The Human Truth Foundation

Nigeria (Federal Republic of Nigeria)

By Vexen Crabtree 2013

#pentecostalism

Nigeria
Federal Republic of Nigeria
StatusIndependent State
Social and Moral Index161st best
CapitalAbuja
Land Area 910 770km21
LocationAfrica
Population195.9m2
Life Expectancy53.06yrs (2017)3
GNI$5 443 (2017)4
ISO3166-1 CodesNG, NGA, 5665
Internet Domain.ng6
CurrencyNaira (NGN)7
Telephone+2348

1. Overview

British influence and control over what would become Nigeria and Africa's most populous country grew through the 19th century. A series of constitutions after World War II granted Nigeria greater autonomy; independence came in 1960. Following nearly 16 years of military rule, a new constitution was adopted in 1999, and a peaceful transition to civilian government was completed. The government continues to face the daunting task of reforming a petroleum-based economy, whose revenues have been squandered through corruption and mismanagement, and institutionalizing democracy. In addition, Nigeria continues to experience longstanding ethnic and religious tensions. Although both the 2003 and 2007 presidential elections were marred by significant irregularities and violence, Nigeria is currently experiencing its longest period of civilian rule since independence. The general elections of April 2007 marked the first civilian-to-civilian transfer of power in the country's history.

CIA's The World Factbook (2013)9

Book CoverNigeria may well be West Africa´s most exciting country, but with the sensory overload of its largest city, Lagos, and reputation as a difficult destination, it´s often overlooked by travellers. Nigeria is a pulsating powerhouse: as the most populous nation on the continent it dominates the region economically and culturally, spreading the fruits of its rapid development throughout Africa with fury. Lagos, Nigeria´s main city, is bursting at the seams: with burgeoning technology and telecommunications industries, posh restaurants and clubs, and an absolutely exploding music and arts scene, this megacity is the face of modern Africa. In villages and towns outside Gidi (as Lagosians call their city), you may often feel as if you´re a lone explorer getting a glimpse of the raw edges of the world.

Immersing yourself in the deep and layered cultures, histories, and surroundings - from the ancient Muslim cities of the north to the river deltas, from Yoruba kingdoms and spiritual shrines to the legacy of tribal conflict and the slave ports, and among simply stunning natural environments - provides a worthy antidote to a sometimes exhausting journey.

"The World" by Lonely Planet (2014)10

2. Nigeria National and Social Development

#economics #human_development

UN HDI (2016)11
Pos.Lower is better
Rank11
1Norway1
2Australia2
3Switzerland2
...
149Syria149
150Angola150
151Tanzania151
152Nigeria152
153Cameroon153
154Zimbabwe154
155Papua New Guinea154
156Solomon Islands156
World Avg94.3
q=188.
Gross National Income Per-Capita (2011)12
Pos.Higher is better
PPP $12
1Qatar$129 916
2Singapore$78 162
3Kuwait$76 075
...
126Uzbekistan$5 748
127India$5 663
128Congo, (Brazzaville)$5 503
129Nigeria$5 443
130Tuvalu$5 395
131Samoa$5 372
132Timor-Leste (E. Timor)$5 371
133Vietnam$5 335
World Avg$17 240
q=193.
Social & Moral
Development Index
13,14
Pos.Lower is better
Avg Rank13,14
1Taiwan30.2
2Denmark30.5
3Norway30.9
...
158Pakistan111.4
159Gambia111.4
160Sierra Leone111.6
161Nigeria111.6
162Haiti112.9
163Myanmar (Burma)113.2
164Mozambique113.4
165Liberia115.9
World Avg86.4
q=195.

The United Nations produces an annual Human Development Report which includes the Human Development Index. The factors taken into account include life expectancy, education and schooling and Gross National Income (GNI) amongst many others..

The Social and Moral Development Index concentrates on moral issues and human rights, violence, public health, equality, tolerance, freedom and effectiveness in climate change mitigation and environmentalism, and on some technological issues. A country scores higher for achieving well in those areas, and for sustaining that achievement in the long term. Those countries towards the top of this index can truly said to be setting good examples and leading humankind onwards into a bright, humane, and free future. See: Which are the Best Countries in the World? The Social and Moral Development Index.

