The Human Truth Foundation

Papua New Guinea (Independent State of Papua New Guinea)

By Vexen Crabtree 2013


Comments:
FB, LJ

#economics #homosexuality #papua_new_guinea #the_environment

Papua New Guinea
Independent State of Papua New Guinea
StatusIndependent State
CapitalPort Moresby
Land Area 452 860km21
LocationAustralasia, Melanesia
Population7.2m (2011)2
Life Expectancy62.77yrs (2017)3
GNI$2 712 (2017)4
ISO3166-1 CodesPG, PNG, 5985
Internet Domain.pg6
CurrencyKina (PGK)7
Telephone+6758

1. Overview

#australia #germany #indonesia #papua_new_guinea #UK

The island of New Guinea is divided almost equally into two halves. The Eatern half is called Papua New Guinea, which has been an independent state since 1975, before which it was owned by Australia, Germany and the UK. The Western half is part of Indonesia. Humans have lived on the island of New Guinea for 40,000 years, whereupon they started cultivating and exploiting plants like yams and taro9.

The eastern half of the island of New Guinea - second largest in the world - was divided between Germany (north) and the UK (south) in 1885. The latter area was transferred to Australia in 1902, which occupied the northern portion during World War I and continued to administer the combined areas until independence in 1975. A nine-year secessionist revolt on the island of Bougainville ended in 1997 after claiming some 20,000 lives.

CIA's The World Factbook (2013)10

Book CoverCoral-ringed beaches, smouldering volcanoes and rainforest-covered mountains meet traditional villages and tropical islands in a remote and unforgettable adventure getaway. The striking natural beauty and myriad complex cultures in Papua New Guinea offer some riveting and truly life-affirming experiences – along with some challenging, frontier-style travel. Highland cultures, wild festivals, world-class diving, the notorious Kokoda Track and a relative dearth of tourists make this one of the Pacific´s most intriguing destinations.

PNG is a megadiverse region, owing much of its diversity to its topography. The mountainous terrain has spawned diversity in two ways: isolated highlands are often home to unique fauna and flora found nowhere else, while within any one mountain range you will find different species as you go higher.

Slip beneath the surface to find an incredible underwater world and a wealth of WWII wreck dives. For a glimpse into PNG´s fascinating tribal cultures, head to the Highlands or to the remote, untrammelled island provinces and Trobriand Islands. Just don´t expect a lazy island resort holiday – PNG is a true travel experience.

"The World" by Lonely Planet (2014)11

2. Papua New Guinea National and Social Development

#human_development

UN HDI (2016)12
Pos.Lower is better
Rank12
1Norway1
2Australia2
3Switzerland2
...
152Nigeria152
153Cameroon153
154Zimbabwe154
155Papua New Guinea154
156Solomon Islands156
157Mauritania157
158Madagascar158
159Rwanda159
World Avg94.3
q=188.
Social & Moral
Development Index
13
Pos.Higher is better
Points13
1Denmark84.2
2Sweden83.7
3Finland83.5
...
176Tuvalu40.9
177Ivory Coast40.1
178Gabon40.0
179Papua New Guinea40.0
180Nigeria39.6
181Congo, (Brazzaville)39.1
182Palestine38.9
183Mauritania38.3
World Avg54.1
q=198.

The United Nations produces an annual Human Development Report which includes the Human Development Index. The factors taken into account include life expectancy, education and schooling and Gross National Income (GNI) amongst many others..

The Social and Moral Development Index concentrates on moral issues and human rights, violence, public health, equality, tolerance, freedom and effectiveness in climate change mitigation and environmentalism, and on some technological issues. A country scores higher for achieving well in those areas, and for sustaining that achievement in the long term. Those countries towards the top of this index can truly said to be setting good examples and leading humankind onwards into a bright, humane, and free future. See: What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life.

