The Human Truth Foundation

Myanmar (Burma) (Union of Myanmar)

http://www.humantruth.info/myanmar_(burma).html

By Vexen Crabtree 2013

#Asia #indonesia #myanmar_(burma) #thailand #Theravada_Buddhism

Myanmar (Burma)
Union of Myanmar
StatusIndependent State
Social and Moral Index165th best
CapitalNaypyidaw
Land Area 653 290km21
LocationAsia
Population53.7m2
Life Expectancy65.67yrs (2017)3
GNI$3 851 (2017)4
ISO3166-1 CodesMM, MMR, 1045
Internet Domain.mm6
CurrencyKyat (MMK)7
Telephone+958

1. Overview

Various ethnic Burmese and ethnic minority city-states or kingdoms occupied the present borders through the 19th century. Over a period of 62 years (1824-1886), Britain conquered Burma and incorporated the country into its Indian Empire. Burma was administered as a province of India until 1937 when it became a separate, self-governing colony; in 1948, Burma attained independence from the Commonwealth. Gen. NE WIN dominated the government from 1962 to 1988, first as military ruler, then as self-appointed president, and later as political kingpin. In response to widespread civil unrest, NE WIN resigned in 1988, but within months the military crushed student-led protests and took power. Multiparty legislative elections in 1990 resulted in the main opposition party - the National League for Democracy (NLD) - winning a landslide victory. Instead of handing over power, the junta placed NLD leader (and Nobel Peace Prize recipient) AUNG SAN SUU KYI (ASSK) under house arrest from 1989 to 1995, 2000 to 2002, and from May 2003 to November 2010. In late September 2007, the ruling junta brutally suppressed protests over increased fuel prices led by prodemocracy activists and Buddhist monks, killing at least 13 people and arresting thousands for participating in the demonstrations. In early May 2008, Burma was struck by Cyclone Nargis, which left over 138,000 dead and tens of thousands injured and homeless. Despite this tragedy, the junta proceeded with its May constitutional referendum, the first vote in Burma since 1990. Parliamentary elections held in November 2010, considered flawed by many in the international community, saw the ruling Union Solidarity and Development Party garner over 75% of the seats. Parliament convened in January 2011 and selected former Prime Minister THEIN SEIN as president. Although the vast majority of national-level appointees named by THEIN SEIN are former or current military officers, the government has initiated a series of political and economic reforms leading to a substantial opening of the long-isolated country. These reforms have included allowing ASSK to contest parliamentary by-elections on 1 April 2012, releasing hundreds of political prisoners, reaching preliminary peace agreements with 10 of the 11 major armed ethnic groups, enacting laws that provide better protections for basic human rights, and gradually reducing restrictions on freedom of the press, association, and civil society. At least due in part to these reforms, ASSK now serves as an elected Member of Parliament and chair of the Committee for Rule of Law and Tranquility. Most political parties have begun building their institutions in preparation for the next round of general elections in 2015. The country is preparing to chair the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) in 2014.

CIA's The World Factbook (2013)9

Book CoverNow is the moment to visit this extraordinary land, scattered with gilded pagodas, where the traditional ways of Asia endure and areas that were previously off-limits are opening up. Turn back the clock in this time-warped country that´s a world apart from the rest of Southeast Asia. Travelling in Myanmar is a chance to swap the hubbub and electronic demands of modern life for the calm of gilded temples and ancient monasteries.Enjoy slowly unfolding journeys through serene landscapes including meandering rivers, lush jungles, ethnic minority villages and pristine palm-fringed beaches.

Democracy champion Aung San Suu Kyi is free from house arrest and the tourism boycott has been lifted.

Myanmar remains a troubled land and it´s up to you to decide whether to visit or not. Keep in mind that the long-suffering people are gentle, humorous, engaging, considerate, inquisitive and passionate; they want to play a part in the world and to know what you make of their world. Come with your mind open and you´ll leave with your heart full.

