The Human Truth Foundation

Sao Tome & Principe (Democratic Republic of Sao Tome and Principe)

By Vexen Crabtree 2013


Comments:
FB, LJ

#climate_change #economics #homosexuality #the_environment

Sao Tome & Principe
Democratic Republic of Sao Tome and Principe
StatusIndependent State
CapitalSao Tome
Land Area 960km21
LocationAfrica
GroupingsSmall Islands
Population0.2m (2011)2
Life Expectancy66.58yrs (2017)3
GNI$3 070 (2017)4
ISO3166-1 CodesST, STP, 6785
Internet Domain.st6
CurrencyDobra (STD)7
Telephone+2398

1. Overview

Discovered and claimed by Portugal in the late 15th century, the islands' sugar-based economy gave way to coffee and cocoa in the 19th century - all grown with African plantation slave labor, a form of which lingered into the 20th century. While independence was achieved in 1975, democratic reforms were not instituted until the late 1980s. The country held its first free elections in 1991, but frequent internal wrangling between the various political parties precipitated repeated changes in leadership and two failed coup attempts in 1995 and 2003. In 2012, three opposition parties combined in a no confidence vote to bring down the majority government of former Prime Minister Patrice TROVOADA. The new government of Prime Minister Gabriel Arcanjo Ferreira DA COSTA is entirely composed of opposition party members with limited experience in governance. The recent discovery of oil in the Gulf of Guinea promises to attract increased attention to the small island nation.

CIA's The World Factbook (2013)9

Book CoverThis nation is full of beauty: rainforests blanket rolling hills and backdrop spellbinding beaches, tropical birds circle stark volcanic rock formations and aquatic life patrols immaculate shores. If you adore quietude, take a trip to São Tomé and Príncipe, Africa´s second-smallest country. These two tiny volcanic bumps anchored off the Gabonese coast easily win the hearts of foreigners with their Portuguese-Creole flavour and relaxed vibes, and it won´t take too long before you´re infected with the pervasive leve leve (which loosely means `take it easy´) mood.

The sublime laid-back tempo is enhanced by a wealth of natural attractions: miles of perfect palm-fringed beaches, huge swaths of emerald rainforest, soaring volcanic peaks and mellow fishing villages. The birdlife is excellent, and endemic plants (especially orchids) are plentiful. In season, turtle- and whale-watching opportunities abound.

This two-island nation has its cultural gems as well, with a surprising number of heritage buildings dating back to the colonial era. Tourism is still low-key and is being developed in a controlled, ecologically mindful way. No tacky resorts, just a number of locally run, enticing, nature-oriented lodges.

"The World" by Lonely Planet (2014)10

2. Sao Tome & Principe National and Social Development

#human_development

UN HDI (2016)11
Pos.Lower is better
Rank11
1Norway1
2Australia2
3Switzerland2
...
139Zambia139
140Bangladesh139
141Ghana139
142Sao Tome & Principe142
143Cambodia143
144Nepal144
145Myanmar (Burma)145
146Kenya146
World Avg94.3
q=188.
Social & Moral
Development Index
12
Pos.Higher is better
Points12
1Denmark83.6
2Finland83.1
3Sweden82.6
...
131Timor-Leste (E. Timor)49.4
132Dominica49.2
133Burkina Faso49.2
134Sao Tome & Principe49.1
135Micronesia49.0
136Comoros49.0
137Kiribati49.0
138N. Korea48.9
World Avg55.4
q=198.

The United Nations produces an annual Human Development Report which includes the Human Development Index. The factors taken into account include life expectancy, education and schooling and Gross National Income (GNI) amongst many others..

The Social and Moral Development Index concentrates on moral issues and human rights, violence, public health, equality, tolerance, freedom and effectiveness in climate change mitigation and environmentalism, and on some technological issues. A country scores higher for achieving well in those areas, and for sustaining that achievement in the long term. Those countries towards the top of this index can truly said to be setting good examples and leading humankind onwards into a bright, humane, and free future. See: What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life.

3. Population and Demographics

#birth_control #demographics #health #immigration #life_expectancy #longevity #overpopulation #population

Old-Age Dependency Ratio (2016)13
Pos.Lower is better
Per 10013
1Uganda04.3
2Mali04.5
3Chad04.7
...
30Kenya06.1
31S. Sudan06.2
32Tanzania06.2
33Sao Tome & Principe06.2
34Comoros06.3
35Mozambique06.4
36Madagascar06.4
37Papua New Guinea06.4
World Avg18.3
q=185.
Emigrants (2010)14
Pos.
%14
1Dominica104.8%
2Palestine68.4%
3Samoa67.3%
...
22Kazakhstan23.6%
23St Lucia23.3%
24Macedonia21.9%
25Sao Tome & Principe21.9%
26Moldova21.5%
27Fiji21.3%
28Portugal20.8%
29Lesotho20.5%
World Avg11.5%
q=192.