3. Nigeria's Demographics

#birth_control #demographics #health #immigration #life_expectancy #longevity #migration #overpopulation #population

Population:

Nigeria's population is predicted to rise to 257.81 million by 2030. These millions of extra people will all need space to live, food to eat, energy to consume, and will increase the burden on the planet's resources. This country has a fertility rate of 5.45. The fertility rate is, in simple terms, the average amount of children that each woman has. The higher the figure, the quicker the population is growing, although, to calculate the rate you also need to take into account morbidity, i.e., the rate at which people die. If people live healthy and long lives and morbidity is low, then, 2.0 approximates to the replacement rate, which would keep the population stable. If all countries had such a fertility rate, population growth would end. The actual replacement rate in most developed countries is around 2.1.

Population (2018)2
Pos.
Population2
1China1.4b
2India1.4b
3USA327.1m
4Indonesia267.7m
5Pakistan212.2m
6Brazil209.5m
7Nigeria195.9m
8Bangladesh161.4m
9Russia145.7m
10Japan127.2m
11Mexico126.2m
12Ethiopia109.2m
World Avg39.0m
q=195.
Life Expectancy (2015)12
Pos.Higher is better
Years12
1Hong Kong84.16
2Japan83.68
3Italy83.34
...
180Somalia55.71
181Guinea-Bissau55.49
182Mozambique55.48
183Nigeria53.06
184Angola52.70
185Chad51.90
186Ivory Coast51.89
187Central African Rep.51.46
World Avg71.27
q=190.
Fertility Rate (2013)15
Pos.2.0 is best15
1N. Korea2.00
2Brunei1.99
3St Vincent & Grenadines2.01
...
165Benin5.12
166Angola5.19
167Rwanda5.30
168Nigeria5.45
169Tanzania5.51
170Congo, DR5.54
171Burkina Faso5.77
172Chad5.79
World Avg2.81
q=180.
Old-Age Dependency Ratio (2016)16
Pos.Lower is better
Per 10016
1Uganda04.3
2Mali04.5
3Chad04.7
...
9Angola05.0
10Afghanistan05.0
11Zimbabwe05.0
12Nigeria05.1
13Qatar05.1
14Somalia05.4
15Togo05.4
16Ivory Coast05.6
World Avg18.3
q=185.

Migration:

Immigrants (2017)17
Pos.
%17
1UAE88.4%
2Kuwait75.5%
3Qatar65.2%
...
164El Salvador0.7%
165Laos0.7%
166Nicaragua0.7%
167Nigeria0.6%
168Algeria0.6%
169Mongolia0.6%
170Tunisia0.5%
171Egypt0.5%
World Avg9.4%
q=195.
Emigrants (2010)18
Pos.
%18
1Dominica104.8%
2Palestine68.4%
3Samoa67.3%
...
183Brazil0.7%
184Saudi Arabia0.7%
185Qatar0.7%
186Nigeria0.6%
187Maldives0.6%
188China0.6%
189Japan0.6%
190Oman0.5%
World Avg11.5%
q=192.

4. Human Rights, Equality & Tolerance

#equality #freedom #human_rights #nigeria #politics #tolerance

Nigeria is generally poor at ensuring human rights and freedom compared to the rest of the world. Nigeria does worse than average for commentary in Human Rights Watch reports19 (still high for Africa), supporting press freedom20 and in LGBT equality21. And finally, it falls into the worst 20 in supporting personal, civil & economic freedoms22. Homosexuality is illegal and the LGBT community is explicitly discriminated against in law, effectively authorising abuse and persecution23. In addition, in "the Sharia penal code adopted by 12 northern Nigerian states [stipulates] death by stoning [for men], and whipping and/or imprisonment for women"23, and is fundamentally opposed to other human rights, especially freedom of belief and gender equality24.

For tables, charts and commentary, see:

5. Nigeria's Health

#alcohol #birth_control #demographics #health #life_expectancy #longevity #Nigeria #obesity #overpopulation #parenting #population #smoking #vaccines

Health (2020)25,26
Pos.Lower is better
Avg Rank25,26
1Hong Kong18.0
2Singapore41.5
3Maldives43.3
...
179Papua New Guinea122.0
180Congo, (Brazzaville)123.1
181Gabon131.4
182Iraq132.0
183Ivory Coast132.4
184Angola135.0
185Equatorial Guinea136.4
186Nigeria140.8
187S. Sudan143.3
World Avg92.3
q=187.

The countries with the best overall approach to public health, in terms of both public policy and individual lifestyle choices, are Hong Kong, Singapore and The Maldives25. These countries are worth emulating. And, although often through no fault of the average citizen, the worst countries are S. Sudan, Nigeria and Equatorial Guinea25.

The data sets used to calculate points for each country are its average life expectancy, its alcohol consumption rate, its fertility rate, its smoking rate, its suicide rate, its food aid and health contributions and WHO compliance, the prevalence of overweight adults, its adolescent birth rate and its immunizations take-up. The regions with the best average results per country are Scandinavia, Asia and Europe25, whereas the worst are Africa, Micronesia and Polynesia25.

Health:

Nigeria is amongst the unhealthiest places in the world, causing serious issues for most of its citizens. Nigeria does better than average when it comes to its smoking rate27. But that's it. Nigeria has problems. It sits amongst the bottom 20 in its food aid and health contributions and WHO compliance28, its fertility rate15, its adolescent birth rate29, its average life expectancy12, its alcohol consumption rate30 (amongst the worst in Africa) and in its immunizations take-up31. The number of overweight adults has increased by 14% during the last 40 years.
Life Expectancy (2015)12
Pos.Higher is better
Years12
1Hong Kong84.16
2Japan83.68
3Italy83.34
...
180Somalia55.71
181Guinea-Bissau55.49
182Mozambique55.48
183Nigeria53.06
184Angola52.70
185Chad51.90
186Ivory Coast51.89
187Central African Rep.51.46
World Avg71.27
q=190.
Alcohol Consumption (2016)30
Pos.Lower is better
Per Capita30
1Bangladesh0.0
2Kuwait0.0
3Libya0.0
...
182Latvia12.9
183Luxembourg13.0
184Ireland13.0
185Nigeria13.4
186Germany13.4
187Czechia14.4
188Lithuania15.0
189Moldova15.2
World Avg6.2
q=189.
Fertility Rate (2013)15
Pos.2.0 is best15
1N. Korea2.00
2Brunei1.99
3St Vincent & Grenadines2.01
...
165Benin5.12
166Angola5.19
167Rwanda5.30
168Nigeria5.45
169Tanzania5.51
170Congo, DR5.54
171Burkina Faso5.77
172Chad5.79
World Avg2.81
q=180.
Smoking Rates (2014)27
Pos.Higher is worse27
182Montenegro4 125
181Belarus3 831
180Lebanon3 023
...
41Cameroon 184
40Central African Rep. 178
39Guinea-Bissau 175
38Nigeria 173
37Paraguay 166
36Gambia 166
35Zambia 165
34Chad 156
World Avg 819
q=182.
Food Aid, Health Contributions & WHO Compliance (2017)28
Pos.Lower is better
Rank28
1Sweden1
2Ireland2
3Denmark3
...
147Jamaica147
148Togo148
149Tonga149
150Nigeria150
151St Lucia151
152Trinidad & Tobago152
153Mozambique153
154Cape Verde154
World Avg82.0
q=163.
Overweight Adults (2016)32
Pos.Lower is better
%32
1Vietnam18.3
2India19.7
3Bangladesh20.0
...
39Senegal28.4
40Pakistan28.4
41Sudan28.9
42Nigeria28.9
43Benin29.5
44Guinea-Bissau29.9
45S. Korea30.3
46Maldives30.6
World Avg49.0
q=191.

Children's Health:

Adolescent Birth Rate (2015)29
Pos.Lower is better
Per 100029
1N. Korea0.5
2S. Korea1.6
3Switzerland2.9
...
167Equatorial Guinea108.7
168Liberia108.8
169Zimbabwe109.7
170Nigeria110.6
171Uganda111.9
172Gambia113.0
173Madagascar116.2
174Congo, (Brazzaville)117.7
World Avg47.9
q=185.
Infant Immunizations 2011-2015 (2015)31
Pos.Higher is better
Avg %31
1Hungary99.0
2China99.0
3Uzbekistan98.9
...
187Syria62.4
188Ukraine55.2
189Chad52.5
190Nigeria50.0
191Central African Rep.49.4
192Somalia46.0
193S. Sudan45.7
194Equatorial Guinea36.8
World Avg88.3
q=194.

6. Nigeria's Modernity and Learning

#education #intelligence #it_security #modernity #politics #religion #research #science #technology #the_internet

Modernity and Learning (2020)33
Pos.Lower is better
Avg Rank33
1Finland8.0
2Belgium9.1
3Denmark10.0
...
137Namibia94.2
138Ivory Coast94.3
139Suriname94.8
140Nigeria95.3
141St Vincent & Grenadines95.5
142Burkina Faso95.7
143Benin97.0
144Syria97.7
145Mali98.1
World Avg69.0
q=180.

Modernity and Education:

Research and Development (2016)
Pos.Higher is better
% RDP PPP
1S. Korea4.2934
2Israel4.1134
3Japan3.5834
...
87Mongolia0.2335
88Bermuda0.2335
89Togo0.2236
90Nigeria0.2237
91Azerbaijan0.2135
92Burkina Faso0.2038
93Vietnam0.1939
94Panama0.1839
World Avg0.84
q=126.
Length of Schooling (2018)40
Pos.Higher is better
Years40
1Australia22.1
2Belgium19.7
3Finland19.3
...
167Afghanistan10.1
168Papua New Guinea10.0
169Mozambique9.7
170Nigeria9.7
171Congo, DR9.7
172Ivory Coast9.6
173Liberia9.6
174Haiti9.5
World Avg13.2
q=193.
Intellectual Endeavours (2017)28
Pos.Lower is better
Rank28
1Ukraine1
2Czechia2
3Hungary3
...
139Ecuador139
140Syria140
141Mauritania141
142Nigeria142
143Mali143
144Congo, (Brazzaville)144
145Qatar145
146Philippines146
World Avg82.0
q=163.
Religiosity (2009)41
Pos.Lower is better
%41
1Estonia16
2Sweden17
3Denmark19
...
94Cambodia96
95Senegal96
96Philippines96
97Nigeria96
98Cameroon96
99Malaysia96
100Afghanistan97
101Comoros97
World Avg75.1
q=114.
IQ (2006)42
Pos.Higher is better42
1Hong Kong108
2Singapore108
3S. Korea106
...
119Niger69
120Mali69
121Burundi69
122Nigeria69
123Chad68
124Burkina Faso68
125Somalia68
126Angola68
World Avg85.6
q=138.

Technology and Information:

Internet Users (2016)43
Pos.Higher is better43
1Iceland100%
2Faroe Islands99%
3Norway98%
...
103Paraguay47%
104Fiji47%
105Tonga47%
106Nigeria46%
107Jordan46%
108Panama45%
109Mexico45%
110Kenya45%
World Avg48.1%
q=201.
Freedom On The Internet (2012)44
Pos.Lower is better44
1Estonia10
2USA12
3Germany15
...
12Brazil27
13Kenya29
14Georgia30
15Nigeria33
16S. Korea34
17Uganda34
18Kyrgyzstan35
19Mexico37
World Avg46.7
q=47.
IT Security (2013)45
Pos.Lower is better45
1Ireland0.11
2Luxembourg0.11
3Belize0.11
...
49France1.13
50Italy1.15
51Vietnam1.15
52Nigeria1.18
53Mauritania1.19
54Azerbaijan1.21
55Belarus1.22
56Armenia1.22
World Avg0.98
q=81.
IPv6 Uptake (2017)46
Pos.Higher is better
Ratio46
1Belgium55.4
2Germany41.8
3Switzerland35.1
...
97Angola0.0
98Armenia0.0
99Cape Verde0.0
100Nigeria0.0
101Uzbekistan0.0
102Colombia0.0
103Ghana0.0
104Yemen0.0
World Avg3.82
q=176.

7. National Culture

#charity #corruption #happiness #morals #politics

Personal Charitability
(World Position, 2013-2016)
47
Pos.Lower is better47
1Myanmar (Burma)1.25
2USA1.5
3New Zealand3.5
...
36Sweden33
37Turkmenistan33.75
38Philippines34.75
39Nigeria35
40Dominican Rep.35.75
41Northern Cyprus37
42Mongolia38
43Slovenia38.75
World Avg68.1185897435897
q=156.
Corruption (2012-2016)48
Pos.Higher is better
Avg Score48
1Denmark90.8
2New Zealand90.6
3Finland89.4
...
137Kazakhstan28.0
138Nicaragua27.6
139Iran27.2
140Nigeria26.6
141Ukraine26.6
142Comoros26.4
143Cameroon26.2
144Uganda26.2
World Avg43.05
q=176.

