The Human Truth Foundation

Nigeria (Federal Republic of Nigeria)

By Vexen Crabtree 2013


Comments:
FB, LJ

#charity #economics #happiness #intelligence #morals #pentecostalism #research #science #the_environment

Nigeria
Federal Republic of Nigeria
StatusIndependent State
CapitalAbuja
Land Area 910 770km21
LocationAfrica
Population166.6m (2011)2
Life Expectancy53.06yrs (2017)3
GNI$5 443 (2017)4
ISO3166-1 CodesNG, NGA, 5665
Internet Domain.ng6
CurrencyNaira (NGN)7
Telephone+2348

1. Overview

British influence and control over what would become Nigeria and Africa's most populous country grew through the 19th century. A series of constitutions after World War II granted Nigeria greater autonomy; independence came in 1960. Following nearly 16 years of military rule, a new constitution was adopted in 1999, and a peaceful transition to civilian government was completed. The government continues to face the daunting task of reforming a petroleum-based economy, whose revenues have been squandered through corruption and mismanagement, and institutionalizing democracy. In addition, Nigeria continues to experience longstanding ethnic and religious tensions. Although both the 2003 and 2007 presidential elections were marred by significant irregularities and violence, Nigeria is currently experiencing its longest period of civilian rule since independence. The general elections of April 2007 marked the first civilian-to-civilian transfer of power in the country's history.

CIA's The World Factbook (2013)9

Book CoverNigeria may well be West Africa´s most exciting country, but with the sensory overload of its largest city, Lagos, and reputation as a difficult destination, it´s often overlooked by travellers. Nigeria is a pulsating powerhouse: as the most populous nation on the continent it dominates the region economically and culturally, spreading the fruits of its rapid development throughout Africa with fury. Lagos, Nigeria´s main city, is bursting at the seams: with burgeoning technology and telecommunications industries, posh restaurants and clubs, and an absolutely exploding music and arts scene, this megacity is the face of modern Africa. In villages and towns outside Gidi (as Lagosians call their city), you may often feel as if you´re a lone explorer getting a glimpse of the raw edges of the world.

Immersing yourself in the deep and layered cultures, histories, and surroundings - from the ancient Muslim cities of the north to the river deltas, from Yoruba kingdoms and spiritual shrines to the legacy of tribal conflict and the slave ports, and among simply stunning natural environments - provides a worthy antidote to a sometimes exhausting journey.

"The World" by Lonely Planet (2014)10

2. Nigeria National and Social Development

#human_development

UN HDI (2016)11
Pos.Lower is better
Rank11
1Norway1
2Australia2
3Switzerland2
...
149Syria149
150Angola150
151Tanzania151
152Nigeria152
153Cameroon153
154Zimbabwe154
155Papua New Guinea154
156Solomon Islands156
World Avg94.3
q=188.
Social & Moral
Development Index
12
Pos.Higher is better
Points12
1Denmark84.0
2Sweden83.9
3Finland83.5
...
177Gabon40.0
178Pakistan39.9
179Papua New Guinea39.9
180Nigeria39.4
181Congo, (Brazzaville)39.1
182Palestine38.9
183Mauritania38.3
184Niger38.0
World Avg53.8
q=198.

The United Nations produces an annual Human Development Report which includes the Human Development Index. The factors taken into account include life expectancy, education and schooling and Gross National Income (GNI) amongst many others..

The Social and Moral Development Index concentrates on moral issues and human rights, violence, public health, equality, tolerance, freedom and effectiveness in climate change mitigation and environmentalism, and on some technological issues. A country scores higher for achieving well in those areas, and for sustaining that achievement in the long term. Those countries towards the top of this index can truly said to be setting good examples and leading humankind onwards into a bright, humane, and free future. See: What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life.

