The Human Truth Foundation

Sri Lanka (Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka)

By Vexen Crabtree 2013


Comments:
FB, LJ

#charity #economics #happiness #intelligence #islam #morals #research #science #sri_lanka #the_environment

Sri Lanka
Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka
StatusIndependent State
CapitalColombo (administrative/judicial) and Sri Jayewardenepura Kotte (legislative)
Land Area 62 710km21
LocationAsia
Population21.2m (2011)2
Life Expectancy75.05yrs (2017)3
GNI$10 789 (2017)4
ISO3166-1 CodesLK, LKA, 1445
Internet Domain.lk6
CurrencyRupee (LKR)7
Telephone+948

1. Overview

#buddhism #china #india #norway

The first Sinhalese arrived in Sri Lanka late in the 6th century B.C., probably from northern India. Buddhism was introduced in about the mid-third century B.C., and a great civilization developed at the cities of Anuradhapura (kingdom from circa 200 B.C. to circa A.D. 1000) and Polonnaruwa (from about 1070 to 1200). In the 14th century, a south Indian dynasty established a Tamil kingdom in northern Sri Lanka. The coastal areas of the island were controlled by the Portuguese in the 16th century and by the Dutch in the 17th century. The island was ceded to the British in 1796, became a crown colony in 1802, and was formally united under British rule by 1815. As Ceylon, it became independent in 1948; its name was changed to Sri Lanka in 1972. Tensions between the Sinhalese majority and Tamil separatists erupted into war in 1983. After two decades of fighting, the government and Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE) formalized a cease-fire in February 2002 with Norway brokering peace negotiations. Violence between the LTTE and government forces intensified in 2006, but the government regained control of the Eastern Province in 2007. By May 2009, the government announced that its military had defeated the remnants of the LTTE. Since the end of the conflict, the government has enacted an ambitious program of economic development projects, many of which are financed by loans from the Government of China. In addition to efforts to reconstruct its economy, the government has resettled more than 95% of those civilians who were displaced during the final phase of the conflict and released the vast majority of former LTTE combatants captured by Government Security Forces. At the same time, there has been little progress on more contentious and politically difficult issues such as reaching a political settlement with Tamil elected representatives and holding accountable those alleged to have been involved in human rights violations at the end of the war.

CIA's The World Factbook (2013)9

Book CoverEndless beaches, timeless ruins, welcoming people, oodles of elephants, killer surf, cheap prices, fun trains, famous tea, flavourful food - need we go on? Sri Lanka´s attributes are many. Few places have as many Unesco World Heritage sites (eight) packed into such a small area. Its 2000-plus years of culture can be discovered at ancient sites filled with mystery.

When you´re ready to escape the tropical climate of the coast and lowlands, head for the hills, which are verdant, virescent and virally infectious with allure. Impossibly green tea plantations and rainforested peaks beckon walkers, trekkers or just those who want to see it on a spectacular train ride.

And then there are the beaches. Dazzlingly white and all so often untrod, they ring the island so that no matter where you go, you´ll be near a sandy gem.

Find a favourite beach to call your own, meditate in a 2000-year-old temple, try to keep count of the little dishes that come with your rice and curry. Stroll past colonial gems in Colombo and then hit some epic surf. Sri Lanka is spectacular, it´s affordable and it´s still mostly uncrowded. Now is the best time to discover it.

"The World" by Lonely Planet (2014)10

2. Sri Lanka National and Social Development

#human_development

UN HDI (2016)11
Pos.Lower is better
Rank11
1Norway1
2Australia2
3Switzerland2
...
70Georgia70
71Turkey71
72Venezuela71
73Sri Lanka73
74St Kitts & Nevis74
75Albania75
76Lebanon76
77Mexico77
World Avg94.3
q=188.
Social & Moral
Development Index
12
Pos.Higher is better
Points12
1Denmark84.0
2Sweden83.9
3Finland83.5
...
92Bolivia52.8
93Dominican Rep.52.7
94Turkmenistan52.5
95Sri Lanka52.2
96El Salvador51.9
97Nepal51.9
98Suriname51.7
99Vietnam51.3
World Avg53.8
q=198.

The United Nations produces an annual Human Development Report which includes the Human Development Index. The factors taken into account include life expectancy, education and schooling and Gross National Income (GNI) amongst many others..