3. Population and Demographics

#demographics #health #immigration #life_expectancy #overpopulation #Papua_New_Guinea #population

Old-Age Dependency Ratio (2016)14
Pos.Lower is better
Per 10014
1Uganda04.3
2Mali04.5
3Chad04.7
...
34Comoros06.3
35Mozambique06.4
36Madagascar06.4
37Papua New Guinea06.4
38Ghana06.5
39Palestine06.5
40Ethiopia06.6
41Swaziland06.6
World Avg18.3
q=185.
Emigrants (2010)15
Pos.
%15
1Dominica104.8
2Palestine68.4
3Samoa67.3
...
175Myanmar (Burma)1.0
176Solomon Islands1.0
177India0.9
178Papua New Guinea0.9
179USA0.8
180Namibia0.7
181Ethiopia0.7
182Tanzania0.7
World Avg11.5
q=192.
Fertility Rate (2013)16
Pos.2.0 is best16
1Korea, N.2.00
2Brunei1.99
3St Vincent & Grenadines2.01
...
135Vanuatu3.77
136Samoa3.77
137Tonga3.81
138Papua New Guinea3.83
139Guatemala3.86
140Togo3.90
141Ethiopia3.91
142Ghana4.03
World Avg2.81
q=180.

Immigrants (2010)15
Pos.
%15
1Qatar86.5
2Monaco71.6
3UAE70.0
...
166India0.4
167Guatemala0.4
168Mongolia0.4
169Papua New Guinea0.4
170Brazil0.4
171Angola0.3
172Haiti0.3
173Vanuatu0.3
World Avg9.2
q=192.
Life Expectancy (2015)17
Pos.Higher is better
Years17
1Hong Kong84.16
2Japan83.68
3Italy83.34
...
155Mauritania63.24
156Haiti63.12
157Congo, (Brazzaville)62.89
158Papua New Guinea62.77
159Djibouti62.30
160Kenya62.16
161Niger61.94
162Ghana61.53
World Avg71.27
q=190.
Population (2012)18
Pos.The Overpopulation of the Earth18
1China1.4b
2India1.3b
3USA315.8m
...
97Israel7.7m
98Bulgaria7.4m
99Hong Kong7.2m
100Papua New Guinea7.2m
101Tajikistan7.1m
102Paraguay6.7m
103Libya6.5m
104Jordan6.5m
World Avg36.0m
q=195.

Papua New Guinea's population is predicted to rise to 10.18 million by 2030. These millions of extra people will all need space to live, food to eat, energy to consume, and will increase the burden on the planet's resources. This country has a fertility rate of 3.83. The fertility rate is, in simple terms, the average amount of children that each woman has. The higher the figure, the quicker the population is growing, although, to calculate the rate you also need to take into account morbidity, i.e., the rate at which people die. If people live healthy and long lives and morbidity is low, then, 2.0 approximates to the replacement rate, which would keep the population stable. If all countries had such a fertility rate, population growth would end. The actual replacement rate in most developed countries is around 2.1.

4. Politics and Freedom

#burundi #corruption #eritrea #france #freedom #human_development #human_rights #indonesia #mass_media #Papua_New_Guinea #peace #politics #slavery

Corruption (2012-2016)19
Pos.Higher is better
Avg Score19
1Denmark90.8
2New Zealand90.6
3Finland89.4
...
146Paraguay26.0
147Kenya26.0
148Bangladesh25.8
149Papua New Guinea25.6
150Laos25.4
151Guinea25.0
152Central African Rep.23.8
153Tajikistan23.6
World Avg43.05
q=176.
Global Peace Index (2012)20
Pos.Lower is better20
1Iceland1.11
2New Zealand1.24
3Denmark1.24
...
90Dominican Rep.2.07
91Bangladesh2.07
92Guinea2.07
93Papua New Guinea2.08
94Trinidad & Tobago2.08
95Angola2.11
96Cameroon2.11
97Uganda2.12
World Avg2.02
q=157.
Nominal Commitment to HR (2009)21
Pos.Higher is better
Treaties21
1Argentina24
2Chile23
3Costa Rica23
...
163Vanuatu10
164Iraq9
165Samoa9
166Papua New Guinea9
167Oman9
168Iran9
169St Kitts & Nevis9
170Comoros9
World Avg15.1
q=194.

Personal, Civil & Economic Freedom (2014)22
Pos.Lower is better
Rank22
1Hong Kong1
2Switzerland2
3New Zealand3
...
72Indonesia72
73Turkey73
74S. Africa74
75Papua New Guinea74
76Nicaragua76
77Paraguay77
78Mexico77
79Trinidad & Tobago79
World Avg79.7
q=159.
Press Freedom (2013)23
Pos.Lower is better23
1Finland638
2Netherlands648
3Norway652
...
37El Salvador2286
38Latvia2289
39Botswana2291
40Papua New Guinea2297
41Romania2305
42Niger2308
43Trinidad & Tobago2312
44Malta2330
World Avg3249
q=178.
Slavery (2018)24
Pos.Lower is better
% Victims24
1Japan0.03
2Canada0.05
3Taiwan0.05
...
144Swaziland0.88
145Thailand0.89
146Laos0.94
147Papua New Guinea1.03
148Belarus1.09
149Brunei1.09
150Myanmar (Burma)1.10
151Turkmenistan1.12
World Avg0.65
q=167.

