The Human Truth Foundation

Uzbekistan (Republic of Uzbekistan)

By Vexen Crabtree 2013

#uzbekistan

Uzbekistan
Republic of Uzbekistan
StatusIndependent State
Social and Moral Index92nd best
CapitalTashkent
Land Area 425 400km21
LocationAsia
Population32.5m2
Life Expectancy69.40yrs (2017)3
GNI$5 748 (2017)4
ISO3166-1 CodesUZ, UZB, 8605
Internet Domain.uz6
CurrencySom (UZS)7
Telephone+9988

1. Overview

Russia conquered the territory of present-day Uzbekistan in the late 19th century. Stiff resistance to the Red Army after the Bolshevik Revolution was eventually suppressed and a socialist republic established in 1924. During the Soviet era, intensive production of "white gold" (cotton) and grain led to overuse of agrochemicals and the depletion of water supplies, which have left the land degraded and the Aral Sea and certain rivers half dry. Independent since 1991, the country seeks to gradually lessen its dependence on the cotton monoculture by diversifying agricultural production while developing its mineral and petroleum reserves and increasing its manufacturing base. Current concerns include terrorism by Islamic militants, economic stagnation, and the curtailment of human rights and democratization.

CIA's The World Factbook (2013)9

Book CoverA Silk Road destination of the highest order, Uzbekistan is a centre of culture, trade and architecture that has drawn travellers for centuries. Central Asia´s cradle of culture for more than two millennia, Uzbekistan is proudly home to a spellbinding arsenal of architecture and ancient cities, all infused with the bloody, fascinating history of the Silk Road. Any romantic who has daydreamed of travelling the Golden Road to Samarkand or the desert tracks to Bukhara will have their sights firmly set on Uzbekistan.

As the cultural and historic heart of Central Asia, Uzbekistan is home to Islamic architecture of floating turquoise domes and towering minarets that rank among the region´s greatest sights. And amid these treasures everyday life goes on: in the foreground bearded old men with stripy cloaks haggle over melons in the bazaar or savour a pot of green tea beside a kebab stand.

Despite being a harshly governed police state, Uzbekistan remains an extremely friendly country where hospitality remains an essential element of daily life.

"The World" by Lonely Planet (2014)10

2. Uzbekistan National and Social Development

#economics #human_development

UN HDI (2016)11
Pos.Lower is better
Rank11
1Norway1
2Australia2
3Switzerland2
...
103Belize103
104Samoa104
105Maldives105
106Uzbekistan105
107Moldova107
108Botswana108
109Gabon109
110Paraguay110
World Avg94.3
q=188.
Gross National Income Per-Capita (2011)12
Pos.Higher is better
PPP $12
1Qatar$129 916
2Singapore$78 162
3Kuwait$76 075
...
123Angola$6 291
124Bolivia$6 155
125Cape Verde$6 049
126Uzbekistan$5 748
127India$5 663
128Congo, (Brazzaville)$5 503
129Nigeria$5 443
130Tuvalu$5 395
World Avg$17 240
q=193.
Social & Moral
Development Index
13,14
Pos.Lower is better
Avg Rank13,14
1Taiwan30.2
2Denmark30.5
3Norway30.9
...
89Kuwait85.2
90Guatemala85.2
91Dominican Rep.85.5
92Uzbekistan85.6
93Kazakhstan86.2
94El Salvador86.3
95India87.2
96Azerbaijan87.6
World Avg86.4
q=195.

The United Nations produces an annual Human Development Report which includes the Human Development Index. The factors taken into account include life expectancy, education and schooling and Gross National Income (GNI) amongst many others..

The Social and Moral Development Index concentrates on moral issues and human rights, violence, public health, equality, tolerance, freedom and effectiveness in climate change mitigation and environmentalism, and on some technological issues. A country scores higher for achieving well in those areas, and for sustaining that achievement in the long term. Those countries towards the top of this index can truly said to be setting good examples and leading humankind onwards into a bright, humane, and free future. See: Which are the Best Countries in the World? The Social and Moral Development Index.

3. Uzbekistan's Demographics

#birth_control #demographics #health #immigration #life_expectancy #longevity #migration #overpopulation #population

Population:

Uzbekistan's population is predicted to rise to 33.37 million by 2030. This country has a fertility rate of 2.29. The fertility rate is, in simple terms, the average amount of children that each woman has. The higher the figure, the quicker the population is growing, although, to calculate the rate you also need to take into account morbidity, i.e., the rate at which people die. If people live healthy and long lives and morbidity is low, then, 2.0 approximates to the replacement rate, which would keep the population stable. If all countries had such a fertility rate, population growth would end. The actual replacement rate in most developed countries is around 2.1.