"The World" by Lonely Planet (2014)10

2. Myanmar (Burma) National and Social Development

#economics #human_development #wealth

UN HDI (2021)11
Pos.Higher is better
Value11
1Switzerland0.962
2Norway0.961
3Iceland0.959
4Hong Kong0.952
5Australia0.951
...
146Zimbabwe0.593
147Cambodia0.593
148Angola0.586
149Myanmar (Burma)0.585
150Syria0.577
151Cameroon0.576
Asia Avg0.75
World Avg0.72
q=191.
Gross National Income Per-Capita (2021)11
Pos.Higher is better
PPP $11
1Liechtenstein$146 830
2Singapore$90 919
3Qatar$87 134
4Luxembourg$84 649
5Ireland$76 169
...
152Sao Tome & Principe$4 021
153Papua New Guinea$4 009
154Nepal$3 877
155Myanmar (Burma)$3 851
156Zimbabwe$3 810
157Micronesia$3 696
Asia Avg$22 215
World Avg$20 136
q=193.
Social & Moral
Development Index
12,13
Pos.Lower is better
Avg Rank12,13
1Taiwan29.4
2Norway30.2
3Denmark31.1
4Sweden32.8
5Finland33.9
...
162Nigeria112.9
163Djibouti113.0
164Pakistan113.7
165Myanmar (Burma)113.8
166Liberia114.6
167Nauru115.8
Asia Avg87.5
World Avg86.4
q=195.

The United Nations produces an annual Human Development Report which includes the Human Development Index. The factors taken into account include life expectancy, education and schooling and Gross National Income (GNI) amongst many others..

The Social and Moral Development Index concentrates on moral issues and human rights, violence, public health, equality, tolerance, freedom and effectiveness in climate change mitigation and environmentalism, and on some technological issues. A country scores higher for achieving well in those areas, and for sustaining that achievement in the long term. Those countries towards the top of this index can truly said to be setting good examples and leading humankind onwards into a bright, humane, and free future. See: Which are the Best Countries in the World? The Social and Moral Development Index.

3. Myanmar (Burma)'s Demographics

#birth_control #demographics #health #immigration #life_expectancy #longevity #migration #overpopulation #population

Population:

Myanmar (Burma)'s population is predicted to rise to 54.33 million by 2030. This rise is despite a low fertility rate, meaning, that this country is helping to alleviate problems with growing population in neighbouring countries by accepting immigrants, very likely as a requirement of maintaining an active workforce. This country has a fertility rate of 1.95. The fertility rate is, in simple terms, the average amount of children that each woman has. The higher the figure, the quicker the population is growing, although, to calculate the rate you also need to take into account morbidity, i.e., the rate at which people die. If people live healthy and long lives and morbidity is low, then, 2.0 approximates to the replacement rate, which would keep the population stable. If all countries had such a fertility rate, population growth would end. The actual replacement rate in most developed countries is around 2.1.

Population (2018)2
Pos.
Population2
1China1.4b
2India1.4b
3USA327.1m
4Indonesia267.7m
5Pakistan212.2m
...
23Italy60.6m
24S. Africa57.8m
25Tanzania56.3m
26Myanmar (Burma)53.7m
27Kenya51.4m
28S. Korea51.2m
World Avg39.0m
q=195.
Life Expectancy (2021)11
Pos.Higher is better
Years11
1Monaco85.9
2Hong Kong85.5
3Japan84.8
4Australia84.5
5Switzerland84.0
...
144Palau66.0
145Gabon65.8
146Guyana65.7
147Myanmar (Burma)65.7
148Papua New Guinea65.4
149Marshall Islands65.3
World Avg71.28
q=195.
Fertility Rate (2013)14
Pos.2.0 is best14
1N. Korea2.00
2Brunei1.99
3St Vincent & Grenadines2.01
4France1.99
5Turkey2.04
6Australia1.96
7Uruguay2.05
8Norway1.95
9Myanmar (Burma)1.95
10Indonesia2.07
11Sweden1.93
12Tunisia1.93
World Avg2.81
q=180.
Old-Age Dependency Ratio (2016)15
Pos.Lower is better
Per 10015
1Uganda04.3
2Mali04.5
3Chad04.7
4Burkina Faso04.7
5Sierra Leone04.8
...
84Tonga11.9
85Kyrgyzstan12.1
86Indonesia12.4
87Myanmar (Burma)12.5
88India12.5
89Bolivia12.7
World Avg18.3
q=185.

Migration:

Immigrants (2017)16
Pos.
%16
1UAE88.4%
2Kuwait75.5%
3Qatar65.2%
4Liechtenstein65.1%
5Monaco54.9%
...
187Philippines0.2%
188N. Korea0.2%
189Sri Lanka0.2%
190Myanmar (Burma)0.1%
191Madagascar0.1%
192Indonesia0.1%
World Avg9.4%
q=195.
Emigrants (2010)17
Pos.
%17
1Dominica104.8%
2Palestine68.4%
3Samoa67.3%
4Grenada65.5%
5St Kitts & Nevis61.1%
...
172Mongolia1.2%
173Kenya1.1%
174Indonesia1.1%
175Myanmar (Burma)1.0%
176Solomon Islands1.0%
177India0.9%
World Avg11.5%
q=192.

