The Human Truth Foundation

Nigeria (Federal Republic of Nigeria)

By Vexen Crabtree 2013

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#nigeria #pentecostalism

Nigeria
Federal Republic of Nigeria
StatusIndependent State
Social and Moral Index187th best
CapitalAbuja
Land Area 910 770km21
LocationAfrica
Population166.6m (2011)2
Life Expectancy53.06yrs (2017)3
GNI$5 443 (2017)4
ISO3166-1 CodesNG, NGA, 5665
Internet Domain.ng6
CurrencyNaira (NGN)7
Telephone+2348

1. Overview

British influence and control over what would become Nigeria and Africa's most populous country grew through the 19th century. A series of constitutions after World War II granted Nigeria greater autonomy; independence came in 1960. Following nearly 16 years of military rule, a new constitution was adopted in 1999, and a peaceful transition to civilian government was completed. The government continues to face the daunting task of reforming a petroleum-based economy, whose revenues have been squandered through corruption and mismanagement, and institutionalizing democracy. In addition, Nigeria continues to experience longstanding ethnic and religious tensions. Although both the 2003 and 2007 presidential elections were marred by significant irregularities and violence, Nigeria is currently experiencing its longest period of civilian rule since independence. The general elections of April 2007 marked the first civilian-to-civilian transfer of power in the country's history.

CIA's The World Factbook (2013)9

Book CoverNigeria may well be West Africa´s most exciting country, but with the sensory overload of its largest city, Lagos, and reputation as a difficult destination, it´s often overlooked by travellers. Nigeria is a pulsating powerhouse: as the most populous nation on the continent it dominates the region economically and culturally, spreading the fruits of its rapid development throughout Africa with fury. Lagos, Nigeria´s main city, is bursting at the seams: with burgeoning technology and telecommunications industries, posh restaurants and clubs, and an absolutely exploding music and arts scene, this megacity is the face of modern Africa. In villages and towns outside Gidi (as Lagosians call their city), you may often feel as if you´re a lone explorer getting a glimpse of the raw edges of the world.

Immersing yourself in the deep and layered cultures, histories, and surroundings – from the ancient Muslim cities of the north to the river deltas, from Yoruba kingdoms and spiritual shrines to the legacy of tribal conflict and the slave ports, and among simply stunning natural environments – provides a worthy antidote to a sometimes exhausting journey.

"The World" by Lonely Planet (2014)10

2. Nigeria National and Social Development

UN HDI (2016)
Lower is better

Rank11
1Norway1
2Australia2
3Switzerland2
...
149Syria149
150Angola150
151Tanzania151
152Nigeria152
153Cameroon153
154Zimbabwe154
155Papua New Guinea154
156Solomon Islands156
World Avg94.3
q=188.
Social & Moral
Development Index
Higher is better

Points12
1Iceland84.1
2Sweden80.8
3Norway80.0
...
184Mali39.4
185Mauritania39.2
186Palestine38.9
187Nigeria38.8
188Iraq38.5
189Angola38.0
190Niger35.9
191Equatorial Guinea35.2
World Avg54.5
q=198.

The United Nations produces an annual Human Development Report which includes the Human Development Index. The factors taken into account include life expectancy, education and schooling and Gross National Income (GNI) amongst many others..

The Social and Moral Development Index concentrates on moral issues and human rights, violence, public health, equality, tolerance, freedom and effectiveness in climate change mitigation and environmentalism, and on some technological issues. A country scores higher for achieving well in those areas, and for sustaining that achievement in the long term. Those countries towards the top of this index can truly said to be setting good examples and leading humankind onwards into a bright, humane, and free future. See: What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life.

3. Population and Demographics

Old-Age Dependency Ratio (2016)
Lower is better

Per 10013
1Uganda04.3
2Mali04.5
3Chad04.7
...
9Angola05.0
10Afghanistan05.0
11Zimbabwe05.0
12Nigeria05.1
13Qatar05.1
14Somalia05.4
15Togo05.4
16Ivory Coast05.6
World Avg18.3
q=185.
Emigrants (2010)
%14
1Dominica104.8
2Palestine68.4
3Samoa67.3
...
183Brazil0.7
184Saudi Arabia0.7
185Qatar0.7
186Nigeria0.6
187Maldives0.6
188China0.6
189Japan0.6
190Oman0.5
World Avg11.5
q=192.
Fertility Rate (2013)
2.0 is best
15
1Korea, N.2.00
2Brunei1.99
3St Vincent & Grenadines2.01
...
165Benin5.12
166Angola5.19
167Rwanda5.30
168Nigeria5.45
169Tanzania5.51
170Congo, DR5.54
171Burkina Faso5.77
172Chad5.79
World Avg2.81
q=180.

