominican Rep.10.2m
85Hungary9.9m
86Serbia9.8m
World Avg36.0m
q=195.

Haiti's population is predicted to rise to 12.53 million by 2030. These millions of extra people will all need space to live, food to eat, energy to consume, and will increase the burden on the planet's resources. This country has a fertility rate of 3.19. The fertility rate is, in simple terms, the average amount of children that each woman has. The higher the figure, the quicker the population is growing, although, to calculate the rate you also need to take into account morbidity, i.e., the rate at which people die. If people live healthy and long lives and morbidity is low, then, 2.0 approximates to the replacement rate, which would keep the population stable. If all countries had such a fertility rate, population growth would end. The actual replacement rate in most developed countries is around 2.1.

5. Human Rights, Equality and Freedom

#equality #freedom #haiti #human_rights #politics #tolerance

Haiti is generally poor at ensuring human rights and freedom compared to the rest of the world. Haiti does better than average in fighting anti-semitic opinions20, supporting press freedom21, commentary from Human Rights Watch22, supporting personal, civil & economic freedoms23 and in LGBT equality24. Haiti does not succeed in everything, however. It does worse than average in eliminating modern slavery25, its Global Peace Index rating26 and in its nominal commitment to Human Rights27. And finally, it falls into the bottom 20 in opposing gender inequality28 and in fighting corruption29. There is a widespread problem with violence against women and poor legal protections for the vulnerable. Prisons are inhumanely overcrowded: detainees have less than one metre of space and are confined for 23 hours a day: the main cause is that 71% of them have been imprisoned before trials have been held12.

For tables, charts and commentary, see:

6. Religion and Beliefs

#belief #buddhism #christianity #god #hinduism #islam #judaism #religion #voodoo

Disbelief In God (2007)30
Pos.Higher is better30
1Vietnam81
2Japan65
3Sweden64
...
105Zambia0
106Tanzania0
107Malaysia0
108Haiti0
109Iraq0
110Guinea0
111Ghana0
112Jordan0
World Avg9.9
q=137.

Data from the Pew Forum, a professional polling outfit, states that in 2010 the religious makeup of this country was as follows in the table below31:

Christian86.9%
Muslim0.1%
Hindu0.1%
Buddhist0.1%
Folk Religion2.2%
Jew0.1%
Unaffiliated10.6%

The CIA World Factbook has slightly different data, and states: Roman Catholic 80%, Protestant 16% (Baptist 10%, Pentecostal 4%, Adventist 1%, other 1%), none 1%, other 3%. Note: Despite what they put on official forms, roughly half of the population practices Voodoo.32.

An introduction to Vodun, or Voodoo:

A traditional religion from Western Africa with an ethical focus on combating greed and promoting honour. It is based on the worship of spirits that are loyal to a monotheistic33 deistic (non-interventionist) creator god. It is more correctly known as Vodun, although other titles include Vodoun, Voudou, and Sevi Lwa. "The name is traceable to an African word for 'spirit'. Vodun's roots go back to the West African Yoruba people who lived in 18th and 19th century Dahomey. That country occupied parts of today's Togo, Benin and Nigeria"34. When West Africans were forcibly taken to Haiti and other islands in the West Indies as slaves, their beliefs spread with them33,34, and also to South America and the Caribbean region in general35. Voodoo was suppressed and its followers persecuted33 by Christian powermongers, and it was forced underground, with many believers merely pretending to be Christian, and practicing Voodoo in secret33,36,37. As a result of this, Voodoo priests were well-placed to orchestrate and inspire slave revolts. It is now acknowledged that Voodoo merged African beliefs with re-interpreted Christian saints and symbols35,33, but also that Christianity abused and mis-represented Voodoo, causing long term damage to its reputation. There are up to 60 million Voodoo practitioners worldwide, with about 16 million in Ghana, Togo, Benin and Nigeria33.

"An introduction to Vodun, or Voodoo" by Vexen Crabtree (2016)

Vodun is still practiced by the majority of Haiti even though the majority also call themselves Christian. "It was given official status as a national religion in 2003 by Jean-Bertrand Aristide, then Haitian president"33. Haitian Voodoo is has some features that distinguishing it from African Voodoo. The success of the hope-inspiring slave revolts was directly related to the secretive and suppressed nature of the Vodun religion within the slave culture. The underground religion naturally expanded to include underground abolitionist activism and played an inspirational and functional role, directly facilitating underground societies and powerful leaders, something which no other anti-slave movement did. This series of revolts led to Toussaint L'Ouverture and his successes in the region, which inspired and fuelled abolitionist movements worldwide.

Some historians say that voodoo's bad image in the world is because Haitian slaves used it as a form of protest; it gave them a secret place where they could foment revolt against their masters.

The Economist (2006)38

Links:

7. The Internet

#Haiti #internet #the_internet

Internet Users (2016)39
Pos.Higher is better39
1Iceland100%
2Faroe Islands99%
3Norway98%
...
169Kiribati13%
170Rwanda12%
171Mali12%
172Haiti12%
173Papua New Guinea12%
174Djibouti12%
175Cambodia11%
176Gabon10%
World Avg48.1%
q=201.

Internet access has become an essential research tool. It facilitates an endless list of life improvements, from the ability to network and socialize without constraint, to access to a seemingly infinite repository of technical and procedural information on pretty much any task. The universal availability of data has sped up industrial development and personal learning at the national and personal level. Individuals can read any topic they wish regardless of the locality of expert teachers, and, entire nations can develop their technology and understanding of the world simply because they are now exposed to advanced societies and moral discourses online. Like every communications medium, the Internet has issues and causes a small range of problems, but these are insignificant compared to the advantages of having an online populace.

8. Public Health Issues

#alcohol #Haiti #health #mental_health #parenting #population #smoking #suicide #vaccines

Adolescent Birth Rate (2015)28
Pos.Lower is better
Per 100028
1N. Korea0.5
2S. Korea1.6
3Switzerland2.9
...
90Tajikistan38.1
91Vietnam38.6
92Pakistan38.7
93Haiti39.3
94Syria39.4
95Kyrgyzstan39.6
96Georgia39.7
97Barbados40.7
World Avg47.9
q=185.
Alcohol Consumption (2010)40
Pos.Lower is better
Per Capita40
1Libya0.1
2Pakistan0.1
3Kuwait0.1
...
92Bolivia5.9
93Ivory Coast6.0
94Colombia6.2
95Haiti6.4
96Cook Islands6.4
97Lesotho6.5
98Vietnam6.6
99Equatorial Guinea6.6
World Avg6.2
q=191.
Food Aid, Health Contributions & WHO Compliance (2017)41
Pos.Lower is better
Rank41
1Sweden1
2Ireland2
3Denmark3
...
112Romania112
113Peru113
114Kenya114
115Haiti115
116Malawi116
117Swaziland117
118Iran118
119Yemen119
World Avg82.0
q=163.

Infant Immunizations 2011-2015 (2015)42
Pos.Higher is better
Avg %42
1Hungary99.0
2China99.0
3Uzbekistan98.9
...
181Samoa68.1
182Yemen67.4
183Papua New Guinea66.3
184Haiti65.7
185Vanuatu65.5
186Guinea63.3
187Syria62.4
188Ukraine55.2
World Avg88.3
q=194.
Smoking Rates (2014)43
Pos.Lower is better43
1Guinea 15
2Solomon Islands 26
3Kiribati 28
...
23Sao Tome & Principe 111
24India 111
25Eritrea 114
26Haiti 114
27Peru 116
28Somalia 117
29Ghana 121
30Benin 122
World Avg 819
q=182.
Suicide Rate (2013)44
Pos.Lower is better
Per 100k44
1Haiti0
2Grenada0
3Egypt0.1
4Jordan0.2
5Maldives0.7
6Azerbaijan1.3
7S. Africa1.8
8Bahamas2.5
9Peru2.9
10Kuwait3.6
11Armenia3.9
12Dominican Rep.4.6
World Avg20.93
q=91.

9. More Charts and Comparisons to Other Countries

Personal Charitability
(World Position, 2013-2016)
45
Pos.Lower is better45
1Myanmar (Burma)1.25
2USA1.5
3New Zealand3.5
...
50Syria43.67
51Luxembourg43.75
52Panama45
53Haiti45
54Malawi45.25
55Israel45.25
56Taiwan46
q=156.
Intellectual Endeavours (2017)41
Pos.Lower is better
Rank41
1Ukraine1
2Czechia2
3Hungary3
...
129Azerbaijan129
130Bangladesh130
131Mongolia131
132Haiti132
133Botswana133
134Suriname134
135Uruguay135
q=163.
Creativity and Culture (2017)41
Pos.Lower is better
Rank41
1Belgium1
2Netherlands2
3Estonia3
...
89Cambodia89
90Peru90
91Jordan91
92Haiti92
93Tunisia93
94Papua New Guinea94
95Belarus95
q=163.
Peacekeeping and Security (2017)41
Pos.Lower is better
Rank41
1Samoa1
2S. Africa2
3Tunisia3
...
141Saudi Arabia141
142St Vincent & Grenadines142
143Belize143
144Haiti144
145Libya145
146Croatia146
147UAE147
q=163.
Refugees and UN Treaties (2017)41
Pos.Lower is better
Rank41
1Austria1
2Germany2
3Netherlands3
...
137Nigeria137
138Cambodia138
139Mali139
140Haiti140
141Mongolia141
142Syria142
143Mauritania143
q=163.
Open Trading, Aid and Development (2017)41
Pos.Lower is better
Rank41
1Ireland1
2Denmark2
3Sweden3
...
50Greece50
51Niger51
52Sri Lanka52
53Haiti53
54Rwanda54
55Swaziland55
56Luxembourg56
q=163.
Life Satisfaction (2011)46
Pos.Higher is better46
1Denmark7.8
2Norway7.6
3Netherlands7.6
...
139Mali3.8
140Senegal3.8
141Nepal3.8
142Haiti3.8
143Burundi3.8
144Afghanistan3.8
145Yemen3.7
146Chad3.7
q=150.
Gross National Income Per-Capita (2011)18
Pos.Higher is better
PPP $18
1Qatar$129 916
2Singapore$78 162
3Kuwait$76 075
...
169S. Sudan$1 882
170Afghanistan$1 871
171Uganda$1 670
172Haiti$1 657
173Rwanda$1 617
174Zimbabwe$1 588
175Solomon Islands$1 561
176Gambia$1 541
q=193.
Environmental Performance (2018)47
Pos.Higher is better47
1Switzerland87.4
2France84.0
3Denmark81.6
...
171Central African Rep.36.4
172Niger35.7
173Lesotho33.8
174Haiti33.7
175Madagascar33.7
176Nepal31.4
177India30.6
178Congo, DR30.4
q=180.
IQ (2006)48
Pos.Higher is better48
1Hong Kong108
2Singapore108
3S. Korea106
...
126Angola68
127Guinea67
128Liberia67
129Haiti67
130Gambia66
131Zimbabwe66
132Senegal66
133Sierra Leone64
q=138.

Current edition: 2013 May 01
Last Modified: 2018 Dec 27
http://www.humantruth.info/haiti.html
Parent page: Compare International Statistics by Region and Continent

All #tags used on this page - click for more:

#africa #alcohol #belief #benin #buddhism #charity #christianity #demographics #economics #equality #france #freedom #ghana #god #Haiti #happiness #health #hinduism #human_development #human_rights #immigration #intelligence #internet #islam #judaism #life_expectancy #mental_health #monotheism #morals #nigeria #overpopulation #parenting #politics #population #religion #smoking #spain #suicide #the_environment #the_internet #togo #tolerance #vaccines #voodoo

Social Media

References: (What's this?)

Book Cover

Book Cover

Book Cover

The Good Country Index. Published by The Good Country Inc., New York, USA. Website: goodcountry.org. The Good Country Index gauges how well countries are doing in helping international development. Edition 1.2 (2017) has 35 criteria.

The Economist. Published by The Economist Group, Ltd. A weekly newspaper in magazine format, famed for its accuracy, wide scope and intelligent content. See vexen.co.uk/references.html#Economist for some commentary on this source. A newspaper.

Anti-Defamation League. (ADL)
(2014) ADL Global 100, Executive Summary. Accessed on global100.adl.org on 2017 Jan 02. The numbers given are of those who state that racist stereotyped statements about Jews are true; they have to agree to 6 or more of the 11 statements to be counted. An example statements is "Jews are hated because of the way they behave". The data was collected from 53,100 interviews across 101 countries plus the West Bank and Gaza. The global average is 26%.

Charities Aid Foundation
World Giving Index. On www.cafonline.org.

Chesi, Gert
(1980) Voodoo: Africa's Secret Power. Published by Perlinger.

CIA
(2013) World Factbook. The USA Government's Central Intelligence Agency (USA CIA) publishes The World Factbook, and the online version is frequently updated.

Crabtree, Vexen
(2019) "What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life" (2019). Accessed 2019 Jan 13.

Drury, Nevill
(1996) Shamanism. Published by Element Books. A paperback book.

The Fraser Institute
(2016) The Human Freedom Index. Published by The Cato Institute, The Fraser Institute and the Friedrich Naumann Foundation for Freedom. Covers data up to 2014. On www.fraserinstitute.org/.../human-freedom-index-2016.

Human Rights Watch
(2018) World Report 2018. Covering the events of 2017.

Lonely Planet
(2014) The World. Subtitled: "A Traveller's Guide to the Planet". Published by Lonely Planet, London, UK. Each chapter is devoted to a specific country and includes a list of the most interesting places to visit and a few other cultural notes.

Lynn, Harvey & Nyborg
(2009) Average intelligence predicts atheism rates across 137 nations. Richard Lynn, John Harvey and Helmuth Nyborg. Published in Intelligence (2009 Jan/Feb) vol. 37 issue 1 pages 11-15. Online at www.sciencedirect.com, accessed 2009 Sep 15.

Momen, Moojan
(1999) The Phenomenon Of Religion: A Thematic Approach. Published by Oneworld Publications, Oxford, UK. A paperback book. Book Review.

Murray et al.
(2009) Hammond Atlas of World Religions. Published by Hammond World Atlas Corporation, Langenscheidt Publishing Group, New York, USA. Contributing authors: Stuart A.P. Murray; Robert Huber; Elizabeth Mechem; Sarah Novak; Devid West Reynolds, PhD; Tricia Wright; Thomas Cussans. A hardback book.

United Nations
(2011) Human Development Report. Published by the UN Development Programme. This edition had the theme of Sustainability and Equity: A Better Future for All. Available on hdr.undp.org/... UN Development Program: About the Human Development Index.
(2013) Human Development Report. Published by the UN Development Programme. This edition had the theme of The Rise of the South: Human Progress in a Diverse World. Available on hdr.undp.org/... UN Development Program: About the Human Development Index.
(2017) Human Development Report. Published by the UN Development Programme. Data for 2015. Available on hdr.undp.org/.

Walk Free Foundation
(2018) Global Slavery Index. Published on www.walkfreefoundation.org/.

World Health Organisation. (WHO)
(2014) Global Status Report on Alcohol and Health. A copy can be found on the WHO website. Accessed 2015 Jan 04. It "presents a comprehensive perspective on the global, regional and country consumption of alcohol, patterns of drinking, health consequences and policy responses in Member States" and was published in Geneva on 2014 May 12.