Corruption continues to plague Nigeria despite the Buhari administration´s increased efforts at reform and oversight. In October, President Buhari sacked Secretary to the Federal Government, Babachir Lawal, on corruption allegations, and National Intelligence Agency head, Ayodele Oke, after the Economic and Financial Crimes Commission (EFCC) found US$43 million in cash in his apartment.

The EFCC accused Diezani Alison-Madeke, the former oil minister, of bribery, fraud, money laundering and misuse of public funds. In August, a court ordered forfeiture to the government of $44 million worth of property and $21 million from bank accounts linked to Alison-Madeke.

"World Report 2018" by Human Rights Watch (2018)23

Happiness (2018)49
Pos.Higher is better49
1Finland7.6
2Norway7.6
3Denmark7.6
...
88Lebanon5.2
89Macedonia5.2
90Jordan5.2
91Nigeria5.2
92Kyrgyzstan5.1
93Bosnia & Herzegovina5.1
94Mongolia5.1
95Vietnam5.1
World Avg5.38
q=156.
Creativity and Culture (2017)28
Pos.Lower is better
Rank28
1Belgium1
2Netherlands2
3Estonia3
...
143Benin143
144Cameroon144
145Laos145
146Nigeria146
147Equatorial Guinea147
148Angola148
149Zambia149
150Pakistan150
World Avg82.0
q=163.
Open Trading, Aid and Development (2017)28
Pos.Lower is better
Rank28
1Ireland1
2Denmark2
3Sweden3
...
119Colombia119
120Congo, (Brazzaville)120
121Zambia121
122Nigeria122
123Pakistan123
124Lithuania124
125St Lucia125
126Chad126
World Avg82.0
q=163.

8. Peace Versus Instability

#extremism #human_development #peace #politics #religious_violence #terrorism

Global Peace Index (2012)50
Pos.Lower is better50
1Iceland1.11
2New Zealand1.24
3Denmark1.24
...
142Yemen2.60
143Colombia2.63
144Chad2.67
145Nigeria2.80
146Syria2.83
147Libya2.83
148Pakistan2.83
149Israel2.84
World Avg2.02
q=157.
Peacekeeping and Security (2017)28
Pos.Lower is better
Rank28
1Samoa1
2S. Africa2
3Tunisia3
4Egypt4
5Nigeria5
6Uruguay6
7Indonesia7
8Brunei8
9Moldova9
10Morocco10
11Oman11
12Tanzania12
World Avg82.0
q=163.
Refugees and UN Treaties (2017)28
Pos.Lower is better
Rank28
1Austria1
2Germany2
3Netherlands3
...
134St Vincent & Grenadines134
135Afghanistan135
136Trinidad & Tobago136
137Nigeria137
138Cambodia138
139Mali139
140Haiti140
141Mongolia141
World Avg82.0
q=163.
Impact of Terrorism (2019)51
Pos.Lower is better
Score51
1Togo0.00
2Mongolia0.00
3Swaziland0.00
...
143Yemen7.26
144India7.52
145Somalia7.80
146Pakistan7.89
147Syria8.01
148Nigeria8.60
149Iraq9.24
150Afghanistan9.60
World Avg2.78
q=150.

9. The Natural Environment

#biodiversity #climate_change #over-exploitation #the_environment

Forest Area Change 1990-2015 (2015)52
Pos.Higher is better
%52
1Iceland205.6
2Bahrain144.4
3Uruguay131.3
...
177N. Korea-38.7
178Niger-41.3
179Pakistan-41.7
180Honduras-43.6
181Mauritania-45.9
182Uganda-56.4
183Nigeria-59.4
184Togo-72.6
World Avg02.8
q=184.
Environmental Performance (2018)53
Pos.Higher is better53
1Switzerland87.4
2France84.0
3Denmark81.6
...
97Nicaragua55.0
98Bahamas55.0
99Kyrgyzstan54.9
100Nigeria54.8
101Kazakhstan54.6
102Samoa54.5
103Suriname54.2
104Sao Tome & Principe54.0
World Avg56.4
q=180.
Energy to GDP Efficiency (2014)54
Pos.Higher is better54
1Hong Kong26.32
2Sri Lanka20.00
3Panama17.86
...
79Tajikistan07.46
80Thailand07.41
81Cambodia07.35
82Nigeria07.30
83Georgia07.25
84Vietnam07.14
85Saudi Arabia07.04
86Honduras06.80
World Avg09.29
q=119.
Convention on Biological Diversity
Pos.Earlier is better
Signed
1China1993 Dec 29
2Guinea1993 Dec 29
3Cook Islands1993 Dec 29
...
78Indonesia1994 Nov 21
79Slovakia1994 Nov 23
80Costa Rica1994 Nov 24
81Nigeria1994 Nov 27
82Guyana1994 Nov 27
83Ghana1994 Nov 27
84Djibouti1994 Nov 30
85Kazakhstan1994 Dec 05
World Avg1899 Dec 30
q=197.
Rational Beliefs on the Environment (2011)55
Pos.Higher is better
%55
1Argentina78.3%
2Greece77.6%
3Brazil77.1%
...
106Bahrain26.3%
107S. Africa26.2%
108Lithuania25.6%
109Nigeria25.3%
110Armenia25.3%
111Kazakhstan25.0%
112Iraq24.9%
113Sweden24.3%
World Avg39.9%
q=145.

10. Economic Inequality and Poverty

#capitalism #economics #health #inequality #life_expectancy #poverty #social_development

Inequality in Life Expectancy (2019)56
Pos.Higher is worse56
184Chad40.90
183Central African Rep.40.10
182Sierra Leone39.00
181Somalia38.90
180Nigeria37.10
179Mali36.70
178S. Sudan36.20
177Congo, DR36.10
176Benin34.90
175Equatorial Guinea34.60
174Cameroon33.50
173Ivory Coast33.30
World Avg14.59
q=184.
Income Inequality (Gini Coefficient) (2017)57
Pos.Lower is better
%57
1Ukraine25.0
2Belarus25.4
3Slovenia25.4
...
112Madagascar42.6
113Angola42.7
114Uganda42.8
115Nigeria43.0
116Togo43.1
117Zimbabwe43.2
118Chad43.3
119Peru43.3
World Avg38.1
q=152.
Multidimensional Poverty (2018)58
Pos.Lower is better
Severity58
1Armenia.001
2Ukraine.001
3Serbia.001
...
82Angola.282
83Gambia.286
84Senegal.288
85Nigeria.291
86Sierra Leone.297
87Liberia.320
88Guinea.336
89Benin.368
World Avg.154
q=101.

11. Religion and Beliefs

#belief #buddhism #christianity #god #hinduism #islam #judaism #nigeria #religion

Religiosity (2009)41
Pos.Lower is better
%41
1Estonia16
2Sweden17
3Denmark19
...
94Cambodia96
95Senegal96
96Philippines96
97Nigeria96
98Cameroon96
99Malaysia96
100Afghanistan97
101Comoros97
World Avg75.1
q=114.
Disbelief In God (2007)59
Pos.Higher is better
%59
1Vietnam81
2Japan65
3Sweden64
...
126Philippines0
127Kuwait0
128Madagascar0
129Nigeria0
130Malawi0
131Chad0
132Nepal0
133Morocco0
World Avg9.9
q=137.

Data from the Pew Forum, a professional polling outfit, states that in 2010 the religious makeup of this country was as follows in the table below60:

Christian49.3%
Muslim48.8%
Hindu0.1%
Buddhist0.1%
Folk Religion1.4%
Jew0.1%
Unaffiliated0.4%

The CIA World Factbook has slightly different data, and states simply: Muslim 50%, Christian 40%, indigenous beliefs 10%61.

Nigeria: A Pew Forum poll in 2006 found that nearly half or more of all Protestants in several countries, including Nigeria, identified as Pentecostal Christians62.

When Christianity spread, Muslims clashed with Christians. [...] The intensity of this struggle has increased since Nigeria's independence in 1960, when Saudi Arabia began to float 'its austere interpretation of Islam to the discomfort of Sufi groups' (Hunwick 1992, 143). Much later, many Muslim youths in Nigeria began to admire the Iranian kind of Islam, giving way to a political militancy that has been commonly referred to as 'fundamentalism'.

"Evangelical Christianity And Democracy in Africa" by Terence O. Ranger (2008)63

Freedom of Religion and Belief: Twelve northern provinces of Nigeria formalize the use of Islamic Sharia Law, which is fundamentally opposed to human rights, especially freedom of belief, gender equality and LGBT tolerance.64. Polling shows that "sizable percentages" of Christian and Muslim adherents both consider that "their own religious freedom is more important than religious freedom for others. Neither group trusts people from other religions"65.

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