The Human Truth Foundation

Uzbekistan (Republic of Uzbekistan)

By Vexen Crabtree 2013


Comments:
FB, LJ

#charity #economics #happiness #homosexuality #intelligence #morals #the_environment #uzbekistan

Uzbekistan
Republic of Uzbekistan
StatusIndependent State
CapitalTashkent
Land Area 425 400km21
LocationAsia
Population28.1m (2011)2
Life Expectancy69.40yrs (2017)3
GNI$5 748 (2017)4
ISO3166-1 CodesUZ, UZB, 8605
Internet Domain.uz6
CurrencySom (UZS)7
Telephone+9988

1. Overview

Russia conquered the territory of present-day Uzbekistan in the late 19th century. Stiff resistance to the Red Army after the Bolshevik Revolution was eventually suppressed and a socialist republic established in 1924. During the Soviet era, intensive production of "white gold" (cotton) and grain led to overuse of agrochemicals and the depletion of water supplies, which have left the land degraded and the Aral Sea and certain rivers half dry. Independent since 1991, the country seeks to gradually lessen its dependence on the cotton monoculture by diversifying agricultural production while developing its mineral and petroleum reserves and increasing its manufacturing base. Current concerns include terrorism by Islamic militants, economic stagnation, and the curtailment of human rights and democratization.

CIA's The World Factbook (2013)9

Book CoverA Silk Road destination of the highest order, Uzbekistan is a centre of culture, trade and architecture that has drawn travellers for centuries. Central Asia´s cradle of culture for more than two millennia, Uzbekistan is proudly home to a spellbinding arsenal of architecture and ancient cities, all infused with the bloody, fascinating history of the Silk Road. Any romantic who has daydreamed of travelling the Golden Road to Samarkand or the desert tracks to Bukhara will have their sights firmly set on Uzbekistan.

As the cultural and historic heart of Central Asia, Uzbekistan is home to Islamic architecture of floating turquoise domes and towering minarets that rank among the region´s greatest sights. And amid these treasures everyday life goes on: in the foreground bearded old men with stripy cloaks haggle over melons in the bazaar or savour a pot of green tea beside a kebab stand.

Despite being a harshly governed police state, Uzbekistan remains an extremely friendly country where hospitality remains an essential element of daily life.

"The World" by Lonely Planet (2014)10

2. Uzbekistan National and Social Development

#human_development

UN HDI (2016)11
Pos.Lower is better
Rank11
1Norway1
2Australia2
3Switzerland2
...
103Belize103
104Samoa104
105Maldives105
106Uzbekistan105
107Moldova107
108Botswana108
109Gabon109
110Paraguay110
World Avg94.3
q=188.
Social & Moral
Development Index
12
Pos.Higher is better
Points12
1Denmark84.2
2Sweden83.7
3Finland83.5
...
58Albania58.0
59Turkey57.5
60Mexico57.4
61Uzbekistan57.3
62Jamaica57.2
63Fiji57.2
64Macedonia57.0
65Bosnia & Herzegovina57.0
World Avg54.1
q=198.

The United Nations produces an annual Human Development Report which includes the Human Development Index. The factors taken into account include life expectancy, education and schooling and Gross National Income (GNI) amongst many others..

The Social and Moral Development Index concentrates on moral issues and human rights, violence, public health, equality, tolerance, freedom and effectiveness in climate change mitigation and environmentalism, and on some technological issues. A country scores higher for achieving well in those areas, and for sustaining that achievement in the long term. Those countries towards the top of this index can truly said to be setting good examples and leading humankind onwards into a bright, humane, and free future. See: What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life.