Immigrants (2010)
%14
1Qatar86.5
2Monaco71.6
3UAE70.0
...
153Tonga0.8
154Bosnia & Herzegovina0.7
155Burundi0.7
156Nigeria0.7
157Nicaragua0.7
158Algeria0.7
159Bangladesh0.7
160Mexico0.7
World Avg9.2
q=192.
Life Expectancy (2015)
Higher is better

Years16
1Hong Kong84.16
2Japan83.68
3Italy83.34
...
180Somalia55.71
181Guinea-Bissau55.49
182Mozambique55.48
183Nigeria53.06
184Angola52.70
185Chad51.90
186Ivory Coast51.89
187Central African Rep.51.46
World Avg71.27
q=190.
Population (2012)17
1China1.4b
2India1.3b
3USA315.8m
4Indonesia244.8m
5Brazil198.4m
6Pakistan180.0m
7Nigeria166.6m
8Bangladesh152.4m
9Russia142.7m
10Japan126.4m
11Mexico116.1m
12Philippines96.5m
World Avg36.0m
q=195.

Nigeria's population is predicted to rise to 257.81 million by 2030. These millions of extra people will all need space to live, food to eat, energy to consume, and will increase the burden on the planet's resources. This country has a fertility rate of 5.45. The fertility rate is, in simple terms, the average amount of children that each woman has. The higher the figure, the quicker the population is growing, although, to calculate the rate you also need to take into account morbidity, i.e., the rate at which people die. If people live healthy and long lives and morbidity is low, then, 2.0 approximates to the replacement rate, which would keep the population stable. If all countries had such a fertility rate, population growth would end. The actual replacement rate in most developed countries is around 2.1.

4. Gender Equality

Year Women Can Vote
Lower is better

Year18
1New Zealand1893
2Australia1902
3Finland1906
...
116Laos1958
117Hungary1958
118Chad1958
119Nigeria1958
120Burkina Faso1958
121Guinea1958
122Madagascar1959
123Tunisia1959
World Avg1930
q=189.

The 1950s saw a late rush of 43 countries, including Nigeria and many developing nations, move to cease preventing women from voting.

See:

5. Religion and Beliefs

#buddhism #christianity #hinduism #islam #judaism

Religiosity (2009)
Lower is better
%19
1Estonia16
2Sweden17
3Denmark19
...
94Cambodia96
95Senegal96
96Philippines96
97Nigeria96
98Cameroon96
99Malaysia96
100Afghanistan97
101Comoros97
World Avg75.1
q=114.
Disbelief In God (2007)
Higher is better20
1Vietnam81
2Japan65
3Sweden64
...
126Philippines0
127Kuwait0
128Madagascar0
129Nigeria0
130Malawi0
131Chad0
132Nepal0
133Morocco0
World Avg9.9
q=137.

Data from the Pew Forum, a professional polling outfit, states that in 2010 the religious makeup of this country was as follows in the table below21:

Christian49.3%
Muslim48.8%
Hindu0.1%
Buddhist0.1%
Folk Religion1.4%
Jew0.1%
Unaffiliated0.4%

The CIA World Factbook has slightly different data, and states simply: Muslim 50%, Christian 40%, indigenous beliefs 10%22.

Nigeria: A Pew Forum poll in 2006 found that nearly half or more of all Protestants in several countries, including Nigeria, identified as Pentecostal Christians23.

The International Humanist and Ethical Union produced a report in 2012 entitled "Freedom of Thought" (2012), in which they document bias and prejudice at the national level that is based on religion, belief and/or lack of belief. Their entry for Nigeria states:

The constitution and other laws and policies protect freedom of religion or belief. The constitution mandates that local, state and federal government "shall not adopt any religion as State Religion." However, some state governments have a record of abusing freedom of religion or belief. There is significant hostility and violence between religious communities, especially Christians and Muslims, in many parts of the country. Some outbreaks of communal violence have resulted in hundreds of deaths. Yet, a climate of impunity exists, as authorities rarely prosecute and punish those responsible for violent attacks.