Population (2018)2
Pos.
Population2
1China1.4b
2India1.4b
3USA327.1m
...
39Canada37.1m
40Morocco36.0m
41Saudi Arabia33.7m
42Uzbekistan32.5m
43Peru32.0m
44Malaysia31.5m
45Angola30.8m
46Ghana29.8m
World Avg39.0m
q=195.
Life Expectancy (2015)12
Pos.Higher is better
Years12
1Hong Kong84.16
2Japan83.68
3Italy83.34
...
123Iraq69.63
124Kazakhstan69.59
125Tajikistan69.58
126Uzbekistan69.40
127Micronesia69.27
128Indonesia69.05
129Cambodia68.81
130Bolivia68.74
World Avg71.27
q=190.
Fertility Rate (2013)15
Pos.2.0 is best15
1N. Korea2.00
2Brunei1.99
3St Vincent & Grenadines2.01
...
43Bhutan2.27
44Jamaica2.28
45Suriname2.28
46Uzbekistan2.29
47Cape Verde2.29
48Estonia1.71
49UAE1.70
50Canada1.69
World Avg2.81
q=180.
Old-Age Dependency Ratio (2016)16
Pos.Lower is better
Per 10016
1Uganda04.3
2Mali04.5
3Chad04.7
...
80Turkmenistan11.0
81Maldives11.0
82Mongolia11.8
83Uzbekistan11.9
84Tonga11.9
85Kyrgyzstan12.1
86Indonesia12.4
87Myanmar (Burma)12.5
World Avg18.3
q=185.

Migration:

Immigrants (2017)17
Pos.
%17
1UAE88.4%
2Kuwait75.5%
3Qatar65.2%
...
96Burkina Faso3.7%
97Trinidad & Tobago3.7%
98Togo3.6%
99Uzbekistan3.6%
100Rwanda3.6%
101Moldova3.5%
102Slovakia3.4%
103Turkmenistan3.4%
World Avg9.4%
q=195.
Emigrants (2010)18
Pos.
%18
1Dominica104.8%
2Palestine68.4%
3Samoa67.3%
...
84UK7.5%
85Honduras7.5%
86Austria7.1%
87Uzbekistan7.0%
88Bolivia6.8%
89Guinea-Bissau6.8%
90Slovenia6.5%
91Kiribati6.5%
World Avg11.5%
q=192.

4. Human Rights, Equality & Tolerance

#equality #freedom #human_rights #politics #tolerance #uzbekistan

Uzbekistan is amongst the worst places in the world at ensuring human rights and freedom, and it has severe cultural issues when it comes to tolerance and equality. Uzbekistan does better than average in terms of opposing gender inequality19. However Uzbekistan performs less well in most areas. It does worse than average in commentary in Human Rights Watch reports20, its nominal commitment to Human Rights21, speed of uptake of HR treaties22 and in LGBT equality23. And finally, it falls into the worst 20 in terms of supporting press freedom24. Since the death of President Islam Karimov, President Shavkat Mirziyoyev "has taken some steps to improve the country´s abysmal human rights record, such as releasing some political prisoners, relaxing certain restrictions on free expression, removing citizens from the security services´ notorious “black list,” and increasing accountability of government institutions to the citizenry", instigating a cautious "sense of hope" amongst some25, that Uzbekistan may start to climb out of its abusive human rights abyss. For the first time in 7 years, a Human Rights Watch delegation was permitted to visit in 201725.

For tables, charts and commentary, see:

5. Uzbekistan's Health

#alcohol #birth_control #demographics #health #life_expectancy #longevity #mental_health #obesity #overpopulation #parenting #population #smoking #suicide #Uzbekistan #vaccines

Health (2020)26,27
Pos.Lower is better
Avg Rank26,27
1Hong Kong18.0
2Singapore41.5
3Maldives43.3
...
19N. Korea69.6
20Thailand70.4
21Qatar71.1
22Uzbekistan71.1
23Portugal71.5
24Kuwait72.3
25Luxembourg72.9
26Germany73.3
27Saudi Arabia73.4
World Avg92.3
q=187.

The countries with the best overall approach to public health, in terms of both public policy and individual lifestyle choices, are Hong Kong, Singapore and The Maldives26. These countries are worth emulating. And, although often through no fault of the average citizen, the worst countries are S. Sudan, Nigeria and Equatorial Guinea26.