3. Population and Demographics

#demographics #health #immigration #life_expectancy #overpopulation #population #Uzbekistan

Old-Age Dependency Ratio (2016)13
Pos.Lower is better
Per 10013
1Uganda04.3
2Mali04.5
3Chad04.7
...
80Turkmenistan11.0
81Maldives11.0
82Mongolia11.8
83Uzbekistan11.9
84Tonga11.9
85Kyrgyzstan12.1
86Indonesia12.4
87Myanmar (Burma)12.5
World Avg18.3
q=185.
Emigrants (2010)14
Pos.
%14
1Dominica104.8
2Palestine68.4
3Samoa67.3
...
84UK7.5
85Honduras7.5
86Austria7.1
87Uzbekistan7.0
88Bolivia6.8
89Guinea-Bissau6.8
90Slovenia6.5
91Kiribati6.5
World Avg11.5
q=192.
Fertility Rate (2013)15
Pos.2.0 is best15
1Korea, N.2.00
2Brunei1.99
3St Vincent & Grenadines2.01
...
43Bhutan2.27
44Jamaica2.28
45Suriname2.28
46Uzbekistan2.29
47Cape Verde2.29
48Estonia1.71
49UAE1.70
50Canada1.69
World Avg2.81
q=180.

Immigrants (2010)14
Pos.
%14
1Qatar86.5
2Monaco71.6
3UAE70.0
...
79Rwanda4.5
80Czechia4.4
81Dominican Rep.4.2
82Uzbekistan4.2
83Finland4.2
84Tajikistan4.0
85Kyrgyzstan4.0
86Turkmenistan4.0
World Avg9.2
q=192.
Life Expectancy (2015)16
Pos.Higher is better
Years16
1Hong Kong84.16
2Japan83.68
3Italy83.34
...
123Iraq69.63
124Kazakhstan69.59
125Tajikistan69.58
126Uzbekistan69.40
127Micronesia69.27
128Indonesia69.05
129Cambodia68.81
130Bolivia68.74
World Avg71.27
q=190.
Population (2012)17
Pos.The Overpopulation of the Earth17
1China1.4b
2India1.3b
3USA315.8m
...
43Peru29.7m
44Malaysia29.3m
45Saudi Arabia28.7m
46Uzbekistan28.1m
47Yemen25.6m
48Ghana25.5m
49Korea, N.24.6m
50Mozambique24.5m
World Avg36.0m
q=195.

Uzbekistan's population is predicted to rise to 33.37 million by 2030. These millions of extra people will all need space to live, food to eat, energy to consume, and will increase the burden on the planet's resources. This country has a fertility rate of 2.29. The fertility rate is, in simple terms, the average amount of children that each woman has. The higher the figure, the quicker the population is growing, although, to calculate the rate you also need to take into account morbidity, i.e., the rate at which people die. If people live healthy and long lives and morbidity is low, then, 2.0 approximates to the replacement rate, which would keep the population stable. If all countries had such a fertility rate, population growth would end. The actual replacement rate in most developed countries is around 2.1.

4. Politics and Freedom

#burundi #corruption #eritrea #france #human_development #human_rights #indonesia #mass_media #peace #politics #slavery #Uzbekistan

Corruption (2012-2016)18
Pos.Higher is better
Avg Score18
1Denmark90.8
2New Zealand90.6
3Finland89.4
...
165Haiti18.8
166Yemen18.4
167Venezuela18.4
168Uzbekistan18.4
169Turkmenistan18.2
170Libya16.8
171Iraq16.6
172S. Sudan13.8
World Avg43.05
q=176.
Global Peace Index (2012)19
Pos.Lower is better19
1Iceland1.11
2New Zealand1.24
3Denmark1.24
...
106Haiti2.18
107Cambodia2.21
108Belarus2.21
109Uzbekistan2.22
110El Salvador2.22
111Egypt2.22
112Jamaica2.22
113Benin2.23
World Avg2.02
q=157.
Nominal Commitment to HR (2009)20
Pos.Higher is better
Treaties20
1Argentina24
2Chile23
3Costa Rica23
...
121Syria14
122Sudan14
123Cameroon14
124Uzbekistan14
125Mauritania13
126Sri Lanka13
127Malawi13
128Zambia13
World Avg15.1
q=194.