The Social and Moral Development Index concentrates on moral issues and human rights, violence, public health, equality, tolerance, freedom and effectiveness in climate change mitigation and environmentalism, and on some technological issues. A country scores higher for achieving well in those areas, and for sustaining that achievement in the long term. Those countries towards the top of this index can truly said to be setting good examples and leading humankind onwards into a bright, humane, and free future. See: What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life.

3. Population and Demographics

#demographics #health #immigration #life_expectancy #overpopulation #population #Sri_Lanka

Old-Age Dependency Ratio (2016)13
Pos.Lower is better
Per 10013
1Uganda04.3
2Mali04.5
3Chad04.7
...
125Bahamas22.4
126Costa Rica22.6
127Israel22.9
128Sri Lanka23.7
129Moldova24.7
130China25.3
131Mauritius25.9
132Uruguay26.8
World Avg18.3
q=185.
Emigrants (2010)14
Pos.
%14
1Dominica104.8
2Palestine68.4
3Samoa67.3
...
72Burkina Faso9.7
73Slovakia9.6
74Morocco9.3
75Sri Lanka9.1
76Somalia8.7
77Kuwait8.5
78Ecuador8.3
79Poland8.3
World Avg11.5
q=192.
Fertility Rate (2013)15
Pos.2.0 is best15
1N. Korea2.00
2Brunei1.99
3St Vincent & Grenadines2.01
...
37Vietnam1.77
38Lebanon1.77
39Mexico2.25
40Sri Lanka2.26
41Armenia1.74
42Kuwait2.27
43Bhutan2.27
44Jamaica2.28
World Avg2.81
q=180.

Immigrants (2010)14
Pos.
%14
1Qatar86.5
2Monaco71.6
3UAE70.0
...
134Sudan1.7
135Japan1.7
136Thailand1.7
137Sri Lanka1.7
138Senegal1.6
139Guyana1.5
140Tanzania1.5
141Bolivia1.5
World Avg9.2
q=192.
Life Expectancy (2015)16
Pos.Higher is better
Years16
1Hong Kong84.16
2Japan83.68
3Italy83.34
...
67Nicaragua75.21
68St Lucia75.20
69Serbia75.05
70Sri Lanka75.05
71Algeria75.03
72Georgia75.02
73Tunisia74.98
74Malaysia74.90
World Avg71.27
q=190.
Population (2012)17
Pos.The Overpopulation of the Earth17
1China1.4b
2India1.3b
3USA315.8m
...
51Australia22.9m
52Madagascar21.9m
53Romania21.4m
54Sri Lanka21.2m
55Syria21.1m
56Ivory Coast20.6m
57Cameroon20.5m
58Angola20.2m
World Avg36.0m
q=195.

Sri Lanka's population is predicted to rise to 23.09 million by 2030. This country has a fertility rate of 2.26. The fertility rate is, in simple terms, the average amount of children that each woman has. The higher the figure, the quicker the population is growing, although, to calculate the rate you also need to take into account morbidity, i.e., the rate at which people die. If people live healthy and long lives and morbidity is low, then, 2.0 approximates to the replacement rate, which would keep the population stable. If all countries had such a fertility rate, population growth would end. The actual replacement rate in most developed countries is around 2.1.

4. Human Rights, Equality and Freedom

#equality #freedom #human_rights #politics #sri_lanka #tolerance

Sri Lanka is generally poor at ensuring human rights and freedom compared to the rest of the world. Sri Lanka does better than average in eliminating modern slavery18 and in commentary from Human Rights Watch19. But unfortunately Sri Lanka gets most other things wrong. It does worse than average in opposing gender inequality20, fighting corruption21, its Global Peace Index rating22, its nominal commitment to Human Rights23, supporting personal, civil & economic freedoms24 and in LGBT equality25. And finally, it falls into the bottom 20 in supporting press freedom26. "Sri Lankan police were not held accountable for routine torture and ill-treatment in custody", except for a few high-profile cases27 where the government bowed to international pressure. Over the last several decades, a class of Buddhist extremists have been targeting Muslims and other religious minorities in an attempt to cleanse Sri Lanka of non-Buddhist influences27 - the government has not been firm enough in protecting them nor in prosecuting offenders.

For tables, charts and commentary, see:

5. Religion and Beliefs

#belief #buddhism #christianity #god #hinduism #islam #judaism #religion #sri_lanka

Religiosity (2009)28
Pos.Lower is better
%28
1Estonia16
2Sweden17
3Denmark19
...
106Djibouti98
107Somaliland98
108Burundi98
109Sri Lanka99
110Malawi99
111Yemen99
112Indonesia99
113Niger99.5
World Avg75.1
q=114.
Disbelief In God (2007)29
Pos.Higher is better29
1Vietnam81
2Japan65
3Sweden64
...
85El Salvador1
86Panama1
87Somalia0
88Sri Lanka0
89Burundi0
90Burkina Faso0
91Brunei0
92Botswana0
World Avg9.9
q=137.

Data from the Pew Forum, a professional polling outfit, states that in 2010 the religious makeup of this country was as follows in the table below30:

Christian7.3%
Muslim9.8%
Hindu13.6%
Buddhist69.3%
Folk Religion0.1%
Jew0.1%
Unaffiliated0.1%

The CIA World Factbook has slightly different data, and states: Buddhist (official) 69.1%, Muslim 7.6%, Hindu 7.1%, Christian 6.2%, unspecified 10% (2001 census provisional data)31.

Freedom of Religion and Belief: Over the past several decades a rechanchivist Buddhist-nationalist movement has taken to extremism and violence in an attempt to curb "pagan" non-Buddhists in Sri Lanka. Religious minorities remain at risk and there are few protections for minorities, although in 2017 on one occasion the government did protect 31 Rohingya Muslim refugees by taking them into custody after threats of violence from Buddhist extremists27. On other occasions in 2017 "flares of violence in Galle and Vavuniya [possibly involved] mobs attacking Muslim homes and businesses"27. Although the extremists are opposed by liberal-minded Buddhist communities, the extremists have widespread ongoing support from Buddhist communities.

Links:

6. The Internet

#internet #it_security #politics #Sri_Lanka #the_internet

Freedom On The Internet (2012)32
Pos.Lower is better32
1Estonia10
2USA12
3Germany15
...
29Rwanda51
30Russia52
31Zimbabwe54
32Sri Lanka55
33Kazakhstan58
34Egypt59
35Thailand61
36Pakistan63
World Avg46.7
q=47.
Internet Users (2016)33
Pos.Higher is better33
1Iceland100%
2Faroe Islands99%
3Norway98%
...
131Micronesia31%
132Vanuatu31%
133Syria30%
134Sri Lanka29%
135Samoa29%
136Ghana28%
137Swaziland28%
138Guatemala27%
World Avg48.1%
q=201.
IPv6 Uptake (2017)34
Pos.Higher is better
Ratio34
1Belgium55.4
2Germany41.8
3Switzerland35.1
...
38Thailand3.3
39Denmark3.1
40Bosnia & Herzegovina3.1
41Sri Lanka2.9
42Latvia2.2
43Israel1.8
44Italy1.7
45Argentina1.4
World Avg3.82
q=176.

IT Security (2013)35
Pos.Lower is better35
1Ireland0.11
2Luxembourg0.11
3Belize0.11
...
71Maldives1.57
72China1.59
73Angola1.61
74Sri Lanka1.67
75Oman1.72
76Iraq1.84
77Bangladesh1.87
78Sudan1.98
World Avg0.98
q=81.

Internet access has become an essential research tool. It facilitates an endless list of life improvements, from the ability to network and socialize without constraint, to access to a seemingly infinite repository of technical and procedural information on pretty much any task. The universal availability of data has sped up industrial development and personal learning at the national and personal level. Individuals can read any topic they wish regardless of the locality of expert teachers, and, entire nations can develop their technology and understanding of the world simply because they are now exposed to advanced societies and moral discourses online. Like every communications medium, the Internet has issues and causes a small range of problems, but these are insignificant compared to the advantages of having an online populace.

7. Public Health Issues

#alcohol #health #parenting #population #smoking #Sri_Lanka #vaccines

Adolescent Birth Rate (2015)20
Pos.Lower is better
Per 100020
1N. Korea0.5
2S. Korea1.6
3Switzerland2.9
...
46Latvia13.6
47Australia14.1
48UK14.6
49Sri Lanka14.8
50Micronesia15.0
51Tonga15.2
52Mongolia15.7
53Turkmenistan16.4
World Avg47.9
q=185.
Alcohol Consumption (2010)36
Pos.Lower is better
Per Capita36
1Libya0.1
2Pakistan0.1
3Kuwait0.1
...
59Mauritius3.6
60Congo, DR3.6
61Samoa3.6
62Sri Lanka3.7
63N. Korea3.7
64Guatemala3.8
65Central African Rep.3.8
66Congo, (Brazzaville)3.9
World Avg6.2
q=191.
Food Aid, Health Contributions & WHO Compliance (2017)37
Pos.Lower is better
Rank37
1Sweden1
2Ireland2
3Denmark3
...
75Cameroon74
76Malta76
77Guatemala77
78Sri Lanka78
79Poland79
80Uruguay80
81Dominican Rep.81
82Zambia82
World Avg82.0
q=163.

Infant Immunizations 2011-2015 (2015)38
Pos.Higher is better
Avg %38
1Hungary99.0
2China99.0
3Uzbekistan98.9
4Niue98.8
5Mongolia98.7
6Czechia98.7
7Seychelles98.6
8S. Korea98.6
9Sri Lanka98.4
10St Lucia98.2
11Bahrain98.2
12Iran98.1
World Avg88.3
q=194.
Smoking Rates (2014)39
Pos.Lower is better39
1Guinea 15
2Solomon Islands 26
3Kiribati 28
...
59Bolivia 299
60Bahamas 301
61Sierra Leone 310
62Sri Lanka 322
63Mexico 329
64Barbados 333
65St Vincent & Grenadines 338
66Hong Kong 345
World Avg 819
q=182.

8. More Charts and Comparisons to Other Countries

Personal Charitability
(World Position, 2013-2016)
40
Pos.Lower is better40
1Myanmar (Burma)1.25
2USA1.5
3New Zealand3.5
4Canada3.75
5Australia5.25
6UK6.75
7Ireland6.75
8Sri Lanka8
9Qatar9
10Trinidad & Tobago10
11Netherlands10
q=156.
Intellectual Endeavours (2017)37
Pos.Lower is better
Rank37
1Ukraine1
2Czechia2
3Hungary3
...
114Bahamas114
115Bahrain115
116Kazakhstan116
117Sri Lanka117
118Rwanda118
119Guatemala119
120Niger120
q=163.
Creativity and Culture (2017)37
Pos.Lower is better
Rank37
1Belgium1
2Netherlands2
3Estonia3
...
138Algeria138
139Azerbaijan139
140Paraguay140
141Sri Lanka141
142Malawi142
143Benin143
144Cameroon144
q=163.
Peacekeeping and Security (2017)37
Pos.Lower is better
Rank37
1Samoa1
2S. Africa2
3Tunisia3
...
23Guatemala23
24Ecuador24
25Madagascar25
26Sri Lanka26
27Netherlands27
28Mongolia28
29Rwanda29
q=163.
Refugees and UN Treaties (2017)37
Pos.Lower is better
Rank37
1Austria1
2Germany2
3Netherlands3
...
75Botswana75
76Lebanon76
77Bahrain77
78Sri Lanka78
79Algeria79
80Ecuador80
81Kuwait81
q=163.
Open Trading, Aid and Development (2017)37
Pos.Lower is better
Rank37
1Ireland1
2Denmark2
3Sweden3
...
49UAE49
50Greece50
51Niger51
52Sri Lanka52
53Haiti53
54Rwanda54
55Swaziland55
q=163.
Research and Development (2016)
Pos.Higher is better
% RDP PPP
1S. Korea4.29
2Israel4.11
3Japan3.58
...
97Kazakhstan0.17
98Bolivia0.16
99Kyrgyzstan0.16
100Sri Lanka0.16
101Albania0.15
102Namibia0.14
103Georgia0.13
104Gambia0.13
q=126.
Life Satisfaction (2011)41
Pos.Higher is better41
1Denmark7.8
2Norway7.6
3Netherlands7.6
...
123Ivory Coast4.2
124Cambodia4.2
125Angola4.2
126Sri Lanka4.2
127Liberia4.2
128Niger4.1
129Syria4.1
130Egypt4.1
q=150.
Gross National Income Per-Capita (2011)16
Pos.Higher is better
PPP $16
1Qatar$129 916
2Singapore$78 162
3Kuwait$76 075
...
91Iraq$11 608
92Grenada$11 502
93Peru$11 295
94Sri Lanka$10 789
95Ecuador$10 536
96Mongolia$10 449
97Maldives$10 383
98St Vincent & Grenadines$10 372
q=193.
Environmental Performance (2018)42
Pos.Higher is better42
1Switzerland87.4
2France84.0
3Denmark81.6
...
67Lebanon61.1
68Macedonia61.1
69Brazil60.7
70Sri Lanka60.6
71Equatorial Guinea60.4
72Mexico59.7
73Dominica59.4
74Argentina59.3
q=180.
IQ (2006)43
Pos.Higher is better43
1Hong Kong108
2Singapore108
3S. Korea106
...
99Nicaragua81
100El Salvador80
101Guatemala79
102Sri Lanka79
103Nepal78
104Mauritania76
105Uganda73
106Tanzania72
q=138.