The taking of slaves has been an unwholesome feature of Human cultures since prehistory25. Private households and national endeavours have frequently been augmented with the use of slaves. The Egyptian and Roman empires both thrived on them for both purposes. Aside from labourers they are often abused sexually by their owners and their owners' friends26. The era of colonialism and the beginnings of globalisation changed nothing: the imprisonment and forced movements of labour continued to destroy many lives except that new justifications were invented based on Christian doctrine and the effort to convert non-Christians. By 1786 over 12 million slaves had been extracted from Africa and sent to colonial labour camps, with a truly atrocious condition of life27. But they were not the only ones to blame; in Africa internal nations such as the Asantes sold and bought tens of thousands of slaves28.

The abolition of the slave trade was a long and slow process. Until a relatively modern time, even philosophers, religious leaders and those concerned with ethics justified, or ignored, the problem of slavery29. The first abolitionists were always the slaves themselves. Their protests and rebellions caused the industry to become too expensive to continue. After that, it was the economic costs of maintain slave colonies that led the British to reject and then oppose the slave trade globally. Finally, the enlightenment-era thinkers of France encouraged moral and ethical thinking including the declaration of the inherent value of human life and human dignity30. A long-overdue wave of compassionate and conscientious movements swept across the West, eliminating public support for slavery, until the industries and churches that supported it had no choice but to back down.

'Modern slavery' includes forced labour (often of the under-age), debt bondage (especially generational), sexual slavery, chattel slavery and other forms of abuse, some of which can be surprisingly difficult to detect, but often target those fleeing from warzones and the vulnerable.31. Some industries (diamond, clothing, coal) from some countries (Burundi24, Eritrea24, Indonesia32) are a particular concern. The Walk Free Foundation, say that in 2016, 40.3 million people were living in modern slavery33.

5. Gender Equality

#gender #misogyny #Papua_New_Guinea #politics #women

Gender Inequality (2015)34
Pos.Lower is better34
1Switzerland0.04
2Denmark0.04
3Netherlands0.04
...
140Sudan0.57
141Congo, (Brazzaville)0.59
142Haiti0.59
143Papua New Guinea0.59
144Benin0.61
145Malawi0.61
146Burkina Faso0.62
147Mauritania0.63
World Avg0.36
q=159.
Year Women Can Vote35
Pos.Lower is better
Year35
1New Zealand1893
2Australia1902
3Finland1906
...
145Bahamas1963
146Sudan1964
147Libya1964
148Papua New Guinea1964
149Lesotho1965
150Botswana1965
151Tuvalu1967
152Kiribati1967
World Avg1930
q=189.

Gender inequality is not a necessary part of early human development. Although a separation of roles is almost universal due to different strengths between the genders, this does not have to mean that women are subdued, and, such patriarchialism is not universal in ancient history. Those cultures and peoples who shed, or never developed, the idea that mankind ought to dominate womankind, are better cultures and peoples than those who, even today, cling violently to those mores.

Papua New Guinea is an unequal country, with male rights dominating those of women.

See:

6. Religion and Beliefs

#buddhism #christianity #hinduism #islam #judaism

Data from the Pew Forum, a professional polling outfit, states that in 2010 the religious makeup of this country was as follows in the table below36:

Christian99%
Muslim0.1%
Hindu0.1%
Buddhist0.1%
Folk Religion0.4%
Jew0.1%
Unaffiliated0.1%

The CIA World Factbook has slightly different data, and states: Roman Catholic 27%, Protestant 69.4% (Evangelical Lutheran 19.5%, United Church 11.5%, Seventh-Day Adventist 10%, Pentecostal 8.6%, Evangelical Alliance 5.2%, Anglican 3.2%, Baptist 2.5%, other Protestant 8.9%), Baha'i 0.3%, indigenous beliefs and other 3.3% (2000 census)37.