Press Freedom (2013)21
Pos.Lower is better21
1Finland638
2Netherlands648
3Norway652
...
160Rwanda5546
161Sri Lanka5659
162Saudi Arabia5688
163Uzbekistan6039
164Bahrain6275
165Equatorial Guinea6720
166Djibouti6740
167Laos6799
World Avg3249
q=178.
Slavery (2018)22
Pos.Lower is better
% Victims22
1Japan0.03
2Canada0.05
3Taiwan0.05
...
96Iraq0.48
97Gabon0.48
98Sierra Leone0.50
99Uzbekistan0.52
100Armenia0.53
101Mozambique0.54
102Russia0.55
103Moldova0.55
World Avg0.65
q=167.

The taking of slaves has been an unwholesome feature of Human cultures since prehistory23. Private households and national endeavours have frequently been augmented with the use of slaves. The Egyptian and Roman empires both thrived on them for both purposes. Aside from labourers they are often abused sexually by their owners and their owners' friends24. The era of colonialism and the beginnings of globalisation changed nothing: the imprisonment and forced movements of labour continued to destroy many lives except that new justifications were invented based on Christian doctrine and the effort to convert non-Christians. By 1786 over 12 million slaves had been extracted from Africa and sent to colonial labour camps, with a truly atrocious condition of life25. But they were not the only ones to blame; in Africa internal nations such as the Asantes sold and bought tens of thousands of slaves26.

The abolition of the slave trade was a long and slow process. Until a relatively modern time, even philosophers, religious leaders and those concerned with ethics justified, or ignored, the problem of slavery27. The first abolitionists were always the slaves themselves. Their protests and rebellions caused the industry to become too expensive to continue. After that, it was the economic costs of maintain slave colonies that led the British to reject and then oppose the slave trade globally. Finally, the enlightenment-era thinkers of France encouraged moral and ethical thinking including the declaration of the inherent value of human life and human dignity28. A long-overdue wave of compassionate and conscientious movements swept across the West, eliminating public support for slavery, until the industries and churches that supported it had no choice but to back down.

'Modern slavery' includes forced labour (often of the under-age), debt bondage (especially generational), sexual slavery, chattel slavery and other forms of abuse, some of which can be surprisingly difficult to detect, but often target those fleeing from warzones and the vulnerable.29. Some industries (diamond, clothing, coal) from some countries (Burundi22, Eritrea22, Indonesia30) are a particular concern. The Walk Free Foundation, say that in 2016, 40.3 million people were living in modern slavery31.

Uzbekistan does poorly in protecting the vulnerable from forced labour. The nominal efforts that it does are often undermined by a failure to follow-through with checks that anti-slavery measures are being effective.

Workers stay at a former school in a village in Tashkent region, hours from their hometown. The building is dilapidated, cold and ruined. They sleep on the floor and eat breakfast in the former gym having been forcibly mobilized to pick cotton. Forced labour has been a regular feature of cotton harvests in post-Soviet Uzbekistan. However, in mid-September 2017, the Uzbek President referred to ending forced labour in a speech to the United Nations and the government recalled school children and state workers from the fields. While this is great progress, implementation needs to be supported and carefully monitored. NGO monitors revealed that even as workers are being brought back from the fields, some local officials are extorting funds from businesses and individuals to pay for "replacement" workers. Activists trying to monitor the situation also report being threatened and harassed.

"Global Slavery Index" by Walk Free Foundation (2018)32

5. Gender Equality

#gender #misogyny #politics #Uzbekistan #women

Gender Inequality (2015)33
Pos.Lower is better33
1Switzerland0.04
2Denmark0.04
3Netherlands0.04
...
54Oman0.28
55Uruguay0.28
56Ukraine0.28
57Uzbekistan0.29
58Tunisia0.29
59Malaysia0.29
60Barbados0.29
61Armenia0.29
World Avg0.36
q=159.
Year Women Can Vote34
Pos.Lower is better
Year34
1New Zealand1893
2Australia1902
3Finland1906
...
42Cuba1934
43Myanmar (Burma)1935
44Philippines1937
45Uzbekistan1938
46Dominican Rep.1942
47Bulgaria1944
48France1944
49Bermuda1944
World Avg1930
q=189.