3. Population and Demographics

#demographics #health #immigration #life_expectancy #Nigeria #overpopulation #population

Old-Age Dependency Ratio (2016)13
Pos.Lower is better
Per 10013
1Uganda04.3
2Mali04.5
3Chad04.7
...
9Angola05.0
10Afghanistan05.0
11Zimbabwe05.0
12Nigeria05.1
13Qatar05.1
14Somalia05.4
15Togo05.4
16Ivory Coast05.6
World Avg18.3
q=185.
Emigrants (2010)14
Pos.
%14
1Dominica104.8
2Palestine68.4
3Samoa67.3
...
183Brazil0.7
184Saudi Arabia0.7
185Qatar0.7
186Nigeria0.6
187Maldives0.6
188China0.6
189Japan0.6
190Oman0.5
World Avg11.5
q=192.
Fertility Rate (2013)15
Pos.2.0 is best15
1N. Korea2.00
2Brunei1.99
3St Vincent & Grenadines2.01
...
165Benin5.12
166Angola5.19
167Rwanda5.30
168Nigeria5.45
169Tanzania5.51
170Congo, DR5.54
171Burkina Faso5.77
172Chad5.79
World Avg2.81
q=180.

Immigrants (2010)14
Pos.
%14
1Qatar86.5
2Monaco71.6
3UAE70.0
...
153Tonga0.8
154Bosnia & Herzegovina0.7
155Burundi0.7
156Nigeria0.7
157Nicaragua0.7
158Algeria0.7
159Bangladesh0.7
160Mexico0.7
World Avg9.2
q=192.
Life Expectancy (2015)16
Pos.Higher is better
Years16
1Hong Kong84.16
2Japan83.68
3Italy83.34
...
180Somalia55.71
181Guinea-Bissau55.49
182Mozambique55.48
183Nigeria53.06
184Angola52.70
185Chad51.90
186Ivory Coast51.89
187Central African Rep.51.46
World Avg71.27
q=190.
Population (2012)17
Pos.The Overpopulation of the Earth17
1China1.4b
2India1.3b
3USA315.8m
4Indonesia244.8m
5Brazil198.4m
6Pakistan180.0m
7Nigeria166.6m
8Bangladesh152.4m
9Russia142.7m
10Japan126.4m
11Mexico116.1m
12Philippines96.5m
World Avg36.0m
q=195.

Nigeria's population is predicted to rise to 257.81 million by 2030. These millions of extra people will all need space to live, food to eat, energy to consume, and will increase the burden on the planet's resources. This country has a fertility rate of 5.45. The fertility rate is, in simple terms, the average amount of children that each woman has. The higher the figure, the quicker the population is growing, although, to calculate the rate you also need to take into account morbidity, i.e., the rate at which people die. If people live healthy and long lives and morbidity is low, then, 2.0 approximates to the replacement rate, which would keep the population stable. If all countries had such a fertility rate, population growth would end. The actual replacement rate in most developed countries is around 2.1.

4. Human Rights, Equality and Freedom

#equality #freedom #human_rights #nigeria #politics #tolerance

Nigeria is very poor at ensuring human rights and freedom compared to the rest of the world, and it has cultural issues when it comes to tolerance and equality. Nigeria does worse than average in commentary from Human Rights Watch18, supporting press freedom19, eliminating modern slavery20, fighting corruption21 and in LGBT equality22. And finally, it falls into the bottom 20 in supporting personal, civil & economic freedoms23 and in its Global Peace Index rating24. Homosexuality is illegal and the LGBT community is explicitly discriminated against in law, effectively authorising abuse and persecution25. In addition, in "the Sharia penal code adopted by 12 northern Nigerian states [stipulates] death by stoning [for men], and whipping and/or imprisonment for women"25, and is fundamentally opposed to other human rights, especially freedom of belief and gender equality26.

For tables, charts and commentary, see:

5. Religion and Beliefs

#belief #buddhism #christianity #god #hinduism #islam #judaism #nigeria #religion

Religiosity (2009)27
Pos.Lower is better
%27
1Estonia16
2Sweden17
3Denmark19
...
94Cambodia96
95Senegal96
96Philippines96
97Nigeria96
98Cameroon96
99Malaysia96
100Afghanistan97
101Comoros97
World Avg75.1
q=114.
Disbelief In God (2007)28
Pos.Higher is better28
1Vietnam81
2Japan65
3Sweden64
...
126Philippines0
127Kuwait0
128Madagascar0
129Nigeria0
130Malawi0
131Chad0
132Nepal0
133Morocco0
World Avg9.9
q=137.

Data from the Pew Forum, a professional polling outfit, states that in 2010 the religious makeup of this country was as follows in the table below29:

Christian49.3%
Muslim48.8%
Hindu0.1%
Buddhist0.1%
Folk Religion1.4%
Jew0.1%
Unaffiliated0.4%

The CIA World Factbook has slightly different data, and states simply: Muslim 50%, Christian 40%, indigenous beliefs 10%30.