4. Human Rights, Equality & Tolerance

#Buddhist_extremism #china #equality #freedom #human_rights #islam #morals #myanmar #Myanmar_(Burma) #politics #prejudice #tolerance

Human Rights, Equality & Tolerance (2020)18,19
Pos.Lower is better
Avg Rank18,19
1Sweden9.9
2Denmark14.7
3Norway15.5
4Netherlands16.5
5New Zealand19.0
...
174Malaysia131.5
175Tonga132.9
176Syria133.1
177Myanmar (Burma)133.9
178Marshall Islands134.6
179Samoa136.1
Asia Avg102.2
World Avg89.0
q=199.

Myanmar (Burma) is amongst the worst places in the world at ensuring human rights and freedom, and it has severe cultural issues when it comes to tolerance and equality. Myanmar (Burma) does worse than average in terms of opposing gender inequality20, LGBT equality21, freethought22 and in supporting press freedom23. And finally, it falls into the worst-performing 20 in commentary in Human Rights Watch reports24, supporting personal, civil & economic freedoms25 (amongst the worst in Asia), speed of uptake of HR treaties26 (one of the worst in Asia) and in its nominal commitment to Human Rights27 (amongst the lowest in Asia). After attacks on security force outposts by Arakan Rohingya Salvation Army (ARSA) militants, in 2017, the Burmese military "launched a large-scale ethnic cleansing campaign against the Rohingya Muslim population" and engaged in widespread crimes against humanity28. Human rights are poorly defended because of Burma's "weak rule of law, corrupt judiciary, Buddhist extremism29, and unwillingness to prosecute members of the security forces"28. Since a military coup in 2021, civil life has deteriorated even further29. Despite all this, China continued to strengthen economic ties to Burma and has actively shielded its government from international action28.

For tables, charts and commentary, see:

5. Myanmar (Burma)'s Health

#alcohol #birth_control #demographics #health #life_expectancy #longevity #Myanmar_(Burma) #obesity #overpopulation #parenting #population #smoking #vaccines

Compared to Asia (2020)30,31
Pos.Lower is better
Avg Rank30,31
1Hong Kong18.3
2Maldives41.0
3Singapore42.6
4Japan51.0
5S. Korea51.3
...
21Bahrain77.3
22Armenia78.4
23Cyprus78.6
24Myanmar (Burma)79.1
25India79.6
26Nepal80.3
27Israel82.1
Asia Avg80.1
q=50.
Health (2020)30,31
Pos.Lower is better
Avg Rank30,31
1Monaco13.0
2Hong Kong18.3
3Maldives41.0
4Singapore42.6
5Japan51.0
...
42Armenia78.4
43Cyprus78.6
44Malta78.9
45Myanmar (Burma)79.1
46India79.6
47Slovenia79.9
48Tunisia80.1
World Avg93.5
q=196.

The countries with the best overall approach to public health, in terms of both public policy and individual lifestyle choices, are Monaco, Hong Kong and The Maldives30. These countries are worth emulating. And, although often through no fault of the average citizen, the worst countries are The Marshall Islands, S. Sudan and Palau30.

The data sets used to calculate points for each country are its average life expectancy, its alcohol consumption rate, its fertility rate, its smoking rate, its suicide rate, its food aid and health contributions and WHO compliance, the prevalence of overweight adults, its adolescent birth rate and its immunizations take-up. The regions with the best average results per country are Scandinavia, Asia and The Mediterranean30, whereas the worst are Micronesia, Australasia and Africa30.