The data sets used to calculate points for each country are its average life expectancy, its alcohol consumption rate, its fertility rate, its smoking rate, its suicide rate, its food aid and health contributions and WHO compliance, the prevalence of overweight adults, its adolescent birth rate and its immunizations take-up. The regions with the best average results per country are Scandinavia, Asia and Europe26, whereas the worst are Africa, Micronesia and Polynesia26.

Health:

Uzbekistan does relatively well in encouraging good health, compared to many other countries. Uzbekistan comes in the best 20 for its immunizations take-up28 (amongst the best in Asia). It does better than average in its suicide rate29, its alcohol consumption rate30 and in its adolescent birth rate19. Uzbekistan does not succeed in everything, however. It does worse than average for its fertility rate15, its smoking rate31 (still low for Asia) and in its average life expectancy12. The number of overweight adults has increased by 14% over the last 40 years.
Life Expectancy (2015)12
Pos.Higher is better
Years12
1Hong Kong84.16
2Japan83.68
3Italy83.34
...
123Iraq69.63
124Kazakhstan69.59
125Tajikistan69.58
126Uzbekistan69.40
127Micronesia69.27
128Indonesia69.05
129Cambodia68.81
130Bolivia68.74
World Avg71.27
q=190.
Alcohol Consumption (2016)30
Pos.Lower is better
Per Capita30
1Bangladesh0.0
2Kuwait0.0
3Libya0.0
...
49Micronesia2.5
50Guatemala2.5
51Congo, DR2.6
52Uzbekistan2.7
53Ghana2.7
54Maldives2.7
55Ethiopia2.9
56Fiji3.0
World Avg6.2
q=189.
Fertility Rate (2013)15
Pos.2.0 is best15
1N. Korea2.00
2Brunei1.99
3St Vincent & Grenadines2.01
...
43Bhutan2.27
44Jamaica2.28
45Suriname2.28
46Uzbekistan2.29
47Cape Verde2.29
48Estonia1.71
49UAE1.70
50Canada1.69
World Avg2.81
q=180.
Smoking Rates (2014)31
Pos.Higher is worse31
182Montenegro4 125
181Belarus3 831
180Lebanon3 023
...
95Seychelles 590
94Malaysia 584
93Oman 577
92Uzbekistan 573
91Venezuela 565
90Gabon 559
89Norway 556
88Iceland 551
World Avg 819
q=182.
Suicide Rate (2013)29
Pos.
Per 100k29
1Haiti0
2Grenada0
3Egypt0.1
...
27Georgia8.8
28Seychelles8.9
29Cyprus9.1
30Uzbekistan9.3
31Brazil9.7
32Colombia9.9
33Panama10.9
34Nicaragua11.6
World Avg20.93
q=91.
Overweight Adults (2016)32
Pos.Lower is better
%32
1Vietnam18.3
2India19.7
3Bangladesh20.0
...
72Trinidad & Tobago46.0
73Antigua & Barbuda48.0
74St Lucia48.1
75Uzbekistan48.2
76Kyrgyzstan48.3
77Yemen48.8
78Guyana49.4
79Grenada51.4
World Avg49.0
q=191.

Children's Health:

Adolescent Birth Rate (2015)19
Pos.Lower is better
Per 100019
1N. Korea0.5
2S. Korea1.6
3Switzerland2.9
...
55Malta16.6
56Kiribati17.2
57Macedonia17.6
58Uzbekistan17.7
59Hungary18.0
60Belarus18.2
61Serbia19.0
62Slovakia20.2
World Avg47.9
q=185.
Infant Immunizations 2011-2015 (2015)28
Pos.Higher is better
Avg %28
1Hungary99.0
2China99.0
3Uzbekistan98.9
4Niue98.8
5Mongolia98.7
6Czechia98.7
7Seychelles98.6
8S. Korea98.6
9Sri Lanka98.4
10St Lucia98.2
11Bahrain98.2
12Iran98.1
World Avg88.3
q=194.

6. Uzbekistan's Modernity and Learning

#education #intelligence #it_security #modernity #politics #religion #technology #the_internet

Modernity and Learning (2020)33
Pos.Lower is better
Avg Rank33
1Finland8.0
2Belgium9.1
3Denmark10.0
...
62Vietnam57.7
63India59.3
64Moldova60.1
65Uzbekistan60.1
66Iran60.9
67China61.4
68Kazakhstan61.4
69Tunisia62.3
70Peru62.3
World Avg69.0
q=180.

