The Human Truth Foundation

Mozambique (Republic of Mozambique)

By Vexen Crabtree 2013

#mozambique

Mozambique
Republic of Mozambique
StatusIndependent State
Social and Moral Index164th best
CapitalMaputo
Land Area 786 380km21
LocationAfrica
Population29.5m2
Life Expectancy55.48yrs (2017)3
GNI$1 098 (2017)4
ISO3166-1 CodesMZ, MOZ, 5085
Internet Domain.mz6
CurrencyMeticail (MZM)7
Telephone+2588

1. Overview

#india #portugal

Almost five centuries as a Portuguese colony came to a close with independence in 1975. Large-scale emigration, economic dependence on South Africa, a severe drought, and a prolonged civil war hindered the country's development until the mid 1990s. The ruling Front for the Liberation of Mozambique (Frelimo) party formally abandoned Marxism in 1989, and a new constitution the following year provided for multiparty elections and a free market economy. A UN-negotiated peace agreement between Frelimo and rebel Mozambique National Resistance (Renamo) forces ended the fighting in 1992. In December 2004, Mozambique underwent a delicate transition as Joaquim CHISSANO stepped down after 18 years in office. His elected successor, Armando Emilio GUEBUZA, promised to continue the sound economic policies that have encouraged foreign investment. President GUEBUZA was reelected to a second term in October 2009. However, the elections were flawed by voter fraud, questionable disqualification of candidates, and Frelimo use of government resources during the campaign. As a result, Freedom House removed Mozambique from its list of electoral democracies.

CIA's The World Factbook (2013)9

Book CoverA mix of Swahili, Indian, Portuguese and African influences, overlooked Mozambique is diverse in its cultural palette and natural attractions. Mozambique´s star is on the rise. After two decades of peace, the economy is growing. Glitzy high-rises and lively street cafes compete for attention with remote island archipelagos and a steadily increasing population of wild animals. A new bridge over the Zambezi River links north and south for the first time. Yet, despite the development, centuries-old rhythms still dominate and the country moves to its own beat.Yet this enigmatic southeast African country embraced by the Indian Ocean is well off most travellers´ maps. Still, it has much to offer those who venture here. Canny travellers are venturing in to discover long, dune-fringed beaches, turquoise waters glittering with shoals of colourful fish, well-preserved corals, remote archipelagos in the north, pounding surf in the south.

Discovering these attractions is not always easy, but it is unfailingly rewarding. Bring along some patience, some endurance for long bus rides, a sense of adventure, and jump in for the journey of a lifetime.

"The World" by Lonely Planet (2014)10

2. Mozambique National and Social Development

#economics #human_development

UN HDI (2016)11
Pos.Lower is better
Rank11
1Norway1
2Australia2
3Switzerland2
...
178Guinea-Bissau178
179Eritrea179
180Sierra Leone179
181Mozambique181
182S. Sudan181
183Guinea183
184Burundi184
185Burkina Faso185
World Avg94.3
q=188.
Gross National Income Per-Capita (2011)12
Pos.Higher is better
PPP $12
1Qatar$129 916
2Singapore$78 162
3Kuwait$76 075
...
182Comoros$1 335
183Madagascar$1 320
184Togo$1 262
185Mozambique$1 098
186Malawi$1 073
187Guinea$1 058
188Niger$0 889
189Burundi$0 691
World Avg$17 240
q=193.
Social & Moral
Development Index
13,14
Pos.Lower is better
Avg Rank13,14
1Taiwan30.2
2Denmark30.5
3Norway30.9
...
161Nigeria111.6
162Haiti112.9
163Myanmar (Burma)113.2
164Mozambique113.4
165Liberia115.9
166Kiribati116.2
167Zimbabwe117.1
168N. Korea117.1
World Avg86.4
q=195.

The United Nations produces an annual Human Development Report which includes the Human Development Index. The factors taken into account include life expectancy, education and schooling and Gross National Income (GNI) amongst many others..