For more, see:

Health:

Myanmar (Burma) does relatively well in encouraging good health, compared to many other countries. Myanmar (Burma) does better than average in its smoking rate32, its adolescent birth rate20, its fertility rate14 and in its alcohol consumption rate33 (but bad for Asia). But, things could still be better. Myanmar (Burma) does worse than average in its average life expectancy11 (one of the lowest in Asia) and in its immunizations take-up34. The number of overweight adults has increased by 14% during the last 40 years.
Life Expectancy (2021)11
Pos.Higher is better
Years11
1Monaco85.9
2Hong Kong85.5
3Japan84.8
4Australia84.5
5Switzerland84.0
...
144Palau66.0
145Gabon65.8
146Guyana65.7
147Myanmar (Burma)65.7
148Papua New Guinea65.4
149Marshall Islands65.3
Asia Avg73.48
World Avg71.28
q=195.
Alcohol Consumption (2016)33
Pos.Lower is better
Per Capita33
1Bangladesh0.0
2Kuwait0.0
3Libya0.0
4Mauritania0.0
5Somalia0.0
...
74Bolivia4.8
75Costa Rica4.8
76Guinea-Bissau4.8
77Myanmar (Burma)4.8
78Zambia4.8
79Zimbabwe4.8
Asia Avg3.9
World Avg6.2
q=189.
Fertility Rate (2013)14
Pos.2.0 is best14
1N. Korea2.00
2Brunei1.99
3St Vincent & Grenadines2.01
4France1.99
5Turkey2.04
6Australia1.96
7Uruguay2.05
8Norway1.95
9Myanmar (Burma)1.95
10Indonesia2.07
11Sweden1.93
12Tunisia1.93
Asia Avg2.46
World Avg2.81
q=180.
Smoking Rates (2014)32
Pos.Higher is worse32
182Montenegro4 125
181Belarus3 831
180Lebanon3 023
179Macedonia2 732
178Russia2 690
...
47Maldives 215
46Burkina Faso 213
45Madagascar 206
44Myanmar (Burma) 206
43Ecuador 191
42Guatemala 190
Asia Avg1 035
World Avg 819
q=182.
Overweight Adults (2016)35
Pos.Lower is better
%35
1Vietnam18.3
2India19.7
3Bangladesh20.0
4Ethiopia20.9
5Nepal21.0
...
15Sri Lanka23.3
16Malawi23.4
17Madagascar23.9
18Myanmar (Burma)24.8
19Rwanda25.1
20Congo, DR25.3
Asia Avg44.3
World Avg49.0
q=191.

Children's Health:

Adolescent Birth Rate (2015)20
Pos.Lower is better
Per 100020
1N. Korea0.5
2S. Korea1.6
3Switzerland2.9
4Hong Kong3.2
5Slovenia3.8
...
51Tonga15.2
52Mongolia15.7
53Turkmenistan16.4
54Myanmar (Burma)16.5
55Malta16.6
56Kiribati17.2
Asia Avg29.9
World Avg47.9
q=185.
Infant Immunizations 2011-2015 (2015)34
Pos.Higher is better
Avg %34
1Hungary99.0
2China99.0
3Uzbekistan98.9
4Niue98.8
5Mongolia98.7
...
152Marshall Islands81.8
153Mozambique81.4
154Venezuela80.6
155Myanmar (Burma)80.3
156Benin80.1
157Guinea-Bissau80.1
Asia Avg90.5
World Avg88.3
q=194.

6. Myanmar (Burma)'s Modernity and Learning

#education #modernity #politics #research #science #technology #the_internet

Compared to Asia (2020)36
Pos.Lower is better
Avg Rank36
1Taiwan10.0
2Japan21.7
3S. Korea24.3
4Singapore28.4
5Hong Kong29.0
...
44Syria115.7
45Bangladesh118.4
46Iraq119.0
47Myanmar (Burma)127.0
48Timor-Leste (E. Timor)129.0
49Yemen130.2
50Cambodia136.2
Asia Avg78.5
q=51.
Modernity and Learning (2020)36
Pos.Lower is better
Avg Rank36
1Finland8.7
2Taiwan10.0
3Estonia15.7
4Denmark15.9
5Switzerland16.4
...
171Angola124.8
172San Marino125.0
173Honduras125.3
174Myanmar (Burma)127.0
175Tanzania127.6
176Timor-Leste (E. Timor)129.0
177Djibouti129.2
World Avg82.9
q=205.