Nigeria: A Pew Forum poll in 2006 found that nearly half or more of all Protestants in several countries, including Nigeria, identified as Pentecostal Christians31.

When Christianity spread, Muslims clashed with Christians. [...] The intensity of this struggle has increased since Nigeria's independence in 1960, when Saudi Arabia began to float 'its austere interpretation of Islam to the discomfort of Sufi groups' (Hunwick 1992, 143). Much later, many Muslim youths in Nigeria began to admire the Iranian kind of Islam, giving way to a political militancy that has been commonly referred to as 'fundamentalism'.

"Evangelical Christianity And Democracy in Africa" by Terence O. Ranger (2008)32

Freedom of Religion and Belief: Twelve northern provinces of Nigeria formalize the use of Islamic Sharia Law, which is fundamentally opposed to human rights, especially freedom of belief, gender equality and LGBT tolerance.33. Polling shows that "sizable percentages" of Christian and Muslim adherents both consider that "their own religious freedom is more important than religious freedom for others. Neither group trusts people from other religions"34.

Links:

6. The Internet

#internet #it_security #Nigeria #politics #the_internet

Freedom On The Internet (2012)35
Pos.Lower is better35
1Estonia10
2USA12
3Germany15
...
12Brazil27
13Kenya29
14Georgia30
15Nigeria33
16S. Korea34
17Uganda34
18Kyrgyzstan35
19Mexico37
World Avg46.7
q=47.
Internet Users (2016)36
Pos.Higher is better36
1Iceland100%
2Faroe Islands99%
3Norway98%
...
103Paraguay47%
104Fiji47%
105Tonga47%
106Nigeria46%
107Jordan46%
108Panama45%
109Mexico45%
110Kenya45%
World Avg48.1%
q=201.
IPv6 Uptake (2017)37
Pos.Higher is better
Ratio37
1Belgium55.4
2Germany41.8
3Switzerland35.1
...
97Angola0.0
98Armenia0.0
99Cape Verde0.0
100Nigeria0.0
101Uzbekistan0.0
102Colombia0.0
103Ghana0.0
104Yemen0.0
World Avg3.82
q=176.

IT Security (2013)38
Pos.Lower is better38
1Ireland0.11
2Luxembourg0.11
3Belize0.11
...
49France1.13
50Italy1.15
51Vietnam1.15
52Nigeria1.18
53Mauritania1.19
54Azerbaijan1.21
55Belarus1.22
56Armenia1.22
World Avg0.98
q=81.

Internet access has become an essential research tool. It facilitates an endless list of life improvements, from the ability to network and socialize without constraint, to access to a seemingly infinite repository of technical and procedural information on pretty much any task. The universal availability of data has sped up industrial development and personal learning at the national and personal level. Individuals can read any topic they wish regardless of the locality of expert teachers, and, entire nations can develop their technology and understanding of the world simply because they are now exposed to advanced societies and moral discourses online. Like every communications medium, the Internet has issues and causes a small range of problems, but these are insignificant compared to the advantages of having an online populace.

7. Public Health Issues

#alcohol #health #Nigeria #parenting #population #smoking #vaccines

Adolescent Birth Rate (2015)39
Pos.Lower is better
Per 100039
1N. Korea0.5
2S. Korea1.6
3Switzerland2.9
...
167Equatorial Guinea108.7
168Liberia108.8
169Zimbabwe109.7
170Nigeria110.6
171Uganda111.9
172Gambia113.0
173Madagascar116.2
174Congo, (Brazzaville)117.7
World Avg47.9
q=185.
Alcohol Consumption (2010)40
Pos.Lower is better
Per Capita40
1Libya0.1
2Pakistan0.1
3Kuwait0.1
...
148Rwanda9.8
149Uganda9.8
150Netherlands9.9
151Nigeria10.1
152Canada10.2
153Estonia10.3
154Kazakhstan10.3
155Austria10.3
World Avg6.2
q=191.
Food Aid, Health Contributions & WHO Compliance (2017)41
Pos.Lower is better
Rank41
1Sweden1
2Ireland2
3Denmark3
...
147Jamaica147
148Togo148
149Tonga149
150Nigeria150
151St Lucia151
152Trinidad & Tobago152
153Mozambique153
154Cape Verde154
World Avg82.0
q=163.

