The Human Truth Foundation

Georgia (Republic of Georgia)

By Vexen Crabtree 2013


Comments:
FB, LJ

#charity #economics #georgia #happiness #intelligence #morals #research #science #the_environment

Georgia
Republic of Georgia
StatusIndependent State
CapitalTbilisi
Land Area 69 490km21
LocationAsia, Europe
Population4.3m (2011)2
Life Expectancy75.02yrs (2017)3
GNI$8 856 (2017)4
ISO3166-1 CodesGE, GEO, 2685
Internet Domain.ge6
CurrencyLari (GEL)7
Telephone+9958

1. Overview

#christianity #russia

The region of present day Georgia contained the ancient kingdoms of Colchis and Kartli-Iberia. The area came under Roman influence in the first centuries A.D., and Christianity became the state religion in the 330s. Domination by Persians, Arabs, and Turks was followed by a Georgian golden age (11th-13th centuries) that was cut short by the Mongol invasion of 1236. Subsequently, the Ottoman and Persian empires competed for influence in the region. Georgia was absorbed into the Russian Empire in the 19th century. Independent for three years (1918-1921) following the Russian revolution, it was forcibly incorporated into the USSR in 1921 and regained its independence when the Soviet Union dissolved in 1991. Mounting public discontent over rampant corruption and ineffective government services, followed by an attempt by the incumbent Georgian Government to manipulate national legislative elections in November 2003 touched off widespread protests that led to the resignation of Eduard SHEVARDNADZE, president since 1995. In the aftermath of that popular movement, which became known as the "Rose Revolution," new elections in early 2004 swept Mikheil SAAKASHVILI into power along with his United National Movement (UNM) party. Progress on market reforms and democratization has been made in the years since independence, but this progress has been complicated by Russian assistance and support to the separatist regions of Abkhazia and South Ossetia. Periodic flare-ups in tension and violence culminated in a five-day conflict in August 2008 between Russia and Georgia, including the invasion of large portions of undisputed Georgian territory. Russian troops pledged to pull back from most occupied Georgian territory, but in late August 2008 Russia unilaterally recognized the independence of Abkhazia and South Ossetia, and Russian military forces remain in those regions. Billionaire philanthropist Bidzina IVANISHVILI's unexpected entry into politics in October 2011 brought the divided opposition together under his Georgian Dream coalition, which won a majority of seats in the October 2012 parliamentary election and removed UNM from power. A new constitution shifting many powers from the president to the prime minister and parliament, including the power to name the prime minister and government ministers, does not go into effect until after a new president is elected in the fall of 2013. Conceding defeat, SAAKASHVILI named IVANISHVILI as prime minister and allowed Georgian Dream to create a new government. Tensions remain high as IVANISHVILI, SAAKASHVILI, and their supporters struggle to co-exist until the end of the president's term.

CIA's The World Factbook (2013)9

Book CoverA proud, richly cultured nation, boasting architectural delights and breathtaking landscapes, Georgia is a treasure awaiting discovery in the Caucasus Mountains. With sublimely perched old churches and watchtowers dotting fantastic mountain scenery and green valleys spread with vineyards, Georgia is one of the most beautiful countries on earth. It offers limitless opportunities for walkers, horse riders, skiers, rafters and paragliders. Dramatic peaks rise, wolves, bears and hyenas lurk, rivers race through steep gorges and mountain folk bedeck stone shrines with sacrificed goats´ heads.

The Georgians themselves are earnestly pious, high-spirited and warmly hospitable. Georgia claims to be the birthplace of wine, and this is a place where guests are considered blessings and convivial feasting is the very stuff of life.

A deeply complicated history has given Georgia a melange of cultural influences a wonderful heritage of architecture and art, from cave cities to the inimitable canvases of Pirosmani. But this is also a country striving for a place in the 21st-century Western world, with eye-catching new buildings and facilities for the tourists who are a big part of its future.

"The World" by Lonely Planet (2014)10

2. Georgia National and Social Development

#human_development

UN HDI (2016)11
Pos.Lower is better
Rank11
1Norway1
2Australia2
3Switzerland2
...
67Serbia66
68Cuba68
69Iran69
70Georgia70
71Turkey71
72Venezuela71
73Sri Lanka73
74St Kitts & Nevis74
World Avg94.3
q=188.
Social & Moral
Development Index
12
Pos.Higher is better
Points12
1Denmark84.0
2Sweden83.9
3Finland83.5
...
76Montenegro54.9
77Tajikistan54.9
78Peru54.9
79Georgia54.7
80Armenia54.4
81Guatemala54.3
82Ukraine54.2
83Colombia53.7
World Avg53.8
q=198.