Modernity and Education:

Research and Development (2016)
Pos.Higher is better
% RDP PPP
1S. Korea4.2937
2Israel4.1137
3Japan3.5837
4Finland3.1737
5Sweden3.1637
...
106Burundi0.1238
107Madagascar0.1138
108Philippines0.1139
109Myanmar (Burma)0.1140
110Peru0.1041
111Paraguay0.0942
Asia Avg0.75
World Avg0.84
q=126.
Secondary Education (2018)43
Pos.Higher is better43
1Luxembourg100.0%
2Estonia100.0%
3Austria100.0%
4Canada100.0%
5Finland100.0%
...
148Sierra Leone26.3%
149Ivory Coast26.1%
150Afghanistan26.1%
151Myanmar (Burma)25.8%
152Central African Rep.22.1%
153Malawi21.8%
Asia Avg66.0%
World Avg63.0%
q=169.
Length of Schooling (2021)44
Pos.Higher is better
Years44
1Australia21.1
2New Zealand20.3
3Greece20.0
4Belgium19.6
5Sweden19.4
...
148Lebanon11.3
149Rwanda11.2
150Zambia10.9
151Myanmar (Burma)10.9
152N. Korea10.8
153Benin10.8
Asia Avg13.5
World Avg13.5
q=193.

Technology and Information:

Internet Users (2016)45
Pos.Higher is better45
1Iceland100%
2Faroe Islands99%
3Norway98%
4Bermuda97%
5Andorra97%
...
191Congo, DR4%
192Guinea-Bissau4%
193Chad3%
194Myanmar (Burma)3%
195Sierra Leone2%
196Niger2%
Asia Avg48.7%
World Avg48.1%
q=201.
Freedom On The Internet (2012)46
Pos.Lower is better46
1Estonia10
2USA12
3Germany15
4Australia18
5Hungary19
...
39Saudi Arabia71
40Vietnam73
41Ethiopia75
42Myanmar (Burma)75
43Uzbekistan77
44Syria83
Asia Avg56.6
World Avg46.7
q=47.
IPv6 Uptake (2017)47
Pos.Higher is better
Ratio47
1Belgium55.4
2Germany41.8
3Switzerland35.1
4USA35.0
5Greece33.5
...
129Guyana0.0
130Namibia0.0
131Tonga0.0
132Myanmar (Burma)0.0
133Morocco0.0
134Timor-Leste (E. Timor)0.0
Asia Avg2.11
World Avg3.82
q=176.

7. National Culture

#charity #corruption #happiness #morals #politics

The region of south-east Asia hosts some of the kindest people in the world. Myanmar and Thailand often top the World Giving Index48, which the Charities Aid Foundation attributes to the teachings and values of Theravada Buddhism48. Likewise, in Indonesia, giving is strongly encouraged by the Islamic doctrine of zakat, causing that country to give to charity at three times the global average rate.

World Giving Index (2013-2021)49
Pos.Lower is better49
1Myanmar (Burma)2.7
2New Zealand4.0
3USA4.7
4Australia4.9
5Indonesia9.0
6Qatar9.0
7UK9.3
8Ireland9.6
9Canada10.1
10UAE11.6
11Bahrain11.7
12Kenya12.0
Asia Avg62.5
World Avg67.9
q=160.
Corruption (2012-2016)50
Pos.Higher is better
Avg Score50
1Denmark90.8
2New Zealand90.6
3Finland89.4
4Sweden88.2
5Norway86.0
...
153Tajikistan23.6
154Congo, (Brazzaville)22.8
155Congo, DR21.6
156Myanmar (Burma)21.4
157Zimbabwe21.0
158Cambodia21.0
Asia Avg39.13
World Avg43.05
q=176.
Happiness (2018)51
Pos.Higher is better51
1Finland7.6
2Norway7.6
3Denmark7.6
4Iceland7.5
5Switzerland7.5
...
127Ethiopia4.4
128Georgia4.3
129Armenia4.3
130Myanmar (Burma)4.3
131Chad4.3
132Congo, DR4.2
Asia Avg5.29
World Avg5.38
q=156.

8. Peace Versus Instability

#extremism #human_development #peace #politics #religious_violence #terrorism

Global Peace Index (2021)52
Pos.Lower is better52
1Iceland1.10
2New Zealand1.25
3Denmark1.26
4Portugal1.27
5Slovenia1.32
...
128Brazil2.43
129Burundi2.43
130Nicaragua2.45
131Myanmar (Burma)2.46
132Chad2.49
133Zimbabwe2.49
Asia Avg2.22
World Avg2.08
q=163.
Impact of Terrorism (2019)53
Pos.Lower is better
Score53
1Togo0.00
2Mongolia0.00
3Swaziland0.00
4Equatorial Guinea0.00
5Cambodia0.00
...
122Ethiopia5.35
123UK5.41
124Burkina Faso5.42
125Myanmar (Burma)5.51
126Mozambique5.54
127Ukraine5.55
Asia Avg3.60
World Avg2.78
q=150.

9. The Natural Environment

#biodiversity #climate_change #deforestation #over-exploitation #the_environment

Forest Area Change 1990-2015 (2015)54
Pos.Higher is better
%54
1Iceland+205.6
2Bahrain+144.4
3Uruguay+131.3
4Kuwait+81.2
5Dominican Rep.+79.5
...
164Nepal-24.7
165Benin-25.2
166Guatemala-25.4
167Myanmar (Burma)-25.9
168Cambodia-26.9
169Chad-27.3
Asia Avg+07.0
World Avg+02.8
q=184.
Environmental Performance (2018)55
Pos.Higher is better55
1Switzerland87.4
2France84.0
3Denmark81.6
4Malta80.9
5Sweden80.5
...
135Mozambique46.4
136Uzbekistan45.9
137Chad45.3
138Myanmar (Burma)45.3
139Ivory Coast45.3
140Gabon45.1
Asia Avg54.5
World Avg56.4
q=180.
Convention on Biological Diversity
Pos.Earlier is better
Signed
1China1993 Dec 29
2Guinea1993 Dec 29
3Cook Islands1993 Dec 29
4Vanuatu1993 Dec 29
5Papua New Guinea1993 Dec 29
...
99Vietnam1995 Feb 14
100Switzerland1995 Feb 19
101Argentina1995 Feb 20
102Myanmar (Burma)1995 Feb 23
103Colombia1995 Feb 26
104Ivory Coast1995 Feb 27
Asia Avg1899 Dec 30
World Avg1899 Dec 30
q=197.

10. Economic Inequality and Poverty

#capitalism #economics #health #inequality #life_expectancy #poverty #social_development

Inequality in Life Expectancy (2019)56
Pos.Higher is worse56
184Chad40.90
183Central African Rep.40.10
182Sierra Leone39.00
181Somalia38.90
180Nigeria37.10
...
144Turkmenistan23.40
143Djibouti23.40
142Gabon22.80
141Myanmar (Burma)22.80
140Congo, (Brazzaville)22.80
139Laos22.60
Asia Avg11.80
World Avg14.59
q=184.
Income Inequality (Gini Coefficient) (2017)57
Pos.Lower is better
%57
1Ukraine25.0
2Belarus25.4
3Slovenia25.4
4Czechia25.9
5Moldova25.9
...
84El Salvador38.0
85Gabon38.0
86Indonesia38.1
87Myanmar (Burma)38.1
88Maldives38.4
89Burundi38.6
Asia Avg35.2
World Avg38.1
q=152.
Multidimensional Poverty (2018)58
Pos.Lower is better
Severity58
1Armenia.001
2Ukraine.001
3Serbia.001
4Turkmenistan.001
5Jordan.002
...
60Namibia.171
61Vanuatu.174
62Bhutan.175
63Myanmar (Burma).176
64Kenya.178
65Comoros.181
Asia Avg.084
World Avg.154
q=101.

11. Religion and Beliefs

#buddhism #christianity #hinduism #islam #judaism #myanmar #myanmar_(burma) #religion_in_myanmar #Therevada_Buddhism

Data from the Pew Forum, a professional polling outfit, states that in 2010 the religious makeup of this country was as follows in the table below59:

Christian7.8%
Muslim4%
Hindu1.7%
Buddhist80.1%
Folk Religion5.8%
Jew0.1%
Unaffiliated0.5%

The CIA World Factbook has slightly different data, and states: Buddhist 89%, Christian 4% (Baptist 3%, Roman Catholic 1%), Muslim 4%, animist 1%, other 2%60.

Freedom of Religion and Belief: In this 88% Buddhist country, minorities such as Hindus, Christians and Muslims face "threats and persecution", and their religious activities are "tightly regulated", even in their own homes28. Article 361 of the Constitution specifically names Buddhism as the favoured religion, with Therevada Buddhism in particular being supported by Government. Sociologists Grim & Finke still place Myanmar into the worst possible category when it comes to religious freedom and persecution: Severe restrictions on religious freedom and freedom of belief stem simultaneously from top-down pressure from government and institutionalized religion, and from bottom-up grassroots movements that often go even further than the government in harassing those who do not believe the right things (2011)61.

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