Infant Immunizations 2011-2015 (2015)42
Pos.Higher is better
Avg %42
1Hungary99.0
2China99.0
3Uzbekistan98.9
...
187Syria62.4
188Ukraine55.2
189Chad52.5
190Nigeria50.0
191Central African Rep.49.4
192Somalia46.0
193S. Sudan45.7
194Equatorial Guinea36.8
World Avg88.3
q=194.
Smoking Rates (2014)43
Pos.Lower is better43
1Guinea 15
2Solomon Islands 26
3Kiribati 28
...
35Zambia 165
36Gambia 166
37Paraguay 166
38Nigeria 173
39Guinea-Bissau 175
40Central African Rep. 178
41Cameroon 184
42Guatemala 190
World Avg 819
q=182.

8. More Charts and Comparisons to Other Countries

Personal Charitability
(World Position, 2013-2016)
44
Pos.Lower is better44
1Myanmar (Burma)1.25
2USA1.5
3New Zealand3.5
...
36Sweden33
37Turkmenistan33.75
38Philippines34.75
39Nigeria35
40Dominican Rep.35.75
41Northern Cyprus37
42Mongolia38
q=156.
Intellectual Endeavours (2017)41
Pos.Lower is better
Rank41
1Ukraine1
2Czechia2
3Hungary3
...
139Ecuador139
140Syria140
141Mauritania141
142Nigeria142
143Mali143
144Congo, (Brazzaville)144
145Qatar145
q=163.
Creativity and Culture (2017)41
Pos.Lower is better
Rank41
1Belgium1
2Netherlands2
3Estonia3
...
143Benin143
144Cameroon144
145Laos145
146Nigeria146
147Equatorial Guinea147
148Angola148
149Zambia149
q=163.
Peacekeeping and Security (2017)41
Pos.Lower is better
Rank41
1Samoa1
2S. Africa2
3Tunisia3
4Egypt4
5Nigeria5
6Uruguay6
7Indonesia7
8Brunei8
9Moldova9
10Morocco10
11Oman11
q=163.
Refugees and UN Treaties (2017)41
Pos.Lower is better
Rank41
1Austria1
2Germany2
3Netherlands3
...
134St Vincent & Grenadines134
135Afghanistan135
136Trinidad & Tobago136
137Nigeria137
138Cambodia138
139Mali139
140Haiti140
q=163.
Open Trading, Aid and Development (2017)41
Pos.Lower is better
Rank41
1Ireland1
2Denmark2
3Sweden3
...
119Colombia119
120Congo, (Brazzaville)120
121Zambia121
122Nigeria122
123Pakistan123
124Lithuania124
125St Lucia125
q=163.
Research and Development (2016)
Pos.Higher is better
% RDP PPP
1S. Korea4.29
2Israel4.11
3Japan3.58
...
87Mongolia0.23
88Bermuda0.23
89Togo0.22
90Nigeria0.22
91Azerbaijan0.21
92Burkina Faso0.20
93Vietnam0.19
94Panama0.18
q=126.
Life Satisfaction (2011)45
Pos.Higher is better45
1Denmark7.8
2Norway7.6
3Netherlands7.6
...
99Palestine4.8
100Zimbabwe4.8
101Iran4.8
102Nigeria4.8
103Dominican Rep.4.7
104Tunisia4.7
105Azerbaijan4.7
106Bosnia & Herzegovina4.7
q=150.
Gross National Income Per-Capita (2011)16
Pos.Higher is better
PPP $16
1Qatar$129 916
2Singapore$78 162
3Kuwait$76 075
...
126Uzbekistan$5 748
127India$5 663
128Congo, (Brazzaville)$5 503
129Nigeria$5 443
130Tuvalu$5 395
131Samoa$5 372
132Timor-Leste (E. Timor)$5 371
133Vietnam$5 335
q=193.
Environmental Performance (2018)46
Pos.Higher is better46
1Switzerland87.4
2France84.0
3Denmark81.6
...
97Nicaragua55.0
98Bahamas55.0
99Kyrgyzstan54.9
100Nigeria54.8
101Kazakhstan54.6
102Samoa54.5
103Suriname54.2
104Sao Tome & Principe54.0
q=180.
IQ (2006)47
Pos.Higher is better47
1Hong Kong108
2Singapore108
3S. Korea106
...
119Niger69
120Mali69
121Burundi69
122Nigeria69
123Chad68
124Burkina Faso68
125Somalia68
126Angola68
q=138.