The constitution provides that states may establish courts based on the common law or customary law systems. Twelve northern states - Sokoto, Kebbi, Niger, Kano, Katsina, Kaduna, Jigawa, Yobe, Bauchi, Borno, Zamfara, and Gombe - maintained Sharia courts, which adjudicated both criminal and civil matters, along with common law and customary law courts. Non-Muslims had the option to try their cases in the Sharia courts if involved in disputes with Muslims. If non-Muslims did not agree to go to Sharia courts, common law courts would hear their cases. Although the constitution does not explicitly allow Sharia courts to hear criminal cases, they have done so in the past. In Zamfara State, the first state to adopt Sharia, a Sharia court must hear all criminal cases involving Muslims. No laws barred women or any groups from testifying in common law courts or gave less weight to their testimony; however, Sharia courts usually accorded less weight to the testimony of women and non-Muslims.

Both federal and state governments regulate mandatory religious instruction in public schools; however, the constitution mandates that students do not receive religious instruction in any religion other than their own. In theory students can request a teacher of their own beliefs to provide alternative instruction, but in practice many schools lack teachers capable of doing so.

Although the jurisdiction of Sharia technically does not apply to non-Muslims in civil and criminal proceedings, certain social mores inspired by Sharia, such as the separation of the sexes, affected non-Muslim minorities in the north. Many non-Muslims perceive that they lived under the rule of a Muslim government and often feared reprisals for their religious affiliation. The Hisbah - Sharia enforcement groups funded by state governments in Bauchi, Zamfara, Niger, Kaduna, and Kano - enforce, sometimes violently, some Sharia statutes.

"Freedom of Thought" by IHEU (2012)24

Links:

6. The Internet

Freedom On The Internet (2012)
Lower is better
25
1Estonia10
2USA12
3Germany15
...
12Brazil27
13Kenya29
14Georgia30
15Nigeria33
16Korea, S.34
17Uganda34
18Kyrgyzstan35
19Mexico37
World Avg46.7
q=47.
Internet Users (2016)
Higher is better
26
1Iceland100%
2Faroe Islands99%
3Norway98%
...
103Paraguay47%
104Fiji47%
105Tonga47%
106Nigeria46%
107Jordan46%
108Panama45%
109Mexico45%
110Kenya45%
World Avg48.1%
q=201.
IPv6 Uptake (2017)
Higher is better

Ratio27
1Belgium55.4
2Germany41.8
3Switzerland35.1
...
97Angola0.0
98Armenia0.0
99Cape Verde0.0
100Nigeria0.0
101Uzbekistan0.0
102Colombia0.0
103Ghana0.0
104Yemen0.0
World Avg3.82
q=176.

IT Security (2013)
Lower is better
28
1Ireland0.11
2Luxembourg0.11
3Belize0.11
...
49France1.13
50Italy1.15
51Vietnam1.15
52Nigeria1.18
53Mauritania1.19
54Azerbaijan1.21
55Belarus1.22
56Armenia1.22
World Avg0.98
q=81.

Internet access has become an essential research tool. It facilitates an endless list of life improvements, from the ability to network and socialize without constraint, to access to a seemingly infinite repository of technical and procedural information on pretty much any task. The universal availability of data has sped up industrial development and personal learning at the national and personal level. Individuals can read any topic they wish regardless of the locality of expert teachers, and, entire nations can develop their technology and understanding of the world simply because they are now exposed to advanced societies and moral discourses online. Like every communications medium, the Internet has issues and causes a small range of problems, but these are insignificant compared to the advantages of having an online populace.