Gender inequality is not a necessary part of early human development. Although a separation of roles is almost universal due to different strengths between the genders, this does not have to mean that women are subdued, and, such patriarchialism is not universal in ancient history. Those cultures and peoples who shed, or never developed, the idea that mankind ought to dominate womankind, are better cultures and peoples than those who, even today, cling violently to those mores.

Uzbekistan is on the way towards ending gender inequality but women are still in an unfavourable position much of the time.

See:

6. Religion and Beliefs

#belief #buddhism #christianity #god #hinduism #islam #judaism #religion

Religiosity (2009)35
Pos.Lower is better
%35
1Estonia16
2Sweden17
3Denmark19
...
24Spain49
25Azerbaijan50
26Israel51
27Uzbekistan51
28Serbia54
29Ireland54
30USA65
31Argentina66
World Avg75.1
q=114.
Disbelief In God (2007)36
Pos.Higher is better36
1Vietnam81
2Japan65
3Sweden64
...
58Romania4
59Argentina4
60Georgia4
61Uzbekistan4
62Lebanon3
63Congo, (Brazzaville)3
64Poland3
65Jamaica3
World Avg9.9
q=137.

Data from the Pew Forum, a professional polling outfit, states that in 2010 the religious makeup of this country was as follows in the table below37:

Christian2.3%
Muslim96.7%
Hindu0.1%
Buddhist0.1%
Folk Religion0.1%
Jew0.1%
Unaffiliated0.8%

It appears that when asked "What religion are you" many give pollsters the 'correct' answer despite how they actually feel, and despite what they actually believe. Although 99.4% of the populace say they belong to a religion, only 51% say that they are religious when the question is phrased as "Is religion an important part of your daily life?".

For more on this phenomenon, see:

The CIA World Factbook has slightly different data, and states: Muslim 88% (mostly Sunni), Eastern Orthodox 9%, other 3%38.

When it comes to religious freedom and persecution, sociologists Grim & Finke place Uzbekistan into the worst category, along with just 13 other countries. In this category, severe restrictions on religious freedom and freedom of belief stem simultaneously from top-down pressure from government and institutionalized religion, and from bottom-up grassroots movements that often go even further than the government in harrassing those who do not believe the right things (2011)39.

Links:

7. The Internet

#internet #it_security #politics #the_internet #Uzbekistan

Freedom On The Internet (2012)40
Pos.Lower is better40
1Estonia10
2USA12
3Germany15
...
40Vietnam73
41Ethiopia75
42Myanmar (Burma)75
43Uzbekistan77
44Syria83
45China85
46Cuba86
47Iran90
World Avg46.7
q=47.
Internet Users (2016)41
Pos.Higher is better41
1Iceland100%
2Faroe Islands99%
3Norway98%
...
95Vietnam52%
96S. Africa52%
97Dominican Rep.52%
98Uzbekistan51%
99Armenia50%
100Iran49%
101Tunisia48%
102Moldova48%
World Avg48.1%
q=201.
IPv6 Uptake (2017)42
Pos.Higher is better
Ratio42
1Belgium55.4
2Germany41.8
3Switzerland35.1
...
98Armenia0.0
99Cape Verde0.0
100Nigeria0.0
101Uzbekistan0.0
102Colombia0.0
103Ghana0.0
104Yemen0.0
105Laos0.0
World Avg3.82
q=176.

IT Security (2013)43
Pos.Lower is better43
1Ireland0.11
2Luxembourg0.11
3Belize0.11
...
26Qatar0.65
27Chile0.66
28Guinea-Bissau0.67
29Uzbekistan0.69
30Moldova0.71
31Zambia0.76
32Kenya0.77
33Cameroon0.77
World Avg0.98
q=81.