Current edition: 2013 May 01
Last Modified: 2019 Jan 01
http://www.humantruth.info/sri_lanka.html
Parent page: Compare International Statistics by Region and Continent

All #tags used on this page - click for more:

#alcohol #belief #buddhism #charity #china #christianity #demographics #economics #equality #freedom #god #happiness #health #hinduism #human_development #human_rights #immigration #india #intelligence #internet #islam #it_security #judaism #life_expectancy #morals #norway #overpopulation #parenting #politics #population #religion #research #science #smoking #Sri_Lanka #the_environment #the_internet #tolerance #vaccines

Social Media

References: (What's this?)

The Good Country Index. Published by The Good Country Inc., New York, USA. Website: goodcountry.org. The Good Country Index gauges how well countries are doing in helping international development. Edition 1.2 (2017) has 35 criteria.

Charities Aid Foundation
World Giving Index. On www.cafonline.org.

CIA
(2013) World Factbook. The USA Government's Central Intelligence Agency (USA CIA) publishes The World Factbook, and the online version is frequently updated.

Crabtree, Vexen
(2019) "What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life" (2019). Accessed 2019 Jan 13.

The Fraser Institute
(2016) The Human Freedom Index. Published by The Cato Institute, The Fraser Institute and the Friedrich Naumann Foundation for Freedom. Covers data up to 2014. On www.fraserinstitute.org/.../human-freedom-index-2016.

Gallup
(2009) Religiosity. gallup.com/poll/142727/.... The survey question was "Is religion an important part of your daily life?" and results are charted for those who said "yes". 1000 adults were polled in each of 114 countries.

Human Rights Watch
(2018) World Report 2018. Covering the events of 2017.

Lonely Planet
(2014) The World. Subtitled: "A Traveller's Guide to the Planet". Published by Lonely Planet, London, UK. Each chapter is devoted to a specific country and includes a list of the most interesting places to visit and a few other cultural notes.

Lynn, Harvey & Nyborg
(2009) Average intelligence predicts atheism rates across 137 nations. Richard Lynn, John Harvey and Helmuth Nyborg. Published in Intelligence (2009 Jan/Feb) vol. 37 issue 1 pages 11-15. Online at www.sciencedirect.com, accessed 2009 Sep 15.

United Nations
(2011) Human Development Report. Published by the UN Development Programme. This edition had the theme of Sustainability and Equity: A Better Future for All. Available on hdr.undp.org/... UN Development Program: About the Human Development Index.
(2013) Human Development Report. Published by the UN Development Programme. This edition had the theme of The Rise of the South: Human Progress in a Diverse World. Available on hdr.undp.org/... UN Development Program: About the Human Development Index.
(2017) Human Development Report. Published by the UN Development Programme. Data for 2015. Available on hdr.undp.org/.

Walk Free Foundation
(2018) Global Slavery Index. Published on www.walkfreefoundation.org/.

World Health Organisation. (WHO)
(2014) Global Status Report on Alcohol and Health. A copy can be found on the WHO website. Accessed 2015 Jan 04. It "presents a comprehensive perspective on the global, regional and country consumption of alcohol, patterns of drinking, health consequences and policy responses in Member States" and was published in Geneva on 2014 May 12.