7. Public Health Issues

Adolescent Birth Rate (2015)
Lower is better

Per 100029
1Korea, N.0.5
2Korea, S.1.6
3Switzerland2.9
...
167Equatorial Guinea108.7
168Liberia108.8
169Zimbabwe109.7
170Nigeria110.6
171Uganda111.9
172Gambia113.0
173Madagascar116.2
174Congo, (Brazzaville)117.7
World Avg47.9
q=185.
Alcohol Consumption (2010)
Lower is better

Per Capita30
1Libya0.1
2Pakistan0.1
3Kuwait0.1
...
148Rwanda9.8
149Uganda9.8
150Netherlands9.9
151Nigeria10.1
152Canada10.2
153Estonia10.3
154Kazakhstan10.3
155Austria10.3
World Avg6.2
q=191.
Infant Immunizations 2011-2015 (2015)
Higher is better

Avg %31
1Hungary99.0
2China99.0
3Uzbekistan98.9
...
187Syria62.4
188Ukraine55.2
189Chad52.5
190Nigeria50.0
191Central African Rep.49.4
192Somalia46.0
193S. Sudan45.7
194Equatorial Guinea36.8
World Avg88.3
q=194.

Smoking Rates (2014)
Lower is better
32
1Guinea 15
2Solomon Islands 26
3Kiribati 28
...
35Zambia 165
36Gambia 166
37Paraguay 166
38Nigeria 173
39Guinea-Bissau 175
40Central African Rep. 178
41Cameroon 184
42Guatemala 190
World Avg 819
q=182.

8. Politics and Freedom

Nominal Commitment to HR (2009)
Higher is better

Treaties33
1Argentina24
2Chile23
3Costa Rica23
...
93Yemen16
94Congo, DR16
95Burundi16
96Nigeria16
97Benin16
98Gabon16
99San Marino16
100Cambodia16
World Avg15.1
q=194.
Personal, Civil & Economic Freedom (2014)
Lower is better

Rank34
1Hong Kong1
2Switzerland2
3New Zealand3
...
137Bangladesh137
138Belize138
139Congo, (Brazzaville)139
140Nigeria140
141China141
142Ethiopia142
143Mauritania143
144Egypt144
World Avg79.7
q=159.
Press Freedom (2013)
Lower is better
35
1Finland638
2Netherlands648
3Norway652
...
111Montenegro3297
112Israel3297
113UAE3349
114Nigeria3411
115Macedonia3427
116Venezuela3444
117Nepal3461
118Ecuador3469
World Avg3249
q=178.

9. More Charts and Comparisons to Other Countries

Anti-Semite Opinions
Lower is better

%36
1Laos0
2Philippines3
3Sweden4
...
17Finland15
18Brazil16
19Singapore16
20Nigeria16
21Iceland16
22Uganda16
23Jamaica18
24India20
q=101.
Personal Charitability
(World Position, 2013-2016)
Lower is better
37
1Myanmar (Burma)1.25
2USA1.5
3New Zealand3.5
...
36Sweden33
37Turkmenistan33.75
38Philippines34.75
39Nigeria35
40Dominican Rep.35.75
41Northern Cyprus37
42Mongolia38
q=156.
Global Peace Index (2012)
Lower is better
38
1Iceland1.11
2New Zealand1.24
3Denmark1.24
...
142Yemen2.60
143Colombia2.63
144Chad2.67
145Nigeria2.80
146Syria2.83
147Libya2.83
148Pakistan2.83
149Israel2.84
q=157.
Research and Development
Higher is better

% RDP PPP
1Korea, S.4.29
2Israel4.11
3Japan3.58
...
87Mongolia0.23
88Bermuda0.23
89Togo0.22
90Nigeria0.22
91Azerbaijan0.21
92Burkina Faso0.20
93Vietnam0.19
94Panama0.18
q=126.
Life Satisfaction (2011)
Higher is better
39
1Denmark7.8
2Norway7.6
3Netherlands7.6
...
99Palestine4.8
100Zimbabwe4.8
101Iran4.8
102Nigeria4.8
103Dominican Rep.4.7
104Tunisia4.7
105Azerbaijan4.7
106Bosnia & Herzegovina4.7
q=150.
Gross National Income Per-Capita (2011)
Higher is better
PPP $16
1Qatar$129 916
2Singapore$78 162
3Kuwait$76 075
...
126Uzbekistan$5 748
127India$5 663
128Congo, (Brazzaville)$5 503
129Nigeria$5 443
130Tuvalu$5 395
131Samoa$5 372
132Timor-Leste (E. Timor)$5 371
133Vietnam$5 335
q=193.
Environmental Performance (2010)
Higher is better
40
1Iceland93.5
2Switzerland89.1
3Costa Rica86.4
...
149Iraq41.0
150Chad40.8
151UAE40.7
152Nigeria40.2
153Benin39.6
154Haiti39.5
155Mali39.4
156Turkmenistan38.4
q=162.
LGBT Equality (2013)
Higher is better