Internet access has become an essential research tool. It facilitates an endless list of life improvements, from the ability to network and socialize without constraint, to access to a seemingly infinite repository of technical and procedural information on pretty much any task. The universal availability of data has sped up industrial development and personal learning at the national and personal level. Individuals can read any topic they wish regardless of the locality of expert teachers, and, entire nations can develop their technology and understanding of the world simply because they are now exposed to advanced societies and moral discourses online. Like every communications medium, the Internet has issues and causes a small range of problems, but these are insignificant compared to the advantages of having an online populace.

8. Public Health Issues

#alcohol #health #mental_health #parenting #population #smoking #suicide #Uzbekistan #vaccines

Adolescent Birth Rate (2015)33
Pos.Lower is better
Per 100033
1Korea, N.0.5
2Korea, S.1.6
3Switzerland2.9
...
55Malta16.6
56Kiribati17.2
57Macedonia17.6
58Uzbekistan17.7
59Hungary18.0
60Belarus18.2
61Serbia19.0
62Slovakia20.2
World Avg47.9
q=185.
Alcohol Consumption (2010)44
Pos.Lower is better
Per Capita44
1Libya0.1
2Pakistan0.1
3Kuwait0.1
...
74UAE4.3
75India4.3
76Chad4.4
77Uzbekistan4.6
78Liberia4.7
79Ghana4.8
80Jamaica4.9
81Nicaragua5.0
World Avg6.2
q=191.
Infant Immunizations 2011-2015 (2015)45
Pos.Higher is better
Avg %45
1Hungary99.0
2China99.0
3Uzbekistan98.9
4Niue98.8
5Mongolia98.7
6Czechia98.7
7Seychelles98.6
8Korea, S.98.6
9Sri Lanka98.4
10St Lucia98.2
11Bahrain98.2
12Iran98.1
World Avg88.3
q=194.

Smoking Rates (2014)46
Pos.Lower is better46
1Guinea 15
2Solomon Islands 26
3Kiribati 28
...
89Norway 556
90Gabon 559
91Venezuela 565
92Uzbekistan 573
93Oman 577
94Malaysia 584
95Seychelles 590
96Jamaica 593
World Avg 819
q=182.
Suicide Rate (2013)47
Pos.Lower is better
Per 100k47
1Haiti0
2Grenada0
3Egypt0.1
...
27Georgia8.8
28Seychelles8.9
29Cyprus9.1
30Uzbekistan9.3
31Brazil9.7
32Colombia9.9
33Panama10.9
34Nicaragua11.6
World Avg20.93
q=91.

9. More Charts and Comparisons to Other Countries

Personal Charitability
(World Position, 2013-2016)
48
Pos.Lower is better48
1Myanmar (Burma)1.25
2USA1.5
3New Zealand3.5
...
28Malaysia27.5
29Finland28.25
30Thailand28.75
31Uzbekistan29
32Libya29
33Puerto Rico29
34Cyprus31
q=156.
Life Satisfaction (2011)49
Pos.Higher is better49
1Denmark7.8
2Norway7.6
3Netherlands7.6
...
77Portugal5.2
78Belarus5.2
79Algeria5.2
80Uzbekistan5.1
81Morocco5.1
82Ukraine5.1
83Malawi5.1
84Iraq5.0
q=150.
Gross National Income Per-Capita (2011)16
Pos.Higher is better
PPP $16
1Qatar$129 916
2Singapore$78 162
3Kuwait$76 075
...
123Angola$6 291
124Bolivia$6 155
125Cape Verde$6 049
126Uzbekistan$5 748
127India$5 663
128Congo, (Brazzaville)$5 503
129Nigeria$5 443
130Tuvalu$5 395
q=193.
Environmental Performance (2018)50
Pos.Higher is better50
1Switzerland87.4
2France84.0
3Denmark81.6
...
133Indonesia46.9
134Guinea46.6
135Mozambique46.4
136Uzbekistan45.9
137Chad45.3
138Myanmar (Burma)45.3
139Ivory Coast45.3
140Gabon45.1
q=180.
LGBT Equality (2017)51
Pos.Higher is better
Score51
1Netherlands103
2Belgium90
3Sweden86
...
175Togo-29
176Comoros-30
177Angola-30
178Uzbekistan-30
179Tonga-30
180Tuvalu-30
181Mauritania-32
182UAE-34
q=196.
IQ (2006)52
Pos.Higher is better52
1Hong Kong108
2Singapore108
3Korea, S.106
...
66Azerbaijan87
67Indonesia87
68Turkmenistan87
69Uzbekistan87
70Kuwait86
71Philippines86
72Yemen85
73Trinidad & Tobago85
q=138.

Current edition: 2013 May 01
Last Modified: 2018 Aug 16
http://www.humantruth.info/uzbekistan.html
Parent page: Compare International Statistics by Region and Continent

All #tags used on this page - click for more:

#alcohol #belief #buddhism #burundi #charity #christianity #corruption #demographics #economics #eritrea #france #gender #god #happiness #health #hinduism #homosexuality #human_development #human_rights #immigration #indonesia #intelligence #internet #islam #it_security #judaism #life_expectancy #mass_media #mental_health #misogyny #morals #overpopulation #parenting #peace #politics #population #religion #slavery #smoking #suicide #the_environment #the_internet #Uzbekistan #vaccines #women

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References: (What's this?)

Casely-Hayford, Gus
(2012) The Lost Kingdoms of Africa. Published by Bantram Press. A hardback book.

Charities Aid Foundation
World Giving Index. On www.cafonline.org.

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(2013) World Factbook. The USA Government's Central Intelligence Agency (USA CIA) publishes The World Factbook, and the online version is frequently updated.

Crabtree, Vexen
(2018) "What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life" (2018). Accessed 2018 Aug 22.

Gallup
(2009) Religiosity. gallup.com/poll/142727/.... The survey question was "Is religion an important part of your daily life?" and results are charted for those who said "yes". 1000 adults were polled in each of 114 countries.

Grim & Finke. Dr Grim is senior researcher in religion and world affairs at the Pew Research Center, Washington, D.C, USA. Finke is Professor of Sociology and Religious Studies at the Pennsylvania State University.
(2011) The Price of Freedom Denied. Subtitled: "Religious Persecution and Conflict in the Twenty-First Century". Amazon Kindle digital edition. Published by Cambridge University Press, UK. An e-book.

Klein, Naomi
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Lonely Planet
(2014) The World. Subtitled: "A Traveller's Guide to the Planet". Published by Lonely Planet, London, UK. Each chapter is devoted to a specific country and includes a list of the most interesting places to visit and a few other cultural notes.

Lynn, Harvey & Nyborg
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(2011) Human Development Report. Published by the UN Development Programme. This edition had the theme of Sustainability and Equity: A Better Future for All. Available on hdr.undp.org/... UN Development Program: About the Human Development Index.
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Footnotes

  1. World Bank data on data.worldbank.org accessed 2013 Nov 04.^
  2. UN (2011) .^
  3. UN (2017). Table 1.^
  4. UN (2017). Gross National Income, per person. Table 1.^
  5. International Standards Organisation (ISO) standard ISO3166-1, on www.iso.org, accessed 2013 May 01.^
  6. Top level domains (TLDs) are managed by the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) on www.iana.org.^
  7. According to ISO4217.^
  8. According to ITU-T.^
  9. CIA (2013). Https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/uz.html accessed 2014 Apr 27.^
  10. Lonely Planet (2014). Chapter "Uzbekistan".^
  11. UN (2017). Table 1. Lower is better.^
  12. "What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life" by Vexen Crabtree (2018)^
  13. UN (2017). Dashboard 2. Higher is worse. Old-age is counted as 65+, and ratio is of these to people ages 15-64. Projections are for 2030 based on medium-fertility variant of growth.^
  14. UN (2013). Table 11.^
  15. UN (2013). Table 14. Births per woman (2012), expressed as deviance (positive or negative) from the value of 2.0.^
  16. UN (2017). Table 1. Higher is better.^^
  17. UN (2013). Table 14.^
  18. Transparency International Corruption Perceptions Index (2017). Accessed 2017 Dec 30. The scores given are the TI average for the years 2012-2016.^
  19. ^
  20. Max possible=24. Total amount of treaties ratified. Nominal Commitment to Human Rights report published by UCL School of Public Policy, London, UK, at ucl.ac.uk/spp/research/research-projects/nchr accessed 2011 Apr 30.^
  21. Reporters Without Borders Report "2013 World Press Freedom Index: Dashed hopes after spring" at fr.rsf.org/.../classement_2013_gb-bd.pdf accessed 2013 Feb.^
  22. Walk Free Foundation (2018) .^
  23. Thomson (1993). P28.^
  24. McCall (1979). P180.^
  25. Thomson (1993). P166.^
  26. Casely-Hayford (2012). P253.^
  27. Thomson (1993). P31.^
  28. Thomson (1993). P199.^
  29. Thomson (1993). P28-29.^
  30. Klein (2004) .^
  31. Walk Free Foundation (2018). P2.^
  32. Walk Free Foundation (2018). P.x.^
  33. UN (2017). Table 5. Lower is better.^^
  34. "What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life: 2.6. Women Stand for Election & Vote" by Vexen Crabtree (2018)^
  35. Gallup (2009) .^
  36. Zuckerman, P. (2007). Atheism: contemporary numbers and patterns. In M.Martin (Ed.), The Cambridge Companion to Atheism. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. In "Average intelligence predicts atheism rates across 137 nations" by Lynn et al. (2009)52.^
  37. Pew Forum (2012) publication "The Global Religious Landscape: A Report on the Size and Distribution of the World´s Major Religious Groups as of 2010" (2012 Dec 18) accessed 2013 May 01.^
  38. CIA (2013). Https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/ar.html accessed 2014 Apr 27.^
  39. Grim & Finke (2011). Chapter 5 "A Closer Look China, India, and Iran" digital location 3560.^
  40. Freedom House publication "Freedom on the Net 2012" at www.freedomhouse.org/.../FOTN%202012%20-%20Tables%20and%20Charts%20FINAL.pdf accessed 2013 Feb 05.^
  41. internetlivestats.com/internet-users-by-country accessed 2017 Mar 10.^
  42. % of internet access via native IPv6 compared to IPv4. As of 2017 Jun 20, from http://www.cidr-report.org. Accessed 2017 Jun 20.^
  43. "What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life: 3.4. Malware and Email Spam" by Vexen Crabtree (2018)^
  44. WHO (2014). Appendix 1. Alcohol Per Capita Consumption in liters of pure alcohol, 15+ years age population, consumed in 2010. Lower is better.^
  45. World Health Organisation data for 2011-2015 from 7 data series accessed 2017 May 21. Details in "Immunizations: International Statistics on Vaccines and the Autism Scare: 3. World Health Organisation Statistics" by Vexen Crabtree (2017).^
  46. Annual Cigarette Consumption Per Adult (age 15 and above) - compustible cigarettes. Euromonitor International (2014), via tobaccoatlas.org/topic/cigarette-use-globally/ . Accessed 2017 Jun 20.^
  47. UN (2013). World Health Organisation statistics. Suicide Rates Per 100k.^
  48. Charities Aid Foundation. Average ranking across years 2013-2016. Lower is better.^
  49. UN (2013). Table 9. Higher is better. Table 9. The UN's data is the latest available from a range of data from 2007-2011.^
  50. Yale University Center for Environmental Law & Policy 2018 EPI.^
  51. Sources:^
  52. Lynn, Harvey & Nyborg (2009) .^

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