The Social and Moral Development Index concentrates on moral issues and human rights, violence, public health, equality, tolerance, freedom and effectiveness in climate change mitigation and environmentalism, and on some technological issues. A country scores higher for achieving well in those areas, and for sustaining that achievement in the long term. Those countries towards the top of this index can truly said to be setting good examples and leading humankind onwards into a bright, humane, and free future. See: Which are the Best Countries in the World? The Social and Moral Development Index.

3. Mozambique's Demographics

#birth_control #demographics #health #immigration #life_expectancy #longevity #migration #overpopulation #population

Population:

Mozambique's population is predicted to rise to 35.91 million by 2030. These millions of extra people will all need space to live, food to eat, energy to consume, and will increase the burden on the planet's resources. This country has a fertility rate of 4.75. The fertility rate is, in simple terms, the average amount of children that each woman has. The higher the figure, the quicker the population is growing, although, to calculate the rate you also need to take into account morbidity, i.e., the rate at which people die. If people live healthy and long lives and morbidity is low, then, 2.0 approximates to the replacement rate, which would keep the population stable. If all countries had such a fertility rate, population growth would end. The actual replacement rate in most developed countries is around 2.1.

Population (2018)2
Pos.
Population2
1China1.4b
2India1.4b
3USA327.1m
...
44Malaysia31.5m
45Angola30.8m
46Ghana29.8m
47Mozambique29.5m
48Venezuela28.9m
49Yemen28.5m
50Nepal28.1m
51Madagascar26.3m
World Avg39.0m
q=195.
Life Expectancy (2015)12
Pos.Higher is better
Years12
1Hong Kong84.16
2Japan83.68
3Italy83.34
...
179Cameroon55.96
180Somalia55.71
181Guinea-Bissau55.49
182Mozambique55.48
183Nigeria53.06
184Angola52.70
185Chad51.90
186Ivory Coast51.89
World Avg71.27
q=190.
Fertility Rate (2013)15
Pos.2.0 is best15
1N. Korea2.00
2Brunei1.99
3St Vincent & Grenadines2.01
...
154Kenya4.64
155Senegal4.65
156Gambia4.73
157Mozambique4.75
158Comoros4.78
159Sierra Leone4.78
160Guinea-Bissau4.92
161Yemen4.98
World Avg2.81
q=180.
Old-Age Dependency Ratio (2016)16
Pos.Lower is better
Per 10016
1Uganda04.3
2Mali04.5
3Chad04.7
...
32Tanzania06.2
33Sao Tome & Principe06.2
34Comoros06.3
35Mozambique06.4
36Madagascar06.4
37Papua New Guinea06.4
38Ghana06.5
39Palestine06.5
World Avg18.3
q=185.

Migration:

Immigrants (2017)17
Pos.
%17
1UAE88.4%
2Kuwait75.5%
3Qatar65.2%
...
159Zambia0.9%
160Bangladesh0.9%
161Tanzania0.9%
162Mozambique0.8%
163Jamaica0.8%
164El Salvador0.7%
165Laos0.7%
166Nicaragua0.7%
World Avg9.4%
q=195.
Emigrants (2010)18
Pos.
%18
1Dominica104.8%
2Palestine68.4%
3Samoa67.3%
...
108Malaysia5.3%
109Guinea5.2%
110Turkmenistan5.0%
111Mozambique5.0%
112Senegal5.0%
113Iraq4.9%
114Denmark4.7%
115Yemen4.7%
World Avg11.5%
q=192.