The United Nations produces an annual Human Development Report which includes the Human Development Index. The factors taken into account include life expectancy, education and schooling and Gross National Income (GNI) amongst many others..

The Social and Moral Development Index concentrates on moral issues and human rights, violence, public health, equality, tolerance, freedom and effectiveness in climate change mitigation and environmentalism, and on some technological issues. A country scores higher for achieving well in those areas, and for sustaining that achievement in the long term. Those countries towards the top of this index can truly said to be setting good examples and leading humankind onwards into a bright, humane, and free future. See: What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life.

3. Population and Demographics

#demographics #Georgia #health #immigration #life_expectancy #overpopulation #population

Old-Age Dependency Ratio (2016)13
Pos.Lower is better
Per 10013
1Uganda04.3
2Mali04.5
3Chad04.7
...
138Thailand29.2
139Ireland29.2
140Russia29.5
141Georgia29.7
142Montenegro30.0
143Belarus30.3
144Ukraine30.8
145Australia31.3
World Avg18.3
q=185.
Emigrants (2010)14
Pos.
%14
1Dominica104.8
2Palestine68.4
3Samoa67.3
...
18Armenia28.2
19Trinidad & Tobago26.7
20Malta26.2
21Georgia25.1
22Kazakhstan23.6
23St Lucia23.3
24Macedonia21.9
25Sao Tome & Principe21.9
World Avg11.5
q=192.
Fertility Rate (2013)15
Pos.2.0 is best15
1N. Korea2.00
2Brunei1.99
3St Vincent & Grenadines2.01
...
70Bahrain2.46
71Thailand1.54
72Greece1.54
73Georgia1.53
74Switzerland1.53
75Mongolia2.48
76Russia1.52
77Albania1.51
World Avg2.81
q=180.

Immigrants (2010)14
Pos.
%14
1Qatar86.5
2Monaco71.6
3UAE70.0
...
84Tajikistan4.0
85Kyrgyzstan4.0
86Turkmenistan4.0
87Georgia4.0
88Lithuania4.0
89Guinea3.8
90Congo, (Brazzaville)3.8
91Malta3.8
World Avg9.2
q=192.
Life Expectancy (2015)16
Pos.Higher is better
Years16
1Hong Kong84.16
2Japan83.68
3Italy83.34
...
69Serbia75.05
70Sri Lanka75.05
71Algeria75.03
72Georgia75.02
73Tunisia74.98
74Malaysia74.90
75Armenia74.89
76Romania74.84
World Avg71.27
q=190.
Population (2012)17
Pos.The Overpopulation of the Earth17
1China1.4b
2India1.3b
3USA315.8m
...
120Central African Rep.4.6m
121New Zealand4.5m
122Croatia4.4m
123Georgia4.3m
124Lebanon4.3m
125Palestine4.3m
126Liberia4.2m
127Congo, (Brazzaville)4.2m
World Avg36.0m
q=195.

Georgia's population is predicted to fall to 3 760 000 by 2030. Developed countries with falling populations face a pension's crises, whereby an incresingly ageing population must be cared for by fewer and fewer workers. Economic stability can be maintained by increasing foreign workers from younger countries. This country has a fertility rate of 1.53. The fertility rate is, in simple terms, the average amount of children that each woman has. The higher the figure, the quicker the population is growing, although, to calculate the rate you also need to take into account morbidity, i.e., the rate at which people die. If people live healthy and long lives and morbidity is low, then, 2.0 approximates to the replacement rate, which would keep the population stable. If all countries had such a fertility rate, population growth would end. The actual replacement rate in most developed countries is around 2.1.

4. Human Rights, Equality and Freedom

#equality #freedom #georgia #human_rights #politics #tolerance

Georgia does relatively well in ensuring human rights and freedom, compared to many other countries. Georgia does better than average in its nominal commitment to Human Rights18, supporting personal, civil & economic freedoms19, LGBT equality20, commentary from Human Rights Watch21, fighting anti-semitic opinions22, fighting corruption23 and in opposing gender inequality24. Georgia does not succeed in everything, however. It does worse than average in eliminating modern slavery25 and in supporting press freedom26. And finally, it falls into the bottom 20 in its Global Peace Index rating27. "Georgia does not have an effective independent mechanism for investigating abuse by law enforcement officials", including in cases of alleged torture, and any investigations tend to be downplayed, with minimal charges being raised against officials28.

For tables, charts and commentary, see:

5. Religion and Beliefs

#belief #buddhism #christianity #god #hinduism #islam #judaism #religion

Religiosity (2009)29
Pos.Lower is better
%29
1Estonia16
2Sweden17
3Denmark19
...
46Venezuela79
47Costa Rica79
48Turkmenistan80
49Georgia81
50Turkey82
51Ecuador82
52Colombia83
53El Salvador83
World Avg75.1
q=114.
Disbelief In God (2007)30
Pos.Higher is better30
1Vietnam81
2Japan65
3Sweden64
...
57Portugal4
58Romania4
59Argentina4
60Georgia4
61Uzbekistan4
62Lebanon3
63Congo, (Brazzaville)3
64Poland3
World Avg9.9
q=137.

Data from the Pew Forum, a professional polling outfit, states that in 2010 the religious makeup of this country was as follows in the table below31:

Christian88.5%
Muslim10.7%
Hindu0.1%
Buddhist0.1%
Folk Religion0.1%
Jew0.1%
Unaffiliated0.7%

It appears that when asked "What religion are you" many give pollsters the 'correct' answer despite how they actually feel, and despite what they actually believe. Although 99.6% of the populace say they belong to a religion, only 81% say that they are religious when the question is phrased as "Is religion an important part of your daily life?".

For more on this phenomenon, see:

The CIA World Factbook has slightly different data, and states: Orthodox Christian (official) 83.9%, Muslim 9.9%, Armenian-Gregorian 3.9%, Catholic 0.8%, other 0.8%, none 0.7% (2002 census)32.

Links:

6. The Internet

#Georgia #internet #politics #the_internet

Freedom On The Internet (2012)33
Pos.Lower is better33
1Estonia10
2USA12
3Germany15
...
11Ukraine27
12Brazil27
13Kenya29
14Georgia30
15Nigeria33
16S. Korea34
17Uganda34
18Kyrgyzstan35
World Avg46.7
q=47.
Internet Users (2016)34
Pos.Higher is better34
1Iceland100%
2Faroe Islands99%
3Norway98%
...
90US Virgin Islands54%
91Serbia54%
92Maldives54%
93Georgia53%
94China52%
95Vietnam52%
96S. Africa52%
97Dominican Rep.52%
World Avg48.1%
q=201.
IPv6 Uptake (2017)35
Pos.Higher is better
Ratio35
1Belgium55.4
2Germany41.8
3Switzerland35.1
...
118Tunisia0.0
119Tuvalu0.0
120Marshall Islands0.0
121Georgia0.0
122Swaziland0.0
123Mongolia0.0
124Samoa0.0
125Albania0.0
World Avg3.82
q=176.

Internet access has become an essential research tool. It facilitates an endless list of life improvements, from the ability to network and socialize without constraint, to access to a seemingly infinite repository of technical and procedural information on pretty much any task. The universal availability of data has sped up industrial development and personal learning at the national and personal level. Individuals can read any topic they wish regardless of the locality of expert teachers, and, entire nations can develop their technology and understanding of the world simply because they are now exposed to advanced societies and moral discourses online. Like every communications medium, the Internet has issues and causes a small range of problems, but these are insignificant compared to the advantages of having an online populace.

7. Public Health Issues

#alcohol #Georgia #health #mental_health #parenting #population #smoking #suicide #vaccines

Adolescent Birth Rate (2015)24
Pos.Lower is better
Per 100024
1N. Korea0.5
2S. Korea1.6
3Switzerland2.9
...
93Haiti39.3
94Syria39.4
95Kyrgyzstan39.6
96Georgia39.7
97Barbados40.7
98Vanuatu43.1
99Thailand44.6
100Antigua & Barbuda44.8
World Avg47.9
q=185.
Alcohol Consumption (2010)36
Pos.Lower is better
Per Capita36
1Libya0.1
2Pakistan0.1
3Kuwait0.1
...
123Angola7.5
124Uruguay7.6
125Tanzania7.7
126Georgia7.7
127Norway7.7
128Palau7.9
129Niue8.0
130Panama8.0
World Avg6.2
q=191.
Food Aid, Health Contributions & WHO Compliance (2017)37
Pos.Lower is better
Rank37
1Sweden1
2Ireland2
3Denmark3
...
63Lebanon63
64Lithuania64
65Cambodia65
66Georgia66
67Belarus67
68Brunei68
69Paraguay69
70Latvia70
World Avg82.0
q=163.

Infant Immunizations 2011-2015 (2015)38
Pos.Higher is better
Avg %38
1Hungary99.0
2China99.0
3Uzbekistan98.9
...
92Cape Verde93.4
93Burundi93.3
94Chile93.3
95Georgia93.1
96New Zealand92.9
97Nauru92.9
98USA92.8
99Latvia92.8
World Avg88.3
q=194.
Smoking Rates (2014)39
Pos.Lower is better39
1Guinea 15
2Solomon Islands 26
3Kiribati 28
...
141Israel1 346
142Argentina1 359
143Denmark1 378
144Georgia1 378
145Cuba1 392
146Saudi Arabia1 395
147Netherlands1 396
148Poland1 396
World Avg 819
q=182.
Suicide Rate (2013)40
Pos.Lower is better
Per 100k40
1Haiti0
2Grenada0
3Egypt0.1
...
24Albania8
25Mexico8.5
26Israel8.5
27Georgia8.8
28Seychelles8.9
29Cyprus9.1
30Uzbekistan9.3
31Brazil9.7
World Avg20.93
q=91.

8. More Charts and Comparisons to Other Countries

Personal Charitability
(World Position, 2013-2016)
41
Pos.Lower is better41
1Myanmar (Burma)1.25
2USA1.5
3New Zealand3.5
...
136Mali115.25
137Czechia116.5
138Venezuela117.5
139Georgia117.75
140Togo118
141Morocco119
142Tunisia121
q=156.
Intellectual Endeavours (2017)37
Pos.Lower is better
Rank37
1Ukraine1
2Czechia2
3Hungary3
...
83Mauritius83
84UAE84
85Tonga85
86Georgia86
87Benin87
88Pakistan88
89Seychelles89
q=163.
Creativity and Culture (2017)37
Pos.Lower is better
Rank37
1Belgium1
2Netherlands2
3Estonia3
...
106Ecuador106
107Uganda107
108Lesotho108
109Georgia109
110Kuwait110
111China111
112Swaziland112
q=163.
Peacekeeping and Security (2017)37
Pos.Lower is better
Rank37
1Samoa1
2S. Africa2
3Tunisia3
...
76Fiji76
77Iceland77
78Turkey78
79Georgia79
80Albania80
81Gabon81
82Russia82
q=163.
Refugees and UN Treaties (2017)37
Pos.Lower is better
Rank37
1Austria1
2Germany2
3Netherlands3
...
98Papua New Guinea98
99Mexico99
100Senegal100
101Georgia101
102Timor-Leste (E. Timor)102
103Barbados103
104Armenia104
q=163.
Open Trading, Aid and Development (2017)37
Pos.Lower is better
Rank37
1Ireland1
2Denmark2
3Sweden3
...
8Norway8
9Finland9
10Croatia10
11Georgia11
12Philippines12
13Austria13
14Germany14
q=163.
Research and Development (2016)
Pos.Higher is better
% RDP PPP
1S. Korea4.29
2Israel4.11
3Japan3.58
...
100Sri Lanka0.16
101Albania0.15
102Namibia0.14
103Georgia0.13
104Gambia0.13
105Tajikistan0.12
106Burundi0.12
107Madagascar0.11
q=126.
Life Satisfaction (2011)42
Pos.Higher is better42
1Denmark7.8
2Norway7.6
3Netherlands7.6
...
117Kenya4.4
118Djibouti4.4
119Tajikistan4.3
120Georgia4.2
121Uganda4.2
122Macedonia4.2
123Ivory Coast4.2
124Cambodia4.2
q=150.
Gross National Income Per-Capita (2011)16
Pos.Higher is better
PPP $16
1Qatar$129 916
2Singapore$78 162
3Kuwait$76 075
...
105Indonesia$10 053
106St Lucia$9 791
107Namibia$9 770
108Georgia$8 856
109Philippines$8 395
110Jamaica$8 350
111Fiji$8 245
112Armenia$8 189
q=193.
Environmental Performance (2018)43
Pos.Higher is better43
1Switzerland87.4
2France84.0
3Denmark81.6
...
91St Lucia56.2
92Bolivia56.0
93Barbados55.8
94Georgia55.7
95Kiribati55.3
96Bahrain55.2
97Nicaragua55.0
98Bahamas55.0
q=180.
IQ (2006)44
Pos.Higher is better44
1Hong Kong108
2Singapore108
3S. Korea106
...
42Vietnam94
43Armenia94
44Romania94
45Georgia94
46Argentina93
47Bulgaria93
48Ireland92
49Malaysia92
q=138.

Current edition: 2013 May 01
Last Modified: 2018 Dec 27
http://www.humantruth.info/georgia.html
Parent page: Compare International Statistics by Region and Continent

All #tags used on this page - click for more:

#alcohol #belief #buddhism #charity #christianity #demographics #economics #equality #freedom #georgia #god #happiness #health #hinduism #human_development #human_rights #immigration #intelligence #internet #islam #judaism #life_expectancy #mental_health #morals #overpopulation #parenting #politics #population #religion #research #russia #science #smoking #suicide #the_environment #the_internet #tolerance #vaccines

Social Media

References: (What's this?)

The Good Country Index. Published by The Good Country Inc., New York, USA. Website: goodcountry.org. The Good Country Index gauges how well countries are doing in helping international development. Edition 1.2 (2017) has 35 criteria.

Anti-Defamation League. (ADL)
(2014) ADL Global 100, Executive Summary. Accessed on global100.adl.org on 2017 Jan 02. The numbers given are of those who state that racist stereotyped statements about Jews are true; they have to agree to 6 or more of the 11 statements to be counted. An example statements is "Jews are hated because of the way they behave". The data was collected from 53,100 interviews across 101 countries plus the West Bank and Gaza. The global average is 26%.

Charities Aid Foundation
World Giving Index. On www.cafonline.org.

CIA
(2013) World Factbook. The USA Government's Central Intelligence Agency (USA CIA) publishes The World Factbook, and the online version is frequently updated.

Crabtree, Vexen
(2019) "What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life" (2019). Accessed 2019 Jan 13.

The Fraser Institute
(2016) The Human Freedom Index. Published by The Cato Institute, The Fraser Institute and the Friedrich Naumann Foundation for Freedom. Covers data up to 2014. On www.fraserinstitute.org/.../human-freedom-index-2016.

Gallup
(2009) Religiosity. gallup.com/poll/142727/.... The survey question was "Is religion an important part of your daily life?" and results are charted for those who said "yes". 1000 adults were polled in each of 114 countries.

Human Rights Watch
(2018) World Report 2018. Covering the events of 2017.

Lonely Planet
(2014) The World. Subtitled: "A Traveller's Guide to the Planet". Published by Lonely Planet, London, UK. Each chapter is devoted to a specific country and includes a list of the most interesting places to visit and a few other cultural notes.

Lynn, Harvey & Nyborg
(2009) Average intelligence predicts atheism rates across 137 nations. Richard Lynn, John Harvey and Helmuth Nyborg. Published in Intelligence (2009 Jan/Feb) vol. 37 issue 1 pages 11-15. Online at www.sciencedirect.com, accessed 2009 Sep 15.

United Nations
(2011) Human Development Report. Published by the UN Development Programme. This edition had the theme of Sustainability and Equity: A Better Future for All. Available on hdr.undp.org/... UN Development Program: About the Human Development Index.
(2013) Human Development Report. Published by the UN Development Programme. This edition had the theme of The Rise of the South: Human Progress in a Diverse World. Available on hdr.undp.org/... UN Development Program: About the Human Development Index.
(2017) Human Development Report. Published by the UN Development Programme. Data for 2015. Available on hdr.undp.org/.

Walk Free Foundation
(2018) Global Slavery Index. Published on www.walkfreefoundation.org/.

World Health Organisation. (WHO)
(2014) Global Status Report on Alcohol and Health. A copy can be found on the WHO website. Accessed 2015 Jan 04. It "presents a comprehensive perspective on the global, regional and country consumption of alcohol, patterns of drinking, health consequences and policy responses in Member States" and was published in Geneva on 2014 May 12.

Footnotes

  1. World Bank data on data.worldbank.org accessed 2013 Nov 04.^
  2. UN (2011) .^
  3. UN (2017). Table 1.^
  4. UN (2017). Gross National Income, per person. Table 1.^
  5. International Standards Organisation (ISO) standard ISO3166-1, on www.iso.org, accessed 2013 May 01.^
  6. Top level domains (TLDs) are managed by the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) on www.iana.org.^
  7. According to ISO4217.^
  8. According to ITU-T.^
  9. CIA (2013). Https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/gg.html accessed 2014 Apr 27.^
  10. Lonely Planet (2014). Chapter "Georgia".^
  11. UN (2017). Table 1. Lower is better.^
  12. "What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life" by Vexen Crabtree (2019)^
  13. UN (2017). Dashboard 2. Higher is worse. Old-age is counted as 65+, and ratio is of these to people ages 15-64. Projections are for 2030 based on medium-fertility variant of growth.^
  14. UN (2013). Table 11.^
  15. UN (2013). Table 14. Births per woman (2012), expressed as deviance (positive or negative) from the value of 2.0.^
  16. UN (2017). Table 1. Higher is better.^^
  17. UN (2013). Table 14.^
  18. Max possible=24. Total amount of treaties ratified. Nominal Commitment to Human Rights report published by UCL School of Public Policy, London, UK, at ucl.ac.uk/spp/research/research-projects/nchr accessed 2011 Apr 30.^
  19. Fraser Institute, the (2016). Covers data for 2014.^
  20. Sources:^
  21. Human Rights Watch (2018). Negative and positive comments have been added to create a score for each country covered in the report.^
  22. ADL (2014). Lower is better.^
  23. Transparency International Corruption Perceptions Index (2017). Accessed 2017 Dec 30. The scores given are the TI average for the years 2012-2016.^
  24. UN (2017). Table 5. Lower is better.^^
  25. Walk Free Foundation (2018) .^
  26. Reporters Without Borders Report "2013 World Press Freedom Index: Dashed hopes after spring" at fr.rsf.org/.../classement_2013_gb-bd.pdf accessed 2013 Feb.^
  27. ^
  28. Human Rights Watch (2018). p241-245.^
  29. Gallup (2009) .^
  30. Zuckerman, P. (2007). Atheism: contemporary numbers and patterns. In M.Martin (Ed.), The Cambridge Companion to Atheism. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. In "Average intelligence predicts atheism rates across 137 nations" by Lynn et al. (2009)44.^
  31. Pew Forum (2012) publication "The Global Religious Landscape: A Report on the Size and Distribution of the World´s Major Religious Groups as of 2010" (2012 Dec 18) accessed 2013 May 01.^
  32. CIA (2013). Https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/ar.html accessed 2014 Apr 27.^
  33. Freedom House publication "Freedom on the Net 2012" at www.freedomhouse.org/.../FOTN%202012%20-%20Tables%20and%20Charts%20FINAL.pdf accessed 2013 Feb 05.^
  34. internetlivestats.com/internet-users-by-country accessed 2017 Mar 10.^
  35. % of internet access via native IPv6 compared to IPv4. As of 2017 Jun 20, from http://www.cidr-report.org. Accessed 2017 Jun 20.^
  36. WHO (2014). Appendix 1. Alcohol Per Capita Consumption in liters of pure alcohol, 15+ years age population, consumed in 2010. Lower is better.^
  37. The Good Country Index (2017) .^^
  38. World Health Organisation data for 2011-2015 from 7 data series accessed 2017 May 21. Details in "Immunizations: International Statistics on Vaccines and the Autism Scare: 3. World Health Organisation Statistics" by Vexen Crabtree (2017).^
  39. Annual Cigarette Consumption Per Adult (age 15 and above) - compustible cigarettes. Euromonitor International (2014), via tobaccoatlas.org/topic/cigarette-use-globally/ . Accessed 2017 Jun 20.^
  40. UN (2013). World Health Organisation statistics. Suicide Rates Per 100k.^
  41. Charities Aid Foundation. Average ranking across years 2013-2016. Lower is better.^
  42. UN (2013). Table 9. Higher is better. Table 9. The UN's data is the latest available from a range of data from 2007-2011.^
  43. Yale University Center for Environmental Law & Policy 2018 EPI.^
  44. Lynn, Harvey & Nyborg (2009) .^

©2019 Vexen Crabtree all rights reserved.
This site uses the HTF Disclaimer (as linked here)