Modernity and Education:

Secondary Education (2018)34
Pos.Higher is better34
1Luxembourg100.0%
2Estonia100.0%
3Austria100.0%
4Canada100.0%
5Finland100.0%
6Iceland100.0%
7Uzbekistan99.9%
8Czechia99.8%
9Slovakia99.3%
10Latvia99.2%
11Kazakhstan98.6%
12Kyrgyzstan98.4%
World Avg63.0%
q=169.
Length of Schooling (2018)35
Pos.Higher is better
Years35
1Australia22.1
2Belgium19.7
3Finland19.3
...
128Maldives12.1
129Zambia12.1
130El Salvador12.0
131Uzbekistan12.0
132Jordan11.9
133Cape Verde11.9
134Kiribati11.8
135Angola11.8
World Avg13.2
q=193.
Religiosity (2009)36
Pos.Lower is better
%36
1Estonia16
2Sweden17
3Denmark19
...
24Spain49
25Azerbaijan50
26Israel51
27Uzbekistan51
28Serbia54
29Ireland54
30USA65
31Argentina66
World Avg75.1
q=114.
IQ (2006)37
Pos.Higher is better37
1Hong Kong108
2Singapore108
3S. Korea106
...
66Azerbaijan87
67Indonesia87
68Turkmenistan87
69Uzbekistan87
70Kuwait86
71Philippines86
72Yemen85
73Trinidad & Tobago85
World Avg85.6
q=138.

Technology and Information:

Internet Users (2016)38
Pos.Higher is better38
1Iceland100%
2Faroe Islands99%
3Norway98%
...
95Vietnam52%
96S. Africa52%
97Dominican Rep.52%
98Uzbekistan51%
99Armenia50%
100Iran49%
101Tunisia48%
102Moldova48%
World Avg48.1%
q=201.
Freedom On The Internet (2012)39
Pos.Lower is better39
1Estonia10
2USA12
3Germany15
...
40Vietnam73
41Ethiopia75
42Myanmar (Burma)75
43Uzbekistan77
44Syria83
45China85
46Cuba86
47Iran90
World Avg46.7
q=47.
IT Security (2013)40
Pos.Lower is better40
1Ireland0.11
2Luxembourg0.11
3Belize0.11
...
26Qatar0.65
27Chile0.66
28Guinea-Bissau0.67
29Uzbekistan0.69
30Moldova0.71
31Zambia0.76
32Kenya0.77
33Cameroon0.77
World Avg0.98
q=81.
IPv6 Uptake (2017)41
Pos.Higher is better
Ratio41
1Belgium55.4
2Germany41.8
3Switzerland35.1
...
98Armenia0.0
99Cape Verde0.0
100Nigeria0.0
101Uzbekistan0.0
102Colombia0.0
103Ghana0.0
104Yemen0.0
105Laos0.0
World Avg3.82
q=176.

7. National Culture

#charity #corruption #happiness #morals #politics

Personal Charitability
(World Position, 2013-2016)
42
Pos.Lower is better42
1Myanmar (Burma)1.25
2USA1.5
3New Zealand3.5
...
28Malaysia27.5
29Finland28.25
30Thailand28.75
31Uzbekistan29
32Libya29
33Puerto Rico29
34Cyprus31
35Iran32
World Avg68.1185897435897
q=156.
Corruption (2012-2016)43
Pos.Higher is better
Avg Score43
1Denmark90.8
2New Zealand90.6
3Finland89.4
...
165Haiti18.8
166Yemen18.4
167Venezuela18.4
168Uzbekistan18.4
169Turkmenistan18.2
170Libya16.8
171Iraq16.6
172S. Sudan13.8
World Avg43.05
q=176.
Happiness (2018)44
Pos.Higher is better44
1Finland7.6
2Norway7.6
3Denmark7.6
...
41Nicaragua6.1
42Poland6.1
43Bahrain6.1
44Uzbekistan6.1
45Kuwait6.1
46Thailand6.1
47Italy6.0
48Ecuador6.0
World Avg5.38
q=156.

8. Peace Versus Instability

#extremism #human_development #peace #politics #religious_violence #terrorism

Global Peace Index (2012)45
Pos.Lower is better45
1Iceland1.11
2New Zealand1.24
3Denmark1.24
...
106Haiti2.18
107Cambodia2.21
108Belarus2.21
109Uzbekistan2.22
110El Salvador2.22
111Egypt2.22
112Jamaica2.22
113Benin2.23
World Avg2.02
q=157.
Impact of Terrorism (2019)46
Pos.Lower is better
Score46
1Togo0.00
2Mongolia0.00
3Swaziland0.00
...
13El Salvador0.00
14Bhutan0.01
15Trinidad & Tobago0.02
16Uzbekistan0.02
17Qatar0.03
18Iceland0.03
19Panama0.04
20Guyana0.04
World Avg2.78
q=150.