4. Human Rights, Equality & Tolerance

#equality #freedom #human_rights #mozambique #politics #tolerance

Mozambique is generally poor at ensuring human rights and freedom compared to the rest of the world. Mozambique does better than average in terms of commentary in Human Rights Watch reports19, supporting press freedom20 and in LGBT equality21. Mozambique does not succeed in everything, however. It does worse than average in terms of its nominal commitment to Human Rights22, supporting personal, civil & economic freedoms23 (still good for Africa), speed of uptake of HR treaties24 and in opposing gender inequality25. Government and rebel (now reformed into a political party, RENAMO) both continued to commit violent abuses with impunity and major crimes and murders are often not investigated at all26. Progress is always going to be difficult in a country where the richest 10% hold 46% of the country's entire income27.

For tables, charts and commentary, see:

5. Mozambique's Health

#alcohol #birth_control #demographics #health #life_expectancy #longevity #Mozambique #obesity #overpopulation #parenting #population #smoking #vaccines

Health (2020)28,29
Pos.Lower is better
Avg Rank28,29
1Hong Kong18.0
2Singapore41.5
3Maldives43.3
...
161Liberia112.3
162Togo113.3
163Philippines113.5
164Mozambique114.0
165Uganda114.1
166Argentina114.3
167Central African Rep.114.9
168S. Africa114.9
169Venezuela115.1
World Avg92.3
q=187.

The countries with the best overall approach to public health, in terms of both public policy and individual lifestyle choices, are Hong Kong, Singapore and The Maldives28. These countries are worth emulating. And, although often through no fault of the average citizen, the worst countries are S. Sudan, Nigeria and Equatorial Guinea28.

The data sets used to calculate points for each country are its average life expectancy, its alcohol consumption rate, its fertility rate, its smoking rate, its suicide rate, its food aid and health contributions and WHO compliance, the prevalence of overweight adults, its adolescent birth rate and its immunizations take-up. The regions with the best average results per country are Scandinavia, Asia and Europe28, whereas the worst are Africa, Micronesia and Polynesia28.

Health:

Mozambique is a pretty unhealthy country. Mozambique comes in the best 20 when it comes to its smoking rate30. It does better than average in its alcohol consumption rate31. However Mozambique performs less well in most areas. It does worse than average for its immunizations take-up32 and in its fertility rate15. And finally, it falls into the worst-performing 20 in terms of its food aid and health contributions and WHO compliance33, its adolescent birth rate25 and in its average life expectancy12. The number of overweight adults has increased by 14% between 1976 and 2016.
Life Expectancy (2015)12
Pos.Higher is better
Years12
1Hong Kong84.16
2Japan83.68
3Italy83.34
...
179Cameroon55.96
180Somalia55.71
181Guinea-Bissau55.49
182Mozambique55.48
183Nigeria53.06
184Angola52.70
185Chad51.90
186Ivory Coast51.89
World Avg71.27
q=190.
Alcohol Consumption (2016)31
Pos.Lower is better
Per Capita31
1Bangladesh0.0
2Kuwait0.0
3Libya0.0
...
44Singapore2.0
45Turkey2.0
46Timor-Leste (E. Timor)2.1
47Mozambique2.4
48Samoa2.5
49Micronesia2.5
50Guatemala2.5
51Congo, DR2.6
World Avg6.2
q=189.
Fertility Rate (2013)15
Pos.2.0 is best15
1N. Korea2.00
2Brunei1.99
3St Vincent & Grenadines2.01
...
154Kenya4.64
155Senegal4.65
156Gambia4.73
157Mozambique4.75
158Comoros4.78
159Sierra Leone4.78
160Guinea-Bissau4.92
161Yemen4.98
World Avg2.81
q=180.
Smoking Rates (2014)30
Pos.Higher is worse30
182Montenegro4 125
181Belarus3 831
180Lebanon3 023
...
17Lesotho 88
16Afghanistan 84
15Nepal 83
14Mozambique 82
13Tonga 81
12Malawi 80
11Suriname 79
10Guyana 77
World Avg 819
q=182.
Food Aid, Health Contributions & WHO Compliance (2017)33
Pos.Lower is better
Rank33
1Sweden1
2Ireland2
3Denmark3
...
150Nigeria150
151St Lucia151
152Trinidad & Tobago152
153Mozambique153
154Cape Verde154
155Bahamas155
156Libya156
157Papua New Guinea157
World Avg82.0
q=163.
Overweight Adults (2016)34
Pos.Lower is better
%34
1Vietnam18.3
2India19.7
3Bangladesh20.0
...
21Laos25.4
22Kenya25.5
23Central African Rep.26.2
24Mozambique26.4
25Guinea26.6
26Equatorial Guinea26.7
27Comoros27.1
28Bhutan27.1
World Avg49.0
q=191.

Children's Health:

Adolescent Birth Rate (2015)25
Pos.Lower is better
Per 100025
1N. Korea0.5
2S. Korea1.6
3Switzerland2.9
...
178Chad133.5
179Ivory Coast135.5
180Malawi136.2
181Mozambique139.7
182Guinea140.6
183Angola164.3
184Mali174.6
185Niger202.4
World Avg47.9
q=185.
Infant Immunizations 2011-2015 (2015)32
Pos.Higher is better
Avg %32
1Hungary99.0
2China99.0
3Uzbekistan98.9
...
150Uganda82.5
151Comoros81.8
152Marshall Islands81.8
153Mozambique81.4
154Venezuela80.6
155Myanmar (Burma)80.3
156Benin80.1
157Guinea-Bissau80.1
World Avg88.3
q=194.

6. Mozambique's Modernity and Learning

#education #intelligence #modernity #research #science #technology #the_internet

Modernity and Learning (2020)35
Pos.Lower is better
Avg Rank35
1Finland8.0
2Belgium9.1
3Denmark10.0
...
164Cambodia110.0
165Gambia110.3
166Afghanistan112.5
167Mozambique113.8
168Congo, (Brazzaville)115.8
169Congo, DR116.0
170Lesotho116.7
171Guinea117.5
172Chad118.6
World Avg69.0
q=180.

Modernity and Education:

Research and Development (2016)
Pos.Higher is better
% RDP PPP
1S. Korea4.2936
2Israel4.1136
3Japan3.5836
...
65Macedonia0.4437
66Puerto Rico0.4437
67Jordan0.4338
68Mozambique0.4239
69Thailand0.3940
70Tanzania0.3839
71Romania0.3836
72Montenegro0.3837
World Avg0.84
q=126.
Secondary Education (2018)41
Pos.Higher is better41
1Luxembourg100.0%
2Estonia100.0%
3Austria100.0%
...
152Central African Rep.22.1%
153Malawi21.8%
154Cambodia21.3%
155Mozambique19.3%
156Mauritania18.8%
157Senegal17.6%
158Sudan17.5%
159Ethiopia17.1%
World Avg63.0%
q=169.
Length of Schooling (2018)42
Pos.Higher is better
Years42
1Australia22.1
2Belgium19.7
3Finland19.3
...
166Sierra Leone10.2
167Afghanistan10.1
168Papua New Guinea10.0
169Mozambique9.7
170Nigeria9.7
171Congo, DR9.7
172Ivory Coast9.6
173Liberia9.6
World Avg13.2
q=193.
Intellectual Endeavours (2017)33
Pos.Lower is better
Rank33
1Ukraine1
2Czechia2
3Hungary3
...
144Congo, (Brazzaville)144
145Qatar145
146Philippines146
147Mozambique147
148Lesotho148
149Venezuela149
150Libya150
151Gabon151
World Avg82.0
q=163.
IQ (2006)43
Pos.Higher is better43
1Hong Kong108
2Singapore108
3S. Korea106
...
131Zimbabwe66
132Senegal66
133Sierra Leone64
134Mozambique64
135Ethiopia64
136Central African Rep.64
137Congo, (Brazzaville)64
138Cameroon64
World Avg85.6
q=138.

Technology and Information:

Internet Users (2016)44
Pos.Higher is better44
1Iceland100%
2Faroe Islands99%
3Norway98%
...
182Comoros7%
183Afghanistan7%
184Malawi7%
185Mozambique6%
186Benin6%
187Tanzania5%
188Central African Rep.5%
189Madagascar4%
World Avg48.1%
q=201.

7. National Culture

#corruption #happiness #politics

Corruption (2012-2016)45
Pos.Higher is better
Avg Score45
1Denmark90.8
2New Zealand90.6
3Finland89.4
...
122Timor-Leste (E. Timor)30.8
123Togo30.4
124Sierra Leone30.2
125Mozambique30.0
126Guatemala30.0
127Mauritania29.8
128Guyana29.6
129Pakistan29.2
World Avg43.05
q=176.
Happiness (2018)46
Pos.Higher is better46
1Finland7.6
2Norway7.6
3Denmark7.6
...
120Cambodia4.4
121Burkina Faso4.4
122Egypt4.4
123Mozambique4.4
124Kenya4.4
125Zambia4.4
126Mauritania4.4
127Ethiopia4.4
World Avg5.38
q=156.
Creativity and Culture (2017)33
Pos.Lower is better
Rank33
1Belgium1
2Netherlands2
3Estonia3
...
124Burkina Faso124
125Dominican Rep.125
126Oman126
127Mozambique127
128Niger128
129Sierra Leone129
130Bangladesh130
131Kazakhstan131
World Avg82.0
q=163.
Open Trading, Aid and Development (2017)33
Pos.Lower is better
Rank33
1Ireland1
2Denmark2
3Sweden3
...
90Botswana90
91Guinea-Bissau91
92Burundi92
93Mozambique93
94Guinea94
95Ivory Coast95
96Peru96
97Libya97
World Avg82.0
q=163.

8. Peace Versus Instability

#extremism #human_development #peace #politics #religious_violence #terrorism

Global Peace Index (2012)47
Pos.Lower is better47
1Iceland1.11
2New Zealand1.24
3Denmark1.24
...
45Latvia1.77
46UAE1.79
47Kuwait1.79
48Mozambique1.80
49Namibia1.80
50Ghana1.81
51Zambia1.83
52Sierra Leone1.86
World Avg2.02
q=157.
Peacekeeping and Security (2017)33
Pos.Lower is better
Rank33
1Samoa1
2S. Africa2
3Tunisia3
...
103Antigua & Barbuda103
104Latvia104
105Laos105
106Mozambique106
107Poland107
108Ukraine108
109Belgium109
110Panama110
World Avg82.0
q=163.
Refugees and UN Treaties (2017)33
Pos.Lower is better
Rank33
1Austria1
2Germany2
3Netherlands3
...
62Indonesia62
63Uganda63
64Moldova64
65Mozambique65
66Burkina Faso66
67Kyrgyzstan66
68Iran68
69Malawi69
World Avg82.0
q=163.
Impact of Terrorism (2019)48
Pos.Lower is better
Score48
1Togo0.00
2Mongolia0.00
3Swaziland0.00
...
123UK5.41
124Burkina Faso5.42
125Myanmar (Burma)5.51
126Mozambique5.54
127Ukraine5.55
128Niger5.60
129USA5.69
130Kenya5.76
World Avg2.78
q=150.