Fertility Rate (2013)15
Pos.2.0 is best15
1N. Korea2.00
2Brunei1.99
3St Vincent & Grenadines2.01
...
130Bolivia3.25
131Pakistan3.25
132Micronesia3.33
133Sao Tome & Principe3.52
134Djibouti3.61
135Vanuatu3.77
136Samoa3.77
137Tonga3.81
World Avg2.81
q=180.

The fertility rate is, in simple terms, the average amount of children that each woman has. The higher the figure, the quicker the population is growing, although, to calculate the rate you also need to take into account morbidity, i.e., the rate at which people die. If people live healthy and long lives and morbidity is low, then, 2.0 approximates to the replacement rate, which would keep the population stable. If all countries had such a fertility rate, population growth would end. The actual replacement rate in most developed countries is around 2.1.

Immigrants (2010)14
Pos.
%14
1Qatar86.5%
2Monaco71.6%
3UAE70.0%
...
97Chad3.4%
98Swaziland3.4%
99Mauritius3.3%
100Sao Tome & Principe3.2%
101Nepal3.2%
102Azerbaijan3.0%
103Mauritania2.9%
104Zimbabwe2.9%
World Avg9.2%
q=192.
Life Expectancy (2015)16
Pos.Higher is better
Years16
1Hong Kong84.16
2Japan83.68
3Italy83.34
...
134Solomon Islands68.11
135Senegal66.93
136Laos66.60
137Sao Tome & Principe66.58
138Guyana66.50
139Pakistan66.37
140Kiribati66.23
141Myanmar (Burma)66.12
World Avg71.27
q=190.
Population (2012)17
Pos.
Population17
1China1.4b
2India1.3b
3USA315.8m
...
175Vanuatu0.3m
176Samoa0.2m
177St Lucia0.2m
178Sao Tome & Principe0.2m
179Micronesia0.1m
180St Vincent & Grenadines0.1m
181Grenada0.1m
182Tonga0.1m
World Avg36.0m
q=195.

Sao Tome & Principe's population is predicted to rise to 234 630 by 2030. This country has a fertility rate of 3.52. The fertility rate is, in simple terms, the average amount of children that each woman has. The higher the figure, the quicker the population is growing, although, to calculate the rate you also need to take into account morbidity, i.e., the rate at which people die. If people live healthy and long lives and morbidity is low, then, 2.0 approximates to the replacement rate, which would keep the population stable. If all countries had such a fertility rate, population growth would end. The actual replacement rate in most developed countries is around 2.1.

4. Politics and Freedom

#corruption #democracy #human_rights #politics

Corruption (2012-2016)18
Pos.Higher is better
Avg Score18
1Denmark90.8
2New Zealand90.6
3Finland89.4
...
68Italy43.8
69S. Africa43.6
70Montenegro43.2
71Sao Tome & Principe42.8
72Macedonia42.2
73Solomon Islands42.0
74Greece41.8
75Senegal41.8
World Avg43.05
q=176.

Corruption is the abuse of public office for private gain19. There are many forms of corruption. Politicians can sometimes (1) steal money (theft or embezzlement), (2) accept bribes (such as backhanders for awarding government contracts to companies), (3) give bribes (i.e., for electoral support or support in the mass media), (4) improperly coerce others (extortion), (5) give positions of power to friends and family without fairly seeking other applicants for those jobs (cronyism), or (6) grant favours to friends and family (nepotism) such as buying services from them at inflated prices (graft). The least corrupt countries between 2012-2016 were Denmark, New Zealand and Finland18 and the worst were Somalia, N. Korea and Afghanistan18.

Nominal Commitment to HR (2009)20
Pos.Higher is better
Treaties20
1Argentina24
2Chile23
3Costa Rica23
...
175Eritrea8
176Indonesia7
177N. Korea7
178Sao Tome & Principe7
179Grenada7
180UAE7
181St Lucia6
182Brunei6
World Avg15.1
q=194.

There are many international agreements on human rights, and, many mechanisms by which countries can be brought to account for their actions. Together, these have been the biggest historical movement in the fight against oppression and inhumanity. Or, putting it another way: these are rejected mostly by those who wish to oppress inhumanely. None of them are perfect and many people object to various components and wordings, but, no-one has come up with, and enforced, better methods of controlling the occasional desires that states and peoples have of causing angst for other states and peoples in a violent, unjust or inhumane way. Points are awarded for the number of human rights agreements ratified by the country, plus the acceptance of the petition mechanisms for disputes. The maximum possible score in 2009 was 24.

5. Gender Equality

#christianity #gender #gender_equality #human_rights #misogyny #politics #women

Gender Inequality (2015)21
Pos.Lower is better21
1Switzerland0.04
2Denmark0.04
3Netherlands0.04
...
119Bangladesh0.52
120Senegal0.52
121Uganda0.52
122Sao Tome & Principe0.52
123Iraq0.53
124Zambia0.53
125India0.53
126Zimbabwe0.54
World Avg0.36
q=159.

The UN Human Development Reports include statistics on gender equality which take into account things like maternal mortality, access to political power (seats in parliament) and differences between male and female education rates. Gender inequality is not a necessary part of early human development. Although a separation of roles is almost universal due to different strengths between the genders, this does not have to mean that women are subdued, and, such patriarchialism is not universal in ancient history. Those cultures and peoples who shed, or never developed, the idea that mankind ought to dominate womankind, are better cultures and peoples than those who, even today, cling violently to those mores.

Year Women Can Vote22
Pos.Lower is better
Year22
1New Zealand1893
2Australia1902
3Finland1906
...
163Andorra1973
164Jordan1974
165Solomon Islands1974
166Sao Tome & Principe1975
167Cape Verde1975
168Angola1975
169Mozambique1975
170Portugal1976
World Avg1930
q=189.

Women now have equal rights in the vast majority of countries across the world. Although academic literature oftens talks of when a country "grants women the right to vote", this enforces a backwards way of thinking. Women always had the right to vote, however, they were frequently denied that right. The opposition to women's ability to vote in equality with man was most consistently and powerfully opposed by the Catholic Church, other Christian organisations, Islamic authorities and some other religious and secular traditionalists.

Sao Tome & Principe is an unequal country, with male rights dominating those of women.

See:

6. Religion and Beliefs

#buddhism #christianity #hinduism #islam #judaism

Data from the Pew Forum, a professional polling outfit, states that in 2010 the religious makeup of this country was as follows in the table below23:

Christian82.2%
Muslim0.1%
Hindu0.1%
Buddhist0.1%
Folk Religion2.9%
Jew0.1%
Unaffiliated12.6%

The CIA World Factbook has slightly different data, and states: Catholic 70.3%, Evangelical 3.4%, New Apostolic 2%, Adventist 1.8%, other 3.1%, none 19.4% (2001 census)24.

Links:

7. The Internet

#internet #the_internet

Internet Users (2016)25
Pos.Higher is better25
1Iceland100%
2Faroe Islands99%
3Norway98%
...
137Swaziland28%
138Guatemala27%
139Sudan26%
140Sao Tome & Principe26%
141Yemen25%
142Senegal23%
143Angola23%
144Ivory Coast22%
World Avg48.1%
q=201.
IPv6 Uptake (2017)26
Pos.Higher is better
Ratio26
1Belgium55.4
2Germany41.8
3Switzerland35.1
...
137Nicaragua0.0
138Solomon Islands0.0
139Congo, (Brazzaville)0.0
140Sao Tome & Principe0.0
141Kiribati0.0
142Ivory Coast0.0
143Mauritania0.0
144Iraq0.0
World Avg3.82
q=176.

Internet access has become an essential research tool. It facilitates an endless list of life improvements, from the ability to network and socialize without constraint, to access to a seemingly infinite repository of technical and procedural information on pretty much any task. The universal availability of data has sped up industrial development and personal learning at the national and personal level. Individuals can read any topic they wish regardless of the locality of expert teachers, and, entire nations can develop their technology and understanding of the world simply because they are now exposed to advanced societies and moral discourses online. Like every communications medium, the Internet has issues and causes a small range of problems, but these are insignificant compared to the advantages of having an online populace.

8. Public Health Issues

#alcohol #genetics #health #obesity #public_health #smoking #sociology #UK

Sao Tome & Principe does relatively well in encouraging good health, compared to many other countries. Sao Tome & Principe does better than average when it comes to its smoking rate27, its immunizations take-up28 and in the prevalence of overweight adults29 (but bad for Africa). Sao Tome & Principe does not succeed in everything, however. It does worse than average for its alcohol consumption rate30 and in its adolescent birth rate21. The prevalence of overweight adults has increased by 14% over the last 40 years.

Alcohol Consumption (2016)30
Pos.Lower is better
Per Capita30
1Bangladesh0.0
2Kuwait0.0
3Libya0.0
...
100Philippines6.6
101Cambodia6.7
102Belize6.8
103Sao Tome & Principe6.8
104Dominican Rep.6.9
105Antigua & Barbuda7.0
106Niue7.0
107China7.2
World Avg6.2
q=189.

There is nothing wrong with drinking modest and sensible amounts of alcohol but fitness, physical health, mental health and long-term health all suffer as a result of medium- or heavy- drinking31 and the health risks to the baby when pregnant mothers drink32 are well-known. Aside from the effects on the individual, alcohol misuse impacts on entire economies33 via increased health service costs, policing costs and lost days' work. Worldwide, alcohol misuse is "among the top five risk factors for disease, disability and death" and is a "cause of more than 200 disease and injury conditions in individuals, most notably alcohol dependence, liver cirrhosis, cancers and injuries"34. "In 2012... 5.9% of all global deaths, were attributable to alcohol consumption"35. Deaths from chronic alcohol misuse have been rising for decades, and so has violence, abuse, vandalism and crime all associated with alcohol over-use. The aggression and crime associated with alcohol in some Western countries infringes on the human rights of those who want nothing to do with such behaviour. Many of the social effects of alcohol are psychological and cultural; i.e., people don't have to behave criminally or destructively whilst drunk - it is a culturally learned behaviour. Experiments have shown that behaviour can be controlled: Those who do not wish to behave badly whilst drunk, will not do so.

Overweight Adults (2016)29
Pos.Lower is better
%29
1Vietnam18.3
2India19.7
3Bangladesh20.0
...
57Cameroon33.6
58Mauritania34.4
59Cape Verde34.8
60Sao Tome & Principe35.4
61Seychelles36.8
62Zimbabwe38.2
63Swaziland38.4
64Djibouti38.6
World Avg49.0
q=191.

About one third of the global population is overweight or obese36. Most Western countries are facing an obesity epidemic. Our cultures are having to change to compensate for widespread ill-health. It is costing our health systems a massive amount of money, and is having negative effects on national economies. The situation has persisted for a suitable length of time for our very perceptions to change; opinions on "normal weights" for people and "average sizes" for clothes has shot up37. Over 2 in 3 adults in the UK are overweight37 and this costs the NHS £5.1 billion per year38 and "costs Britain's economy £47bn a year; more than war, terrorism or armed violence"39. We are forgetting how to be healthy.

The causes are not genetic. Most people who say obesity "runs in their family" are wrong. The rate of increase in obesity is many, many times too fast to be accounted for by a change in inherited genes40. Our culture and lifestyle choices are to blame. The causes of the modern obesity epidemic are processed foods, low levels of physical exercise, over-indulgence, poor choices in food products, poor knowledge of nutrition. Most of this is made much worse by well-funded advertising campaigns by food manufacturers selling cheaper mass-produced food. Even some so-called "health foods" contain well over recommended limits of fat, salt and sugar41.

Smoking Rates (2014)27
Pos.Lower is better27
1Guinea 15
2Solomon Islands 26
3Kiribati 28
...
20Tanzania 101
21Liberia 104
22Niger 105
23Sao Tome & Principe 111
24India 111
25Eritrea 114
26Haiti 114
27Peru 116
World Avg 819
q=182.

9. Children's Health

#health #parenting #population #vaccines

Adolescent Birth Rate (2015)21
Pos.Lower is better
Per 100021
1N. Korea0.5
2S. Korea1.6
3Switzerland2.9
...
150Bangladesh83.0
151Benin83.2
152Iraq84.0
153Sao Tome & Principe84.3
154Guyana88.0
155Nicaragua88.8
156Guinea-Bissau89.5
157Zambia90.4
World Avg47.9
q=185.
Infant Immunizations 2011-2015 (2015)28
Pos.Higher is better
Avg %28
1Hungary99.0
2China99.0
3Uzbekistan98.9
...
46Maldives96.2
47Tajikistan96.1
48Rwanda96.1
49Sao Tome & Principe96.0
50Malaysia96.0
51Croatia95.9
52Nicaragua95.9
53Tunisia95.7
World Avg88.3
q=194.

10. More Charts and Comparisons to Other Countries

Gross National Income Per-Capita (2011)16
Pos.Higher is better
PPP $16
1Qatar$129 916
2Singapore$78 162
3Kuwait$76 075
...
151Ivory Coast$3 163
152Kyrgyzstan$3 097
153Cambodia$3 095
154Sao Tome & Principe$3 070
155Cameroon$2 894
156Kenya$2 881
157Vanuatu$2 805
158Papua New Guinea$2 712
q=193.
Environmental Performance (2018)42
Pos.Higher is better42
1Switzerland87.4
2France84.0
3Denmark81.6
...
101Kazakhstan54.6
102Samoa54.5
103Suriname54.2
104Sao Tome & Principe54.0
105Paraguay53.9
106El Salvador53.9
107Fiji53.1
108Turkey53.0
q=180.
LGBT Equality (2017)43
Pos.Higher is better
Score43
1Netherlands103
2Belgium90
3Sweden86
...
82Paraguay20
83Philippines20
84Central African Rep.20
85Sao Tome & Principe20
86Palau20
87Nauru20
88Marshall Islands20
89Guinea-Bissau20
q=196.