9. The Natural Environment

#biodiversity #climate_change #over-exploitation #the_environment

Forest Area Change 1990-2015 (2015)47
Pos.Higher is better
%47
1Iceland205.6
2Bahrain144.4
3Uruguay131.3
...
54Poland06.3
55Liechtenstein06.2
56Latvia05.8
57Uzbekistan05.7
58New Zealand05.1
59Slovenia05.1
60Lebanon04.8
61Gabon04.5
World Avg02.8
q=184.
Environmental Performance (2018)48
Pos.Higher is better48
1Switzerland87.4
2France84.0
3Denmark81.6
...
133Indonesia46.9
134Guinea46.6
135Mozambique46.4
136Uzbekistan45.9
137Chad45.3
138Myanmar (Burma)45.3
139Ivory Coast45.3
140Gabon45.1
World Avg56.4
q=180.
Convention on Biological Diversity
Pos.Earlier is better
Signed
1China1993 Dec 29
2Guinea1993 Dec 29
3Cook Islands1993 Dec 29
...
117Cape Verde1995 Jun 27
118Russia1995 Jul 04
119Guatemala1995 Oct 08
120Uzbekistan1995 Oct 17
121Niger1995 Oct 23
122Honduras1995 Oct 29
123Israel1995 Nov 05
124Algeria1995 Nov 12
World Avg1899 Dec 30
q=197.
Rational Beliefs on the Environment (2011)49
Pos.Higher is better
%49
1Argentina78.3%
2Greece77.6%
3Brazil77.1%
...
138Denmark14.9%
139Libya14.6%
140Iceland13.1%
141Uzbekistan11.3%
142Tajikistan11.1%
143Haiti10.0%
144Albania9.4%
145Turkmenistan8.6%
World Avg39.9%
q=145.

10. Economic Inequality and Poverty

#health #inequality #life_expectancy

Inequality in Life Expectancy (2019)50
Pos.Higher is worse50
184Chad40.90
183Central African Rep.40.10
182Sierra Leone39.00
...
111Algeria14.10
110Azerbaijan13.90
109Indonesia13.90
108Uzbekistan13.90
107Paraguay13.80
106Honduras13.30
105Mongolia13.10
104Nicaragua13.10
World Avg14.59
q=184.

11. Religion and Beliefs

#belief #buddhism #christianity #god #hinduism #islam #judaism #religion #uzbekistan

Religiosity (2009)36
Pos.Lower is better
%36
1Estonia16
2Sweden17
3Denmark19
...
24Spain49
25Azerbaijan50
26Israel51
27Uzbekistan51
28Serbia54
29Ireland54
30USA65
31Argentina66
World Avg75.1
q=114.
Disbelief In God (2007)51
Pos.Higher is better
%51
1Vietnam81
2Japan65
3Sweden64
...
58Romania4
59Argentina4
60Georgia4
61Uzbekistan4
62Lebanon3
63Congo, (Brazzaville)3
64Poland3
65Jamaica3
World Avg9.9
q=137.

Data from the Pew Forum, a professional polling outfit, states that in 2010 the religious makeup of this country was as follows in the table below52:

Christian2.3%
Muslim96.7%
Hindu0.1%
Buddhist0.1%
Folk Religion0.1%
Jew0.1%
Unaffiliated0.8%

It appears that when asked "What religion are you" many give pollsters the 'correct' answer despite how they actually feel, and despite what they actually believe. Although 99.4% of the populace say they belong to a religion, only 51% say that they are religious when the question is phrased as "Is religion an important part of your daily life?".

For more on this phenomenon, see:

The CIA World Factbook has slightly different data, and states: Muslim 88% (mostly Sunni), Eastern Orthodox 9%, other 3%53.

Freedom of Religion and Belief: "Uzbekistan maintains some of the world´s most restrictive policies on the exercise of worship or belief"25 and sociologists Grim & Finke place Uzbekistan into the worst category, along with just 13 other countries54. It is dangerous for religious folk to congregate even in private; in 2017 April for example, "four Protestant men were sentenced to short prison terms on charges of meeting for worship in ahome"

Links: