The Human Truth Foundation

Sri Lanka (Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka)

By Vexen Crabtree 2013

#islam #sri_lanka

Sri Lanka
Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka
StatusIndependent State
Social and Moral Index72nd best
CapitalColombo (administrative/judicial) and Sri Jayewardenepura Kotte (legislative)
Land Area 62 710km21
LocationAsia
Population21.2m2
Life Expectancy75.05yrs (2017)3
GNI$10 789 (2017)4
ISO3166-1 CodesLK, LKA, 1445
Internet Domain.lk6
CurrencyRupee (LKR)7
Telephone+948

1. Overview

#buddhism #china #india #norway

The first Sinhalese arrived in Sri Lanka late in the 6th century B.C., probably from northern India. Buddhism was introduced in about the mid-third century B.C., and a great civilization developed at the cities of Anuradhapura (kingdom from circa 200 B.C. to circa A.D. 1000) and Polonnaruwa (from about 1070 to 1200). In the 14th century, a south Indian dynasty established a Tamil kingdom in northern Sri Lanka. The coastal areas of the island were controlled by the Portuguese in the 16th century and by the Dutch in the 17th century. The island was ceded to the British in 1796, became a crown colony in 1802, and was formally united under British rule by 1815. As Ceylon, it became independent in 1948; its name was changed to Sri Lanka in 1972. Tensions between the Sinhalese majority and Tamil separatists erupted into war in 1983. After two decades of fighting, the government and Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE) formalized a cease-fire in February 2002 with Norway brokering peace negotiations. Violence between the LTTE and government forces intensified in 2006, but the government regained control of the Eastern Province in 2007. By May 2009, the government announced that its military had defeated the remnants of the LTTE. Since the end of the conflict, the government has enacted an ambitious program of economic development projects, many of which are financed by loans from the Government of China. In addition to efforts to reconstruct its economy, the government has resettled more than 95% of those civilians who were displaced during the final phase of the conflict and released the vast majority of former LTTE combatants captured by Government Security Forces. At the same time, there has been little progress on more contentious and politically difficult issues such as reaching a political settlement with Tamil elected representatives and holding accountable those alleged to have been involved in human rights violations at the end of the war.

CIA's The World Factbook (2013)9

Book CoverEndless beaches, timeless ruins, welcoming people, oodles of elephants, killer surf, cheap prices, fun trains, famous tea, flavourful food - need we go on? Sri Lanka´s attributes are many. Few places have as many Unesco World Heritage sites (eight) packed into such a small area. Its 2000-plus years of culture can be discovered at ancient sites filled with mystery.

When you´re ready to escape the tropical climate of the coast and lowlands, head for the hills, which are verdant, virescent and virally infectious with allure. Impossibly green tea plantations and rainforested peaks beckon walkers, trekkers or just those who want to see it on a spectacular train ride.

And then there are the beaches. Dazzlingly white and all so often untrod, they ring the island so that no matter where you go, you´ll be near a sandy gem.

Find a favourite beach to call your own, meditate in a 2000-year-old temple, try to keep count of the little dishes that come with your rice and curry. Stroll past colonial gems in Colombo and then hit some epic surf. Sri Lanka is spectacular, it´s affordable and it´s still mostly uncrowded. Now is the best time to discover it.

"The World" by Lonely Planet (2014)10

2. Sri Lanka National and Social Development

#economics #human_development

UN HDI (2016)11
Pos.Lower is better
Rank11
1Norway1
2Australia2
3Switzerland2
...
70Georgia70
71Turkey71
72Venezuela71
73Sri Lanka73
74St Kitts & Nevis74
75Albania75
76Lebanon76
77Mexico77
World Avg94.3
q=188.
Gross National Income Per-Capita (2011)12
Pos.Higher is better
PPP $12
1Qatar$129 916
2Singapore$78 162
3Kuwait$76 075
...
91Iraq$11 608
92Grenada$11 502
93Peru$11 295
94Sri Lanka$10 789
95Ecuador$10 536
96Mongolia$10 449
97Maldives$10 383
98St Vincent & Grenadines$10 372
World Avg$17 240
q=193.
Social & Moral
Development Index
13,14
Pos.Lower is better
Avg Rank13,14
1Taiwan30.2
2Denmark30.5
3Norway30.9
...
69Montenegro77.4
70Belarus77.4
71Georgia77.7
72Sri Lanka77.7
73UAE77.9
74China78.3
75Thailand78.5
76S. Africa79.0
World Avg86.4
q=195.

The United Nations produces an annual Human Development Report which includes the Human Development Index. The factors taken into account include life expectancy, education and schooling and Gross National Income (GNI) amongst many others..

The Social and Moral Development Index concentrates on moral issues and human rights, violence, public health, equality, tolerance, freedom and effectiveness in climate change mitigation and environmentalism, and on some technological issues. A country scores higher for achieving well in those areas, and for sustaining that achievement in the long term. Those countries towards the top of this index can truly said to be setting good examples and leading humankind onwards into a bright, humane, and free future. See: Which are the Best Countries in the World? The Social and Moral Development Index.

3. Sri Lanka's Demographics

#birth_control #demographics #health #immigration #life_expectancy #longevity #migration #overpopulation #population

Population:

Sri Lanka's population is predicted to rise to 23.09 million by 2030. This country has a fertility rate of 2.26. The fertility rate is, in simple terms, the average amount of children that each woman has. The higher the figure, the quicker the population is growing, although, to calculate the rate you also need to take into account morbidity, i.e., the rate at which people die. If people live healthy and long lives and morbidity is low, then, 2.0 approximates to the replacement rate, which would keep the population stable. If all countries had such a fertility rate, population growth would end. The actual replacement rate in most developed countries is around 2.1.

Population (2018)2
Pos.
Population2
1China1.4b
2India1.4b
3USA327.1m
...
54Ivory Coast25.1m
55Australia24.9m
56Niger22.4m
57Sri Lanka21.2m
58Burkina Faso19.8m
59Romania19.5m
60Mali19.1m
61Chile18.7m
World Avg39.0m
q=195.
Life Expectancy (2015)12
Pos.Higher is better
Years12
1Hong Kong84.16
2Japan83.68
3Italy83.34
...
67Nicaragua75.21
68St Lucia75.20
69Serbia75.05
70Sri Lanka75.05
71Algeria75.03
72Georgia75.02
73Tunisia74.98
74Malaysia74.90
World Avg71.27
q=190.
Fertility Rate (2013)15
Pos.2.0 is best15
1N. Korea2.00
2Brunei1.99
3St Vincent & Grenadines2.01
...
37Vietnam1.77
38Lebanon1.77
39Mexico2.25
40Sri Lanka2.26
41Armenia1.74
42Kuwait2.27
43Bhutan2.27
44Jamaica2.28
World Avg2.81
q=180.
Old-Age Dependency Ratio (2016)16
Pos.Lower is better
Per 10016
1Uganda04.3
2Mali04.5
3Chad04.7
...
125Bahamas22.4
126Costa Rica22.6
127Israel22.9
128Sri Lanka23.7
129Moldova24.7
130China25.3
131Mauritius25.9
132Uruguay26.8
World Avg18.3
q=185.

Migration:

Immigrants (2017)17
Pos.
%17
1UAE88.4%
2Kuwait75.5%
3Qatar65.2%
...
186Morocco0.3%
187Philippines0.2%
188N. Korea0.2%
189Sri Lanka0.2%
190Myanmar (Burma)0.1%
191Madagascar0.1%
192Indonesia0.1%
193Cuba0.1%
World Avg9.4%
q=195.
Emigrants (2010)18
Pos.
%18
1Dominica104.8%
2Palestine68.4%
3Samoa67.3%
...
72Burkina Faso9.7%
73Slovakia9.6%
74Morocco9.3%
75Sri Lanka9.1%
76Somalia8.7%
77Kuwait8.5%
78Ecuador8.3%
79Poland8.3%
World Avg11.5%
q=192.

4. Human Rights, Equality & Tolerance

#equality #freedom #human_rights #politics #sri_lanka #tolerance

Sri Lanka is very poor at ensuring human rights and freedom compared to the rest of the world, and it has cultural issues when it comes to tolerance and equality. Sri Lanka does better than average in speed of uptake of HR treaties19 and in commentary in Human Rights Watch reports20. But that's it. Sri Lanka has problems. It does worse than average for opposing gender inequality21, its nominal commitment to Human Rights22, supporting personal, civil & economic freedoms23 and in LGBT equality24. And finally, it falls into the worst 20 in supporting press freedom25. "Sri Lankan police were not held accountable for routine torture and ill-treatment in custody", except for a few high-profile cases26 where the government bowed to international pressure. Over the last several decades, a class of Buddhist extremists have been targeting Muslims and other religious minorities in an attempt to cleanse Sri Lanka of non-Buddhist influences26 - the government has not been firm enough in protecting them nor in prosecuting offenders.

For tables, charts and commentary, see:

5. Sri Lanka's Health

#alcohol #birth_control #demographics #health #life_expectancy #longevity #obesity #overpopulation #parenting #population #smoking #Sri_Lanka #vaccines

Health (2020)27,28
Pos.Lower is better
Avg Rank27,28
1Hong Kong18.0
2Singapore41.5
3Maldives43.3
4Japan50.9
5S. Korea52.0
6Sri Lanka55.0
7Oman57.9
8Bhutan58.6
9Brunei59.3
10Norway62.0
11China62.4
12Malaysia64.1
13Mauritius64.5
World Avg92.3
q=187.

The countries with the best overall approach to public health, in terms of both public policy and individual lifestyle choices, are Hong Kong, Singapore and The Maldives27. These countries are worth emulating. And, although often through no fault of the average citizen, the worst countries are S. Sudan, Nigeria and Equatorial Guinea27.

The data sets used to calculate points for each country are its average life expectancy, its alcohol consumption rate, its fertility rate, its smoking rate, its suicide rate, its food aid and health contributions and WHO compliance, the prevalence of overweight adults, its adolescent birth rate and its immunizations take-up. The regions with the best average results per country are Scandinavia, Asia and Europe27, whereas the worst are Africa, Micronesia and Polynesia27.

Health:

Sri Lanka does relatively well in encouraging good health, compared to many other countries. Sri Lanka comes in the best 20 in its immunizations take-up29. It does better than average when it comes to its adolescent birth rate21, its smoking rate30, its average life expectancy12, its alcohol consumption rate31 (but bad for Asia), its food aid and health contributions and WHO compliance32 (but bad for Asia) and in its fertility rate15. The number of overweight adults has increased by 14% between 1976 and 2016.
Life Expectancy (2015)12
Pos.Higher is better
Years12
1Hong Kong84.16
2Japan83.68
3Italy83.34
...
67Nicaragua75.21
68St Lucia75.20
69Serbia75.05
70Sri Lanka75.05
71Algeria75.03
72Georgia75.02
73Tunisia74.98
74Malaysia74.90
World Avg71.27
q=190.
Alcohol Consumption (2016)31
Pos.Lower is better
Per Capita31
1Bangladesh0.0
2Kuwait0.0
3Libya0.0
...
68N. Korea3.9
69Honduras4.0
70Jamaica4.2
71Sri Lanka4.3
72Bahamas4.4
73Ecuador4.4
74Bolivia4.8
75Costa Rica4.8
World Avg6.2
q=189.
Fertility Rate (2013)15
Pos.2.0 is best15
1N. Korea2.00
2Brunei1.99
3St Vincent & Grenadines2.01
...
37Vietnam1.77
38Lebanon1.77
39Mexico2.25
40Sri Lanka2.26
41Armenia1.74
42Kuwait2.27
43Bhutan2.27
44Jamaica2.28
World Avg2.81
q=180.
Smoking Rates (2014)30
Pos.Higher is worse30
182Montenegro4 125
181Belarus3 831
180Lebanon3 023
...
65St Vincent & Grenadines 338
64Barbados 333
63Mexico 329
62Sri Lanka 322
61Sierra Leone 310
60Bahamas 301
59Bolivia 299
58Congo, (Brazzaville) 294
World Avg 819
q=182.
Food Aid, Health Contributions & WHO Compliance (2017)32
Pos.Lower is better
Rank32
1Sweden1
2Ireland2
3Denmark3
...
75Cameroon74
76Malta76
77Guatemala77
78Sri Lanka78
79Poland79
80Uruguay80
81Dominican Rep.81
82Zambia82
World Avg82.0
q=163.
Overweight Adults (2016)33
Pos.Lower is better
%33
1Vietnam18.3
2India19.7
3Bangladesh20.0
...
12Afghanistan23.0
13Chad23.1
14Burkina Faso23.2
15Sri Lanka23.3
16Malawi23.4
17Madagascar23.9
18Myanmar (Burma)24.8
19Rwanda25.1
World Avg49.0
q=191.

Children's Health:

Adolescent Birth Rate (2015)21
Pos.Lower is better
Per 100021
1N. Korea0.5
2S. Korea1.6
3Switzerland2.9
...
46Latvia13.6
47Australia14.1
48UK14.6
49Sri Lanka14.8
50Micronesia15.0
51Tonga15.2
52Mongolia15.7
53Turkmenistan16.4
World Avg47.9
q=185.
Infant Immunizations 2011-2015 (2015)29
Pos.Higher is better
Avg %29
1Hungary99.0
2China99.0
3Uzbekistan98.9
4Niue98.8
5Mongolia98.7
6Czechia98.7
7Seychelles98.6
8S. Korea98.6
9Sri Lanka98.4
10St Lucia98.2
11Bahrain98.2
12Iran98.1
World Avg88.3
q=194.

6. Sri Lanka's Modernity and Learning

#education #intelligence #it_security #modernity #politics #religion #research #science #technology #the_internet

Modernity and Learning (2020)34
Pos.Lower is better
Avg Rank34
1Finland8.0
2Belgium9.1
3Denmark10.0
...
99Philippines74.1
100Palestine74.8
101Uganda75.3
102Sri Lanka76.0
103Tonga76.0
104Oman76.1
105Maldives77.0
106Bhutan77.5
107Panama77.7
World Avg69.0
q=180.

Modernity and Education:

Research and Development (2016)
Pos.Higher is better
% RDP PPP
1S. Korea4.2935
2Israel4.1135
3Japan3.5835
...
97Kazakhstan0.1736
98Bolivia0.1637
99Kyrgyzstan0.1638
100Sri Lanka0.1639
101Albania0.1540
102Namibia0.1439
103Georgia0.1341
104Gambia0.1338
World Avg0.84
q=126.
Secondary Education (2018)42
Pos.Higher is better42
1Luxembourg100.0%
2Estonia100.0%
3Austria100.0%
...
53UK84.5%
54Jordan84.0%
55France83.5%
56Sri Lanka82.8%
57Bosnia & Herzegovina81.2%
58Malaysia80.8%
59Cyprus80.3%
60Singapore79.6%
World Avg63.0%
q=169.
Length of Schooling (2018)43
Pos.Higher is better
Years43
1Australia22.1
2Belgium19.7
3Finland19.3
...
76Mongolia14.2
77Dominican Rep.14.1
78Bolivia14.0
79Sri Lanka14.0
80China13.9
81St Lucia13.9
82Peru13.8
83Bosnia & Herzegovina13.8
World Avg13.2
q=193.
Intellectual Endeavours (2017)32
Pos.Lower is better
Rank32
1Ukraine1
2Czechia2
3Hungary3
...
114Bahamas114
115Bahrain115
116Kazakhstan116
117Sri Lanka117
118Rwanda118
119Guatemala119
120Niger120
121El Salvador121
World Avg82.0
q=163.
Religiosity (2009)44
Pos.Lower is better
%44
1Estonia16
2Sweden17
3Denmark19
...
106Djibouti98
107Somaliland98
108Burundi98
109Sri Lanka99
110Malawi99
111Yemen99
112Indonesia99
113Niger99.5
World Avg75.1
q=114.
IQ (2006)45
Pos.Higher is better45
1Hong Kong108
2Singapore108
3S. Korea106
...
99Nicaragua81
100El Salvador80
101Guatemala79
102Sri Lanka79
103Nepal78
104Mauritania76
105Uganda73
106Tanzania72
World Avg85.6
q=138.

Technology and Information:

Internet Users (2016)46
Pos.Higher is better46
1Iceland100%
2Faroe Islands99%
3Norway98%
...
131Micronesia31%
132Vanuatu31%
133Syria30%
134Sri Lanka29%
135Samoa29%
136Ghana28%
137Swaziland28%
138Guatemala27%
World Avg48.1%
q=201.
Freedom On The Internet (2012)47
Pos.Lower is better47
1Estonia10
2USA12
3Germany15
...
29Rwanda51
30Russia52
31Zimbabwe54
32Sri Lanka55
33Kazakhstan58
34Egypt59
35Thailand61
36Pakistan63
World Avg46.7
q=47.
IT Security (2013)48
Pos.Lower is better48
1Ireland0.11
2Luxembourg0.11
3Belize0.11
...
71Maldives1.57
72China1.59
73Angola1.61
74Sri Lanka1.67
75Oman1.72
76Iraq1.84
77Bangladesh1.87
78Sudan1.98
World Avg0.98
q=81.
IPv6 Uptake (2017)49
Pos.Higher is better
Ratio49
1Belgium55.4
2Germany41.8
3Switzerland35.1
...
38Thailand3.3
39Denmark3.1
40Bosnia & Herzegovina3.1
41Sri Lanka2.9
42Latvia2.2
43Israel1.8
44Italy1.7
45Argentina1.4
World Avg3.82
q=176.

7. National Culture

#charity #corruption #happiness #morals #politics

Personal Charitability
(World Position, 2013-2016)
50
Pos.Lower is better50
1Myanmar (Burma)1.25
2USA1.5
3New Zealand3.5
4Canada3.75
5Australia5.25
6UK6.75
7Ireland6.75
8Sri Lanka8
9Qatar9
10Trinidad & Tobago10
11Netherlands10
12UAE12
World Avg68.1185897435897
q=156.
Corruption (2012-2016)51
Pos.Higher is better
Avg Score51
1Denmark90.8
2New Zealand90.6
3Finland89.4
...
88Trinidad & Tobago37.8
89Zambia37.8
90India37.6
91Sri Lanka37.6
92Panama37.4
93Morocco37.2
94Peru37.0
95Benin36.8
World Avg43.05
q=176.
Happiness (2018)52
Pos.Higher is better52
1Finland7.6
2Norway7.6
3Denmark7.6
...
113Sierra Leone4.6
114Congo, (Brazzaville)4.6
115Bangladesh4.5
116Sri Lanka4.5
117Iraq4.5
118Mali4.4
119Namibia4.4
120Cambodia4.4
World Avg5.38
q=156.
Creativity and Culture (2017)32
Pos.Lower is better
Rank32
1Belgium1
2Netherlands2
3Estonia3
...
138Algeria138
139Azerbaijan139
140Paraguay140
141Sri Lanka141
142Malawi142
143Benin143
144Cameroon144
145Laos145
World Avg82.0
q=163.
Open Trading, Aid and Development (2017)32
Pos.Lower is better
Rank32
1Ireland1
2Denmark2
3Sweden3
...
49UAE49
50Greece50
51Niger51
52Sri Lanka52
53Haiti53
54Rwanda54
55Swaziland55
56Luxembourg56
World Avg82.0
q=163.

8. Peace Versus Instability

#extremism #human_development #peace #politics #religious_violence #terrorism

Global Peace Index (2012)53
Pos.Lower is better53
1Iceland1.11
2New Zealand1.24
3Denmark1.24
...
99Madagascar2.12
100Liberia2.13
101Mali2.13
102Sri Lanka2.15
103Congo, (Brazzaville)2.15
104Kazakhstan2.15
105Saudi Arabia2.18
106Haiti2.18
World Avg2.02
q=157.
Peacekeeping and Security (2017)32
Pos.Lower is better
Rank32
1Samoa1
2S. Africa2
3Tunisia3
...
23Guatemala23
24Ecuador24
25Madagascar25
26Sri Lanka26
27Netherlands27
28Mongolia28
29Rwanda29
30Paraguay30
World Avg82.0
q=163.
Refugees and UN Treaties (2017)32
Pos.Lower is better
Rank32
1Austria1
2Germany2
3Netherlands3
...
75Botswana75
76Lebanon76
77Bahrain77
78Sri Lanka78
79Algeria79
80Ecuador80
81Kuwait81
82Paraguay82
World Avg82.0
q=163.
Impact of Terrorism (2019)54
Pos.Lower is better
Score54
1Togo0.00
2Mongolia0.00
3Swaziland0.00
...
93Bolivia3.39
94Algeria3.41
95Sweden3.45
96Sri Lanka3.57
97Canada3.59
98Belgium3.64
99Angola3.78
100Tunisia3.94
World Avg2.78
q=150.

9. The Natural Environment

#biodiversity #climate_change #over-exploitation #the_environment

Forest Area Change 1990-2015 (2015)55
Pos.Higher is better
%55
1Iceland205.6
2Bahrain144.4
3Uruguay131.3
...
136Panama-08.4
137Madagascar-08.9
138Colombia-09.2
139Sri Lanka-09.4
140Brazil-09.7
141Venezuela-10.3
142Guinea-Bissau-11.0
143Senegal-11.5
World Avg02.8
q=184.
Environmental Performance (2018)56
Pos.Higher is better56
1Switzerland87.4
2France84.0
3Denmark81.6
...
67Lebanon61.1
68Macedonia61.1
69Brazil60.7
70Sri Lanka60.6
71Equatorial Guinea60.4
72Mexico59.7
73Dominica59.4
74Argentina59.3
World Avg56.4
q=180.
Energy to GDP Efficiency (2014)57
Pos.Higher is better57
1Hong Kong26.32
2Sri Lanka20.00
3Panama17.86
4Colombia17.54
5Ireland17.54
6Switzerland17.54
7Dominican Rep.16.95
8Mauritius15.63
9Malta15.15
10Singapore15.15
11Denmark14.93
12Peru14.49
World Avg09.29
q=119.
Convention on Biological Diversity
Pos.Earlier is better
Signed
1China1993 Dec 29
2Guinea1993 Dec 29
3Cook Islands1993 Dec 29
...
50Brazil1994 May 29
51Cuba1994 Jun 06
52Namibia1997 Aug 14
53Sri Lanka1994 Jun 21
54Ethiopia1994 Jul 04
55Dominica1994 Jul 05
56Italy1994 Jul 14
57Bangladesh1994 Aug 01
World Avg1899 Dec 30
q=197.
Rational Beliefs on the Environment (2011)58
Pos.Higher is better
%58
1Argentina78.3%
2Greece77.6%
3Brazil77.1%
...
54Bosnia & Herzegovina44.0%
55Congo, (Brazzaville)44.0%
56Yemen43.2%
57Sri Lanka43.1%
58Djibouti42.8%
59Burundi42.0%
60Zambia41.9%
61Singapore41.6%
World Avg39.9%
q=145.

10. Economic Inequality and Poverty

#capitalism #economics #health #inequality #life_expectancy #social_development

Inequality in Life Expectancy (2019)59
Pos.Higher is worse59
184Chad40.90
183Central African Rep.40.10
182Sierra Leone39.00
...
59Albania7.20
58Costa Rica7.10
57Russia7.10
56Sri Lanka7.00
55Bahamas6.80
54Oman6.70
53Saudi Arabia6.40
52Romania6.30
World Avg14.59
q=184.
Income Inequality (Gini Coefficient) (2017)60
Pos.Lower is better
%60
1Ukraine25.0
2Belarus25.4
3Slovenia25.4
...
94Ethiopia39.1
95Morocco39.5
96Uruguay39.5
97Sri Lanka39.8
98Iran40.0
99Micronesia40.1
100Philippines40.1
101Senegal40.3
World Avg38.1
q=152.

11. Religion and Beliefs

#belief #buddhism #christianity #god #hinduism #islam #judaism #religion #sri_lanka

Religiosity (2009)44
Pos.Lower is better
%44
1Estonia16
2Sweden17
3Denmark19
...
106Djibouti98
107Somaliland98
108Burundi98
109Sri Lanka99
110Malawi99
111Yemen99
112Indonesia99
113Niger99.5
World Avg75.1
q=114.
Disbelief In God (2007)61
Pos.Higher is better
%61
1Vietnam81
2Japan65
3Sweden64
...
85El Salvador1
86Panama1
87Somalia0
88Sri Lanka0
89Burundi0
90Burkina Faso0
91Brunei0
92Botswana0
World Avg9.9
q=137.

Data from the Pew Forum, a professional polling outfit, states that in 2010 the religious makeup of this country was as follows in the table below62:

Christian7.3%
Muslim9.8%
Hindu13.6%
Buddhist69.3%
Folk Religion0.1%
Jew0.1%
Unaffiliated0.1%

The CIA World Factbook has slightly different data, and states: Buddhist (official) 69.1%, Muslim 7.6%, Hindu 7.1%, Christian 6.2%, unspecified 10% (2001 census provisional data)63.

Freedom of Religion and Belief: Over the past several decades a rechanchivist Buddhist-nationalist movement has taken to extremism and violence in an attempt to curb "pagan" non-Buddhists in Sri Lanka. Religious minorities remain at risk and there are few protections for minorities, although in 2017 on one occasion the government did protect 31 Rohingya Muslim refugees by taking them into custody after threats of violence from Buddhist extremists26. On other occasions in 2017 "flares of violence in Galle and Vavuniya [possibly involved] mobs attacking Muslim homes and businesses"26. Although the extremists are opposed by liberal-minded Buddhist communities, the extremists have widespread ongoing support from Buddhist communities.

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