Score41
1Netherlands405
2Belgium350
3Canada280
...
201Tanzania-220
202Mauritania-220
203Malaysia-220
204Nigeria-220
205Somaliland-500
206Iran-520
207Yemen-520
208Sudan-520
q=211.
IQ (2006)
Higher is better42
1Singapore108
2Hong Kong108
3Korea, S.106
...
115Botswana70
116Togo70
117Ivory Coast69
118Nigeria69
119Niger69
120Burundi69
121Mali69
122Malawi69
q=138.

Current edition: 2013 May 01
Last Modified: 2017 Jun 21
http://www.humantruth.info/nigeria.html
Parent page: Compare International Statistics by Region and Continent

All #tags used on this page - click for more:

#buddhism #christianity #hinduism #islam #judaism #nigeria #pentecostalism

Social Media

References: (What's this?)

Anti-Defamation League. (ADL)
(2014) ADL Global 100, Executive Summary. Accessed on global100.adl.org on 2017 Jan 02. The numbers given are of those who state that racist stereotyped statements about Jews are true; they have to agree to 6 or more of the 11 statements to be counted. An example statements is "Jews are hated because of the way they behave". The data was collected from 53,100 interviews across 101 countries plus the West Bank and Gaza. The global average is 26%.

Charities Aid Foundation
World Giving Index. On www.cafonline.org.

CIA
(2013) World Factbook. The USA Government's Central Intelligence Agency (USA CIA) publishes The World Factbook, and the online version is frequently updated.

Crabtree, Vexen
(2017) "What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life" (2017). Accessed 2017 Aug 01.

Gallup
(2009) Religiosity. gallup.com/poll/142727/.... The survey question was "Is religion an important part of your daily life?" and results are charted for those who said "yes". 1000 adults were polled in each of 114 countries.

IHEU. International Humanist and Ethical Union.
(2012) Freedom of Thought. A copy can be found on iheu.org/...Freedom of Thought 2012.pdf, accessed 2013 Oct 28.

Lonely Planet
(2014) The World. Subtitled: "A Traveller's Guide to the Planet". Published by Lonely Planet, London, UK. Each chapter is devoted to a specific country and includes a list of the most interesting places to visit and a few other cultural notes..

Lynn, Harvey & Nyborg
(2009) Average intelligence predicts atheism rates across 137 nations. Richard Lynn, John Harvey and Helmuth Nyborg article "Average intelligence predicts atheism rates across 137 nations" in Intelligence (2009 Jan/Feb) vol. 37 issue 1 pages 11-15. Online at www.sciencedirect.com, accessed 2009 Sep 15.

Terence O. Ranger
(2008, Ed.) Evangelical Christianity And Democracy in Africa. Published by Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK. Part of the series of books on Evangelical Christianity and Democracy in the Global South (series editor Timothy Samuel Shah).

The Fraser Institute
(2016) The Human Freedom Index. Published by The Cato Institute, The Fraser Institute and the Friedrich Naumann Foundation for Freedom. Covers data up to 2014. On www.fraserinstitute.org/.../human-freedom-index-2016..

United Nations
(2011) Human Development Report. This edition had the theme of Sustainability and Equity: A Better Future for All. Published on the United Nation's website at hdr.undp.org/.../HDR_2011_EN_Complete.pdf (accessed throughout 2013, Jan-Mar). UN Development Program: About the Human Development Index.
(2013) Human Development Report. This edition had the theme of The Rise of the South: Human Progress in a Diverse World. Published on the United Nation's HDR website at hdr.undp.org/.../hdr2013/ (accessed throughout 2013). UN Development Program: About the Human Development Index.
(2017) Human Development Report. Published by the UN Development Programme. Data for 2015. Analysis conducted by the UN Development Report Office. Available on hdr.undp.org/..

World Health Organisation. (WHO)
(2014) Global Status Report on Alcohol and Health. A copy can be found on the WHO website. Accessed 2015 Jan 04. It "presents a comprehensive perspective on the global, regional and country consumption of alcohol, patterns of drinking, health consequences and policy responses in Member States" and was published in Geneva on 2014 May 12.

Footnotes

  1. World Bank data on data.worldbank.org accessed 2013 Nov 04.^
  2. UN (2011) .^
  3. UN (2017) Table 1.^
  4. UN (2017) Gross National Income, per person. Table 1.^
  5. International Standards Organisation (ISO) standard ISO3166-1, on www.iso.org, accessed 2013 May 01.^
  6. Top level domains (TLDs) are managed by the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) on www.iana.org.^
  7. According to ISO4217.^
  8. According to ITU-T.^
  9. CIA (2013) https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/ni.html accessed 2014 Apr 27.^
  10. Lonely Planet (2014) chapter "Nigeria" .^
  11. UN (2017) Table 1. Lower is better.^
  12. "What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life" by Vexen Crabtree (2017)^
  13. UN (2017) Dashboard 2. Higher is worse. Old-age is counted as 65+, and ratio is of these to people ages 15-64. Projections are for 2030 based on medium-fertility variant of growth.^
  14. UN (2013) Table 11.^
  15. UN (2013) Table 14. Births per woman (2012), expressed as deviance (positive or negative) from the value of 2.0.^
  16. UN (2017) Table 1. Higher is better.^^
  17. UN (2013) Table 14.^
  18. "What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life: 3.6. Women Stand for Election & Vote (1893+) New Zealand, Australia, Finland" by Vexen Crabtree (2017)^
  19. Gallup (2009) .^
  20. Zuckerman, P. (2007). Atheism: contemporary numbers and patterns. In M.Martin (Ed.), The Cambridge Companion to Atheism. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. In "Average intelligence predicts atheism rates across 137 nations" by Lynn et al. (2009).^
  21. Pew Forum (2012) publication "The Global Religious Landscape: A Report on the Size and Distribution of the World´s Major Religious Groups as of 2010" (2012 Dec 18) accessed 2013 May 01.^
  22. CIA (2013) https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/ar.html accessed 2014 Apr 27.^
  23. Terence (2008) in the preface written by Timothy Shah.^
  24. IHEU (2012) . Added to this page on 2013 Oct 28.^
  25. Freedom House publication "Freedom on the Net 2012" at www.freedomhouse.org/.../FOTN%202012%20-%20Tables%20and%20Charts%20FINAL.pdf accessed 2013 Feb 05.^
  26. internetlivestats.com/internet-users-by-country accessed 2017 Mar 10.^
  27. % of internet access via native IPv6 compared to IPv4. As of 2017 Jun 20, from http://www.cidr-report.org. Accessed 2017 Jun 20.^
  28. "What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life: 4.4. Malware and Email Spam (2010-2) " by Vexen Crabtree (2017)^
  29. UN (2017) Table 5. Lower is better.^
  30. WHO (2014) Appendix 1. Alcohol Per Capita Consumption in liters of pure alcohol, 15+ years age population, consumed in 2010. Lower is better.^
  31. World Health Organisation data for 2011-2015 from 7 data series accessed 2017 May 21. Details in "Immunizations: International Statistics on Vaccines and the Autism Scare: 3. World Health Organisation Statistics" by Vexen Crabtree (2017).^
  32. Annual Cigarette Consumption Per Adult (age 15 and above) - compustible cigarettes. Euromonitor International (2014), via tobaccoatlas.org/topic/cigarette-use-globally/ . Accessed 2017 Jun 20.^
  33. Max possible=24. Total amount of treaties ratified. Nominal Commitment to Human Rights report published by UCL School of Public Policy, London, UK, at ucl.ac.uk/spp/research/research-projects/nchr accessed 2011 Apr 30.^
  34. Fraser Institute, the (2016) . Covers data for 2014.^
  35. Reporters Without Borders Report "2013 World Press Freedom Index: Dashed hopes after spring" at fr.rsf.org/.../classement_2013_gb-bd.pdf accessed 2013 Feb.^
  36. ADL (2014) . Lower is better.^
  37. Charities Aid Foundation . Average ranking across years 2013-2016. Lower is better.^
  38. ^
  39. UN (2013) Table 9. Higher is better. Table 9. The UN's data is the latest available from a range of data from 2007-2011.^
  40. UN (2011) Table 6. Higher is better.^
  41. Higher is better. Sources:^
  42. Lynn, Harvey & Nyborg (2009) .^

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