Links:

7. The Internet

#internet #Papua_New_Guinea #the_internet

Internet Users (2016)38
Pos.Higher is better38
1Iceland100%
2Faroe Islands99%
3Norway98%
...
170Rwanda12%
171Mali12%
172Haiti12%
173Papua New Guinea12%
174Djibouti12%
175Cambodia11%
176Gabon10%
177Burkina Faso10%
World Avg48.1%
q=201.
IPv6 Uptake (2017)39
Pos.Higher is better
Ratio39
1Belgium55.4
2Germany41.8
3Switzerland35.1
...
143Mauritania0.0
144Iraq0.0
145Oman0.0
146Papua New Guinea0.0
147French Polynesia0.0
148Palestine0.0
149Lesotho0.0
150Monaco0.0
World Avg3.82
q=176.

Internet access has become an essential research tool. It facilitates an endless list of life improvements, from the ability to network and socialize without constraint, to access to a seemingly infinite repository of technical and procedural information on pretty much any task. The universal availability of data has sped up industrial development and personal learning at the national and personal level. Individuals can read any topic they wish regardless of the locality of expert teachers, and, entire nations can develop their technology and understanding of the world simply because they are now exposed to advanced societies and moral discourses online. Like every communications medium, the Internet has issues and causes a small range of problems, but these are insignificant compared to the advantages of having an online populace.

8. Public Health Issues

#alcohol #health #Papua_New_Guinea #parenting #population #smoking #vaccines

Adolescent Birth Rate (2015)34
Pos.Lower is better
Per 100034
1Korea, N.0.5
2Korea, S.1.6
3Switzerland2.9
...
113Egypt51.9
114St Lucia53.9
115Eritrea54.3
116Papua New Guinea54.8
117Uruguay56.1
118Costa Rica56.5
119Seychelles57.4
120Paraguay57.4
World Avg47.9
q=185.
Alcohol Consumption (2010)40
Pos.Lower is better
Per Capita40
1Libya0.1
2Pakistan0.1
3Kuwait0.1
...
50Israel2.8
51Tajikistan2.8
52Kiribati3.0
53Papua New Guinea3.0
54Fiji3.0
55El Salvador3.2
56Micronesia3.3
57Gambia3.4
World Avg6.2
q=191.
Food Aid, Health Contributions & WHO Compliance (2017)41
Pos.Lower is better
Rank41
1Sweden1
2Ireland2
3Denmark3
...
154Cape Verde154
155Bahamas155
156Libya156
157Papua New Guinea157
158Belize158
159Algeria159
160Senegal160
161Mauritania161
World Avg82.0
q=163.

Infant Immunizations 2011-2015 (2015)42
Pos.Higher is better
Avg %42
1Hungary99.0
2China99.0
3Uzbekistan98.9
...
180Niger69.7
181Samoa68.1
182Yemen67.4
183Papua New Guinea66.3
184Haiti65.7
185Vanuatu65.5
186Guinea63.3
187Syria62.4
World Avg88.3
q=194.
Smoking Rates (2014)43
Pos.Lower is better43
1Guinea 15
2Solomon Islands 26
3Kiribati 28
...
106Qatar 698
107UAE 715
108Namibia 740
109Papua New Guinea 826
110UK 827
111Sweden 831
112Laos 836
113Iran 869
World Avg 819
q=182.

9. More Charts and Comparisons to Other Countries

Intellectual Endeavours (2017)41
Pos.Lower is better
Rank41
1Ukraine1
2Czechia2
3Hungary3
...
134Suriname134
135Uruguay135
136Honduras136
137Papua New Guinea137
138Congo, DR138
139Ecuador139
140Syria140
q=163.
Creativity and Culture (2017)41
Pos.Lower is better
Rank41
1Belgium1
2Netherlands2
3Estonia3
...
91Jordan91
92Haiti92
93Tunisia93
94Papua New Guinea94
95Belarus95
96Mongolia96
97Madagascar97
q=163.
Peacekeeping and Security (2017)41
Pos.Lower is better
Rank41
1Samoa1
2S. Africa2
3Tunisia3
...
127Chad127
128Montenegro128
129Dominican Rep.129
130Papua New Guinea130
131Syria131
132Belarus132
133Portugal133
q=163.
Refugees and UN Treaties (2017)41
Pos.Lower is better
Rank41
1Austria1
2Germany2
3Netherlands3
...
95Peru95
96Gabon96
97Russia97
98Papua New Guinea98
99Mexico99
100Senegal100
101Georgia101
q=163.
Open Trading, Aid and Development (2017)41
Pos.Lower is better
Rank41
1Ireland1
2Denmark2
3Sweden3
...
157Bahrain157
158Mauritania158
159Brunei159
160Algeria160
161Papua New Guinea161
162Brazil162
163Equatorial Guinea163
q=163.
Gross National Income Per-Capita (2011)17
Pos.Higher is better
PPP $17
1Qatar$129 916
2Singapore$78 162
3Kuwait$76 075
...
155Cameroon$2 894
156Kenya$2 881
157Vanuatu$2 805
158Papua New Guinea$2 712
159Tajikistan$2 601
160Kiribati$2 475
161Tanzania$2 467
162Syria$2 441
q=193.
Environmental Performance (2018)44
Pos.Higher is better44
1Switzerland87.4
2France84.0
3Denmark81.6
...
161Cameroon40.8
162Swaziland40.3
163Djibouti40.0
164Papua New Guinea39.4
165Eritrea39.3
166Mauritania39.2
167Benin38.2
168Afghanistan37.7
q=180.
LGBT Equality (2017)45
Pos.Higher is better
Score45
1Netherlands103
2Belgium90
3Sweden86
...
134Samoa-10
135Trinidad & Tobago-10
136S. Sudan-10
137Papua New Guinea-10
138Sri Lanka-10
139Antigua & Barbuda-10
140St Vincent & Grenadines-10
141Mauritius-10
q=196.

Current edition: 2013 May 01
Last Modified: 2017 Jun 21
http://www.humantruth.info/papua_new_guinea.html
Parent page: Compare International Statistics by Region and Continent

All #tags used on this page - click for more:

#alcohol #australia #buddhism #burundi #christianity #corruption #demographics #economics #eritrea #france #freedom #gender #germany #health #hinduism #homosexuality #human_development #human_rights #immigration #indonesia #internet #islam #judaism #life_expectancy #mass_media #misogyny #overpopulation #Papua_New_Guinea #parenting #peace #politics #population #slavery #smoking #the_environment #the_internet #UK #vaccines #women

Social Media

References: (What's this?)

The Good Country Index. Published by The Good Country Inc., New York, USA. Website: goodcountry.org. The Good Country Index gauges how well countries are doing in helping international development. Edition 1.2 (2017) has 35 criteria.

Casely-Hayford, Gus
(2012) The Lost Kingdoms of Africa. Published by Bantram Press. A hardback book.

CIA
(2013) World Factbook. The USA Government's Central Intelligence Agency (USA CIA) publishes The World Factbook, and the online version is frequently updated.

Crabtree, Vexen
(2018) "What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life" (2018). Accessed 2018 Aug 22.

The Fraser Institute
(2016) The Human Freedom Index. Published by The Cato Institute, The Fraser Institute and the Friedrich Naumann Foundation for Freedom. Covers data up to 2014. On www.fraserinstitute.org/.../human-freedom-index-2016.

Klein, Naomi
(2004) No Logo. Originally published 2000, HarperCollins, London, UK. A paperback book.

Lonely Planet
(2014) The World. Subtitled: "A Traveller's Guide to the Planet". Published by Lonely Planet, London, UK. Each chapter is devoted to a specific country and includes a list of the most interesting places to visit and a few other cultural notes.

MacGregor, Neil. Director of the British Museum.
(2010) A History of the World in 100 Objects. Published by the BBC and the British Museum. Aired on BBC Radio 4.

McCall, Andrew
(1979) The Medieval Underworld. 2004 edition. Published by Sutton Publishing. A paperback book.

Thomson, Oliver
(1993) A History of Sin. Published by Canongate Press. A hardback book.

United Nations
(2011) Human Development Report. Published by the UN Development Programme. This edition had the theme of Sustainability and Equity: A Better Future for All. Available on hdr.undp.org/... UN Development Program: About the Human Development Index.
(2013) Human Development Report. Published by the UN Development Programme. This edition had the theme of The Rise of the South: Human Progress in a Diverse World. Available on hdr.undp.org/... UN Development Program: About the Human Development Index.
(2017) Human Development Report. Published by the UN Development Programme. Data for 2015. Available on hdr.undp.org/.

Walk Free Foundation
(2018) Global Slavery Index. Published on www.walkfreefoundation.org/.

World Health Organisation. (WHO)
(2014) Global Status Report on Alcohol and Health. A copy can be found on the WHO website. Accessed 2015 Jan 04. It "presents a comprehensive perspective on the global, regional and country consumption of alcohol, patterns of drinking, health consequences and policy responses in Member States" and was published in Geneva on 2014 May 12.

Footnotes

  1. World Bank data on data.worldbank.org accessed 2013 Nov 04.^
  2. UN (2011) .^
  3. UN (2017). Table 1.^
  4. UN (2017). Gross National Income, per person. Table 1.^
  5. International Standards Organisation (ISO) standard ISO3166-1, on www.iso.org, accessed 2013 May 01.^
  6. Top level domains (TLDs) are managed by the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) on www.iana.org.^
  7. According to ISO4217.^
  8. According to ITU-T.^
  9. MacGregor (2010) Week 2, episode 1. Notes are from Professor Graeme Barker, Archaeologist, University of Cambridge. Added to this page on 2015 Mar 08.^
  10. CIA (2013). Https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/pp.html accessed 2014 Apr 27.^
  11. Lonely Planet (2014). Chapter "Papua New Guinea".^
  12. UN (2017). Table 1. Lower is better.^
  13. "What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life" by Vexen Crabtree (2018)^
  14. UN (2017). Dashboard 2. Higher is worse. Old-age is counted as 65+, and ratio is of these to people ages 15-64. Projections are for 2030 based on medium-fertility variant of growth.^
  15. UN (2013). Table 11.^
  16. UN (2013). Table 14. Births per woman (2012), expressed as deviance (positive or negative) from the value of 2.0.^
  17. UN (2017). Table 1. Higher is better.^^
  18. UN (2013). Table 14.^
  19. Transparency International Corruption Perceptions Index (2017). Accessed 2017 Dec 30. The scores given are the TI average for the years 2012-2016.^
  20. ^
  21. Max possible=24. Total amount of treaties ratified. Nominal Commitment to Human Rights report published by UCL School of Public Policy, London, UK, at ucl.ac.uk/spp/research/research-projects/nchr accessed 2011 Apr 30.^
  22. Fraser Institute, the (2016). Covers data for 2014.^
  23. Reporters Without Borders Report "2013 World Press Freedom Index: Dashed hopes after spring" at fr.rsf.org/.../classement_2013_gb-bd.pdf accessed 2013 Feb.^
  24. Walk Free Foundation (2018) .^
  25. Thomson (1993). P28.^
  26. McCall (1979). P180.^
  27. Thomson (1993). P166.^
  28. Casely-Hayford (2012). P253.^
  29. Thomson (1993). P31.^
  30. Thomson (1993). P199.^
  31. Thomson (1993). P28-29.^
  32. Klein (2004) .^
  33. Walk Free Foundation (2018). P2.^
  34. UN (2017). Table 5. Lower is better.^^
  35. "What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life: 2.6. Women Stand for Election & Vote" by Vexen Crabtree (2018)^
  36. Pew Forum (2012) publication "The Global Religious Landscape: A Report on the Size and Distribution of the World´s Major Religious Groups as of 2010" (2012 Dec 18) accessed 2013 May 01.^
  37. CIA (2013). Https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/ar.html accessed 2014 Apr 27.^
  38. internetlivestats.com/internet-users-by-country accessed 2017 Mar 10.^
  39. % of internet access via native IPv6 compared to IPv4. As of 2017 Jun 20, from http://www.cidr-report.org. Accessed 2017 Jun 20.^
  40. WHO (2014). Appendix 1. Alcohol Per Capita Consumption in liters of pure alcohol, 15+ years age population, consumed in 2010. Lower is better.^
  41. The Good Country Index (2017) .^^
  42. World Health Organisation data for 2011-2015 from 7 data series accessed 2017 May 21. Details in "Immunizations: International Statistics on Vaccines and the Autism Scare: 3. World Health Organisation Statistics" by Vexen Crabtree (2017).^
  43. Annual Cigarette Consumption Per Adult (age 15 and above) - compustible cigarettes. Euromonitor International (2014), via tobaccoatlas.org/topic/cigarette-use-globally/ . Accessed 2017 Jun 20.^
  44. Yale University Center for Environmental Law & Policy 2018 EPI.^
  45. Sources:^

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