Footnotes

  1. World Bank data on data.worldbank.org accessed 2013 Nov 04.^
  2. UN (2011) .^
  3. UN (2017). Table 1.^
  4. UN (2017). Gross National Income, per person. Table 1.^
  5. International Standards Organisation (ISO) standard ISO3166-1, on www.iso.org, accessed 2013 May 01.^
  6. Top level domains (TLDs) are managed by the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) on www.iana.org.^
  7. According to ISO4217.^
  8. According to ITU-T.^
  9. CIA (2013). Https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/ha.html accessed 2014 Apr 27.^
  10. Lonely Planet (2014). Chapter "Haiti".^
  11. Added to this page on 2018 Dec 27.^
  12. Human Rights Watch (2018). p252-256.^^
  13. UN (2017). Table 1. Lower is better.^
  14. "What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life" by Vexen Crabtree (2019)^
  15. UN (2017). Dashboard 2. Higher is worse. Old-age is counted as 65+, and ratio is of these to people ages 15-64. Projections are for 2030 based on medium-fertility variant of growth.^
  16. UN (2013). Table 11.^
  17. UN (2013). Table 14. Births per woman (2012), expressed as deviance (positive or negative) from the value of 2.0.^
  18. UN (2017). Table 1. Higher is better.^^
  19. UN (2013). Table 14.^
  20. ADL (2014). Lower is better.^
  21. Reporters Without Borders Report "2013 World Press Freedom Index: Dashed hopes after spring" at fr.rsf.org/.../classement_2013_gb-bd.pdf accessed 2013 Feb.^
  22. Human Rights Watch (2018). Negative and positive comments have been added to create a score for each country covered in the report.^
  23. Fraser Institute, the (2016). Covers data for 2014.^
  24. Sources:^
  25. Walk Free Foundation (2018) .^
  26. ^
  27. Max possible=24. Total amount of treaties ratified. Nominal Commitment to Human Rights report published by UCL School of Public Policy, London, UK, at ucl.ac.uk/spp/research/research-projects/nchr accessed 2011 Apr 30.^
  28. UN (2017). Table 5. Lower is better.^^
  29. Transparency International Corruption Perceptions Index (2017). Accessed 2017 Dec 30. The scores given are the TI average for the years 2012-2016.^
  30. Zuckerman, P. (2007). Atheism: contemporary numbers and patterns. In M.Martin (Ed.), The Cambridge Companion to Atheism. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. In "Average intelligence predicts atheism rates across 137 nations" by Lynn et al. (2009)48.^
  31. Pew Forum (2012) publication "The Global Religious Landscape: A Report on the Size and Distribution of the World´s Major Religious Groups as of 2010" (2012 Dec 18) accessed 2013 May 01.^
  32. CIA (2013). Https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/ar.html accessed 2014 Apr 27.^
  33. Murray et al. (2009). p359.^
  34. "Vodun (and related religions)" by the Ontario Consultants for Religious Tolerance. website accessed 1999, 2009.^
  35. Chesi (1980). p5-6.^
  36. Drury (1996). p79.^
  37. Momen (1999). Chapter 19 "Religion in the Modern World" p507.^
  38. The Economist (2006 Jan 28) Article "Voodoo still wins".^
  39. internetlivestats.com/internet-users-by-country accessed 2017 Mar 10.^
  40. WHO (2014). Appendix 1. Alcohol Per Capita Consumption in liters of pure alcohol, 15+ years age population, consumed in 2010. Lower is better.^
  41. The Good Country Index (2017) .^^
  42. World Health Organisation data for 2011-2015 from 7 data series accessed 2017 May 21. Details in "Immunizations: International Statistics on Vaccines and the Autism Scare: 3. World Health Organisation Statistics" by Vexen Crabtree (2017).^
  43. Annual Cigarette Consumption Per Adult (age 15 and above) - compustible cigarettes. Euromonitor International (2014), via tobaccoatlas.org/topic/cigarette-use-globally/ . Accessed 2017 Jun 20.^
  44. UN (2013). World Health Organisation statistics. Suicide Rates Per 100k.^
  45. Charities Aid Foundation. Average ranking across years 2013-2016. Lower is better.^
  46. UN (2013). Table 9. Higher is better. Table 9. The UN's data is the latest available from a range of data from 2007-2011.^
  47. Yale University Center for Environmental Law & Policy 2018 EPI.^
  48. Lynn, Harvey & Nyborg (2009) .^

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