Current edition: 2013 May 01
Last Modified: 2019 Jan 01
http://www.humantruth.info/nigeria.html
Parent page: Compare International Statistics by Region and Continent

All #tags used on this page - click for more:

#alcohol #belief #buddhism #charity #christianity #demographics #economics #equality #freedom #god #happiness #health #hinduism #human_development #human_rights #immigration #intelligence #internet #islam #it_security #judaism #life_expectancy #morals #nigeria #overpopulation #parenting #pentecostalism #politics #population #religion #research #science #smoking #the_environment #the_internet #tolerance #vaccines

Social Media

References: (What's this?)

Book Cover

Book Cover

The Good Country Index. Published by The Good Country Inc., New York, USA. Website: goodcountry.org. The Good Country Index gauges how well countries are doing in helping international development. Edition 1.2 (2017) has 35 criteria.

Charities Aid Foundation
World Giving Index. On www.cafonline.org.

CIA
(2013) World Factbook. The USA Government's Central Intelligence Agency (USA CIA) publishes The World Factbook, and the online version is frequently updated.

Crabtree, Vexen
(2019) "What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life" (2019). Accessed 2019 Jan 13.

The Fraser Institute
(2016) The Human Freedom Index. Published by The Cato Institute, The Fraser Institute and the Friedrich Naumann Foundation for Freedom. Covers data up to 2014. On www.fraserinstitute.org/.../human-freedom-index-2016.

Gallup
(2009) Religiosity. gallup.com/poll/142727/.... The survey question was "Is religion an important part of your daily life?" and results are charted for those who said "yes". 1000 adults were polled in each of 114 countries.

Grim & Finke. Dr Grim is senior researcher in religion and world affairs at the Pew Research Center, Washington, D.C, USA. Finke is Professor of Sociology and Religious Studies at the Pennsylvania State University.
(2011) The Price of Freedom Denied. Subtitled: "Religious Persecution and Conflict in the Twenty-First Century". Amazon Kindle digital edition. Published by Cambridge University Press, UK. An e-book.

Human Rights Watch
(2018) World Report 2018. Covering the events of 2017.

Lonely Planet
(2014) The World. Subtitled: "A Traveller's Guide to the Planet". Published by Lonely Planet, London, UK. Each chapter is devoted to a specific country and includes a list of the most interesting places to visit and a few other cultural notes.

Lynn, Harvey & Nyborg
(2009) Average intelligence predicts atheism rates across 137 nations. Richard Lynn, John Harvey and Helmuth Nyborg. Published in Intelligence (2009 Jan/Feb) vol. 37 issue 1 pages 11-15. Online at www.sciencedirect.com, accessed 2009 Sep 15.

Terence O. Ranger
(2008, Ed.) Evangelical Christianity And Democracy in Africa. Published by Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK. Part of the series of books on Evangelical Christianity and Democracy in the Global South (series editor Timothy Samuel Shah).

United Nations
(2011) Human Development Report. Published by the UN Development Programme. This edition had the theme of Sustainability and Equity: A Better Future for All. Available on hdr.undp.org/... UN Development Program: About the Human Development Index.
(2013) Human Development Report. Published by the UN Development Programme. This edition had the theme of The Rise of the South: Human Progress in a Diverse World. Available on hdr.undp.org/... UN Development Program: About the Human Development Index.
(2017) Human Development Report. Published by the UN Development Programme. Data for 2015. Available on hdr.undp.org/.

Walk Free Foundation
(2018) Global Slavery Index. Published on www.walkfreefoundation.org/.

World Health Organisation. (WHO)
(2014) Global Status Report on Alcohol and Health. A copy can be found on the WHO website. Accessed 2015 Jan 04. It "presents a comprehensive perspective on the global, regional and country consumption of alcohol, patterns of drinking, health consequences and policy responses in Member States" and was published in Geneva on 2014 May 12.

Footnotes

  1. World Bank data on data.worldbank.org accessed 2013 Nov 04.^
  2. UN (2011) .^
  3. UN (2017). Table 1.^
  4. UN (2017). Gross National Income, per person. Table 1.^
  5. International Standards Organisation (ISO) standard ISO3166-1, on www.iso.org, accessed 2013 May 01.^
  6. Top level domains (TLDs) are managed by the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) on www.iana.org.^
  7. According to ISO4217.^
  8. According to ITU-T.^
  9. CIA (2013). Https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/ni.html accessed 2014 Apr 27.^
  10. Lonely Planet (2014). Chapter "Nigeria".^
  11. UN (2017). Table 1. Lower is better.^
  12. "What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life" by Vexen Crabtree (2019)^
  13. UN (2017). Dashboard 2. Higher is worse. Old-age is counted as 65+, and ratio is of these to people ages 15-64. Projections are for 2030 based on medium-fertility variant of growth.^
  14. UN (2013). Table 11.^
  15. UN (2013). Table 14. Births per woman (2012), expressed as deviance (positive or negative) from the value of 2.0.^
  16. UN (2017). Table 1. Higher is better.^^
  17. UN (2013). Table 14.^
  18. Human Rights Watch (2018). Negative and positive comments have been added to create a score for each country covered in the report.^
  19. Reporters Without Borders Report "2013 World Press Freedom Index: Dashed hopes after spring" at fr.rsf.org/.../classement_2013_gb-bd.pdf accessed 2013 Feb.^
  20. Walk Free Foundation (2018) .^
  21. Transparency International Corruption Perceptions Index (2017). Accessed 2017 Dec 30. The scores given are the TI average for the years 2012-2016.^
  22. Sources:^
  23. Fraser Institute, the (2016). Covers data for 2014.^
  24. ^
  25. Human Rights Watch (2018). p391-397.^
  26. The Islamic Rejection of Human Rights and the Moral Failures of the Muslim World^
  27. Gallup (2009) .^
  28. Zuckerman, P. (2007). Atheism: contemporary numbers and patterns. In M.Martin (Ed.), The Cambridge Companion to Atheism. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. In "Average intelligence predicts atheism rates across 137 nations" by Lynn et al. (2009)47.^
  29. Pew Forum (2012) publication "The Global Religious Landscape: A Report on the Size and Distribution of the World´s Major Religious Groups as of 2010" (2012 Dec 18) accessed 2013 May 01.^
  30. CIA (2013). Https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/ar.html accessed 2014 Apr 27.^
  31. Terence (2008). Chapter "Preface" by Timothy Shah .^
  32. Terence (2008). Chapter 1 chapter by Dr Cyril Imo.Added to this page on 2019 Jan 02.^
  33. Grim & Finke (2011). Chapter 4 "Case Studies: Japan, Brazil, and Nigeria" digital location 2717,2748.^
  34. Grim & Finke (2011). Chapter 4 "Case Studies: Japan, Brazil, and Nigeria" digital location 2776.^
  35. Freedom House publication "Freedom on the Net 2012" at www.freedomhouse.org/.../FOTN%202012%20-%20Tables%20and%20Charts%20FINAL.pdf accessed 2013 Feb 05.^
  36. internetlivestats.com/internet-users-by-country accessed 2017 Mar 10.^
  37. % of internet access via native IPv6 compared to IPv4. As of 2017 Jun 20, from http://www.cidr-report.org. Accessed 2017 Jun 20.^
  38. "What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life: 3.4. Malware and Email Spam" by Vexen Crabtree (2019)^
  39. UN (2017). Table 5. Lower is better.^
  40. WHO (2014). Appendix 1. Alcohol Per Capita Consumption in liters of pure alcohol, 15+ years age population, consumed in 2010. Lower is better.^
  41. The Good Country Index (2017) .^^
  42. World Health Organisation data for 2011-2015 from 7 data series accessed 2017 May 21. Details in "Immunizations: International Statistics on Vaccines and the Autism Scare: 3. World Health Organisation Statistics" by Vexen Crabtree (2017).^
  43. Annual Cigarette Consumption Per Adult (age 15 and above) - compustible cigarettes. Euromonitor International (2014), via tobaccoatlas.org/topic/cigarette-use-globally/ . Accessed 2017 Jun 20.^
  44. Charities Aid Foundation. Average ranking across years 2013-2016. Lower is better.^
  45. UN (2013). Table 9. Higher is better. Table 9. The UN's data is the latest available from a range of data from 2007-2011.^
  46. Yale University Center for Environmental Law & Policy 2018 EPI.^
  47. Lynn, Harvey & Nyborg (2009) .^

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