Footnotes

  1. World Bank data on data.worldbank.org accessed 2013 Nov 04.^
  2. UN (2011) .^
  3. UN (2017). Table 1.^
  4. UN (2017). Gross National Income, per person. Table 1.^
  5. International Standards Organisation (ISO) standard ISO3166-1, on www.iso.org, accessed 2013 May 01.^
  6. Top level domains (TLDs) are managed by the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) on www.iana.org.^
  7. According to ISO4217.^
  8. According to ITU-T.^
  9. CIA (2013). Https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/ce.html accessed 2014 Apr 27.^
  10. Lonely Planet (2014). Chapter "Sri Lanka".^
  11. UN (2017). Table 1. Lower is better.^
  12. "What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life" by Vexen Crabtree (2019)^
  13. UN (2017). Dashboard 2. Higher is worse. Old-age is counted as 65+, and ratio is of these to people ages 15-64. Projections are for 2030 based on medium-fertility variant of growth.^
  14. UN (2013). Table 11.^
  15. UN (2013). Table 14. Births per woman (2012), expressed as deviance (positive or negative) from the value of 2.0.^
  16. UN (2017). Table 1. Higher is better.^^
  17. UN (2013). Table 14.^
  18. Walk Free Foundation (2018) .^
  19. Human Rights Watch (2018). Negative and positive comments have been added to create a score for each country covered in the report.^
  20. UN (2017). Table 5. Lower is better.^^
  21. Transparency International Corruption Perceptions Index (2017). Accessed 2017 Dec 30. The scores given are the TI average for the years 2012-2016.^
  22. ^
  23. Max possible=24. Total amount of treaties ratified. Nominal Commitment to Human Rights report published by UCL School of Public Policy, London, UK, at ucl.ac.uk/spp/research/research-projects/nchr accessed 2011 Apr 30.^
  24. Fraser Institute, the (2016). Covers data for 2014.^
  25. Sources:^
  26. Reporters Without Borders Report "2013 World Press Freedom Index: Dashed hopes after spring" at fr.rsf.org/.../classement_2013_gb-bd.pdf accessed 2013 Feb.^
  27. Human Rights Watch (2018). p507-512.^^
  28. Gallup (2009) .^
  29. Zuckerman, P. (2007). Atheism: contemporary numbers and patterns. In M.Martin (Ed.), The Cambridge Companion to Atheism. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. In "Average intelligence predicts atheism rates across 137 nations" by Lynn et al. (2009)43.^
  30. Pew Forum (2012) publication "The Global Religious Landscape: A Report on the Size and Distribution of the World´s Major Religious Groups as of 2010" (2012 Dec 18) accessed 2013 May 01.^
  31. CIA (2013). Https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/ar.html accessed 2014 Apr 27.^
  32. Freedom House publication "Freedom on the Net 2012" at www.freedomhouse.org/.../FOTN%202012%20-%20Tables%20and%20Charts%20FINAL.pdf accessed 2013 Feb 05.^
  33. internetlivestats.com/internet-users-by-country accessed 2017 Mar 10.^
  34. % of internet access via native IPv6 compared to IPv4. As of 2017 Jun 20, from http://www.cidr-report.org. Accessed 2017 Jun 20.^
  35. "What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life: 3.4. Malware and Email Spam" by Vexen Crabtree (2019)^
  36. WHO (2014). Appendix 1. Alcohol Per Capita Consumption in liters of pure alcohol, 15+ years age population, consumed in 2010. Lower is better.^
  37. The Good Country Index (2017) .^^
  38. World Health Organisation data for 2011-2015 from 7 data series accessed 2017 May 21. Details in "Immunizations: International Statistics on Vaccines and the Autism Scare: 3. World Health Organisation Statistics" by Vexen Crabtree (2017).^
  39. Annual Cigarette Consumption Per Adult (age 15 and above) - compustible cigarettes. Euromonitor International (2014), via tobaccoatlas.org/topic/cigarette-use-globally/ . Accessed 2017 Jun 20.^
  40. Charities Aid Foundation. Average ranking across years 2013-2016. Lower is better.^
  41. UN (2013). Table 9. Higher is better. Table 9. The UN's data is the latest available from a range of data from 2007-2011.^
  42. Yale University Center for Environmental Law & Policy 2018 EPI.^
  43. Lynn, Harvey & Nyborg (2009) .^

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