9. The Natural Environment

#biodiversity #climate_change #over-exploitation #the_environment

Forest Area Change 1990-2015 (2015)49
Pos.Higher is better
%49
1Iceland205.6
2Bahrain144.4
3Uruguay131.3
...
142Guinea-Bissau-11.0
143Senegal-11.5
144Guinea-12.4
145Mozambique-12.5
146Bolivia-12.8
147Dominica-13.3
148Liberia-15.2
149Belize-15.5
World Avg02.8
q=184.
Environmental Performance (2018)50
Pos.Higher is better50
1Switzerland87.4
2France84.0
3Denmark81.6
...
132Vietnam47.0
133Indonesia46.9
134Guinea46.6
135Mozambique46.4
136Uzbekistan45.9
137Chad45.3
138Myanmar (Burma)45.3
139Ivory Coast45.3
World Avg56.4
q=180.
Energy to GDP Efficiency (2014)51
Pos.Higher is better51
1Hong Kong26.32
2Sri Lanka20.00
3Panama17.86
...
112Ukraine03.28
113Togo02.88
114Ethiopia02.81
115Mozambique02.47
116Iceland02.41
117Zimbabwe02.31
118Trinidad & Tobago02.07
119Serbia00.72
World Avg09.29
q=119.
Convention on Biological Diversity
Pos.Earlier is better
Signed
1China1993 Dec 29
2Guinea1993 Dec 29
3Cook Islands1993 Dec 29
...
124Algeria1995 Nov 12
125Morocco1995 Nov 19
126Bhutan1995 Nov 23
127Mozambique1995 Nov 23
128Solomon Islands1996 Jan 01
129Togo1996 Jan 02
130Botswana1996 Jan 10
131Moldova1996 Jan 18
World Avg1899 Dec 30
q=197.
Rational Beliefs on the Environment (2011)52
Pos.Higher is better
%52
1Argentina78.3%
2Greece77.6%
3Brazil77.1%
...
46Turkey47.4%
47Sudan46.9%
48Malaysia46.6%
49Mozambique46.5%
50Laos45.3%
51Slovenia45.1%
52Spain44.8%
53Tanzania44.2%
World Avg39.9%
q=145.

10. Economic Inequality and Poverty

#capitalism #economics #health #inequality #life_expectancy #poverty #social_development

Inequality in Life Expectancy (2019)53
Pos.Higher is worse53
184Chad40.90
183Central African Rep.40.10
182Sierra Leone39.00
...
165Togo30.50
164Mauritania30.00
163Pakistan29.90
162Mozambique29.80
161Liberia29.80
160Comoros28.90
159Burundi28.50
158Gambia28.50
World Avg14.59
q=184.
Income Inequality (Gini Coefficient) (2017)54
Pos.Lower is better
%54
1Ukraine25.0
2Belarus25.4
3Slovenia25.4
...
144Swaziland51.5
145Botswana53.3
146Brazil53.3
147Mozambique54.0
148Lesotho54.2
149Central African Rep.56.2
150Zambia57.1
151Namibia59.1
World Avg38.1
q=152.
Multidimensional Poverty (2018)55
Pos.Lower is better
Severity55
1Armenia.001
2Ukraine.001
3Serbia.001
...
90Guinea-Bissau.372
91Congo, DR.389
92Burundi.403
93Mozambique.411
94Madagascar.453
95Mali.457
96Central African Rep..465
97Ethiopia.489
World Avg.154
q=101.

11. Religion and Beliefs

#belief #buddhism #christianity #god #hinduism #islam #judaism #religion

Disbelief In God (2007)56
Pos.Higher is better
%56
1Vietnam81
2Japan65
3Sweden64
...
49Italy6
50Laos5
51Ireland5
52Mozambique5
53Zimbabwe4
54Namibia4
55Iran4
56Mexico4
World Avg9.9
q=137.

Data from the Pew Forum, a professional polling outfit, states that in 2010 the religious makeup of this country was as follows in the table below57:

Christian56.7%
Muslim18%
Hindu0.1%
Buddhist0.1%
Folk Religion7.4%
Jew0.1%
Unaffiliated17.9%

The CIA World Factbook has slightly different data, and states: Catholic 28.4%, Protestant 27.7% (Zionist Christian 15.5%, Evangelical Pentecostal 10.9%, Anglican 1.3%), Muslim 17.9%, other 7.2%, none 18.7% (1997 census)58.

Links: