The Human Truth Foundation

Congo, DR (Democratic Republic of the Congo)

By Vexen Crabtree 2013


Comments:
FB, LJ

#charity #congo,_dr #economics #happiness #homosexuality #morals #research #science #the_environment

Congo, DR
Democratic Republic of the Congo
StatusIndependent State
CapitalKinshasa
Land Area2 267 050km21
LocationAfrica
Population69.6m (2011)2
Life Expectancy59.06yrs (2017)3
GNI$0 680 (2017)4
ISO3166-1 CodesCD, COD, 1805
Internet Domain.cd6
CurrencyFranc (CDF)7
Telephone+2438

1. Overview

#angola #belgium #burundi #chad #namibia #rwanda #sudan #uganda #zimbabwe

Established as a Belgian colony in 1908, the then-Republic of the Congo gained its independence in 1960, but its early years were marred by political and social instability. Col. Joseph MOBUTU seized power and declared himself president in a November 1965 coup. He subsequently changed his name - to MOBUTU Sese Seko - as well as that of the country - to Zaire. MOBUTU retained his position for 32 years through several sham elections, as well as through brutal force. Ethnic strife and civil war, touched off by a massive inflow of refugees in 1994 from fighting in Rwanda and Burundi, led in May 1997 to the toppling of the MOBUTU regime by a rebellion backed by Rwanda and Uganda and fronted by Laurent KABILA. He renamed the country the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), but in August 1998 his regime was itself challenged by a second insurrection again backed by Rwanda and Uganda. Troops from Angola, Chad, Namibia, Sudan, and Zimbabwe intervened to support KABILA's regime. In January 2001, KABILA was assassinated and his son, Joseph KABILA, was named head of state. In October 2002, the new president was successful in negotiating the withdrawal of Rwandan forces occupying the eastern DRC; two months later, the Pretoria Accord was signed by all remaining warring parties to end the fighting and establish a government of national unity. A transitional government was set up in July 2003; it held a successful constitutional referendum in December 2005 and elections for the presidency, National Assembly, and provincial legislatures took place in 2006. In 2009, following a resurgence of conflict in the eastern DRC, the government signed a peace agreement with the National Congress for the Defense of the People (CNDP), a primarily Tutsi rebel group. An attempt to integrate CNDP members into the Congolese military failed, prompting their defection in 2012 and the formation of the M23 armed group - named after the 23 March 2009 peace agreements. Renewed conflict has lead to the displacement of large numbers of persons and significant human rights abuses. As of February 2013, peace talks between the Congolese government and the M23 were on-going. In addition, the DRC continues to experience violence committed by other armed groups including the Democratic Forces for the Liberation of Rwanda and Mai Mai groups. In the most recent national elections, held in November 2011, disputed results allowed Joseph KABILA to be reelected to the presidency .

CIA's The World Factbook (2013)9

Book CoverCompelling conversations with locals; exhilarating interactions in impenetrable forests and beckoning rivers are all on show in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. As much a geographical concept as a fully fledged nation, the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC; formerly Zaïre) has one of the saddest chapters in modern history: from the brazen political folly of King Leopold of Belgium to the hideously corrupt kleptocracy of maverick leader Mobutu Sese Seko and the blood-stained battlegrounds of Africa´s first `world war´.

But after a decades-long decline in which much of the country descended into anarchy, Africa´s second-largest nation is headed in the right direction. It still has a long way to go, but new roads, enormous untapped mineral wealth and the world´s largest UN peacekeeping force have bred optimism among its tormented but resilient population.

Carpeted by huge swaths of rain forest and punctuated by gushing rivers and smoking volcanoes, DRC is the ultimate African adventure. There is absolutely nothing soft nor easy about it but for an African immersion you´ll never forget, this is the place to be.

"The World" by Lonely Planet (2014)10

2. Congo, DR National and Social Development

#human_development

UN HDI (2016)11
Pos.Lower is better
Rank11
1Norway1
2Australia2
3Switzerland2
...
173Gambia173
174Ethiopia174
175Mali175
176Congo, DR176
177Liberia177
178Guinea-Bissau178
179Eritrea179
180Sierra Leone179
World Avg94.3
q=188.
Social & Moral
Development Index
12
Pos.Higher is better
Points12
1Denmark84.2
2Sweden83.7
3Finland83.5
...
191Afghanistan34.2
192Central African Rep.34.2
193Somalia32.9
194Congo, DR32.5
195Iraq32.2
196Chad31.3
197Yemen30.8
198Angola30.7
World Avg54.1
q=198.

The United Nations produces an annual Human Development Report which includes the Human Development Index. The factors taken into account include life expectancy, education and schooling and Gross National Income (GNI) amongst many others..

The Social and Moral Development Index concentrates on moral issues and human rights, violence, public health, equality, tolerance, freedom and effectiveness in climate change mitigation and environmentalism, and on some technological issues. A country scores higher for achieving well in those areas, and for sustaining that achievement in the long term. Those countries towards the top of this index can truly said to be setting good examples and leading humankind onwards into a bright, humane, and free future. See: What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life.

3. Population and Demographics

#Congo #demographics #health #immigration #life_expectancy #overpopulation #population

Old-Age Dependency Ratio (2016)13
Pos.Lower is better
Per 10013
1Uganda04.3
2Mali04.5
3Chad04.7
...
19Yemen05.7
20Cameroon05.8
21Niger05.8
22Congo, DR05.8
23Benin05.8
24Burundi05.9
25Liberia05.9
26Iraq06.0
World Avg18.3
q=185.
Emigrants (2010)14
Pos.
%14
1Dominica104.8
2Palestine68.4
3Samoa67.3
...
165Zambia1.4
166Cameroon1.4
167Malawi1.4
168Congo, DR1.3
169Korea, N.1.3
170Thailand1.2
171UAE1.2
172Mongolia1.2
World Avg11.5
q=192.
Fertility Rate (2013)15
Pos.2.0 is best15
1Korea, N.2.00
2Brunei1.99
3St Vincent & Grenadines2.01
...
167Rwanda5.30
168Nigeria5.45
169Tanzania5.51
170Congo, DR5.54
171Burkina Faso5.77
172Chad5.79
173Uganda5.95
174Malawi5.98
World Avg2.81
q=180.

Immigrants (2010)14
Pos.
%14
1Qatar86.5
2Monaco71.6
3UAE70.0
...
158Algeria0.7
159Bangladesh0.7
160Mexico0.7
161Congo, DR0.7
162El Salvador0.7
163Ethiopia0.6
164Romania0.6
165Philippines0.5
World Avg9.2
q=192.
Life Expectancy (2015)16
Pos.Higher is better
Years16
1Hong Kong84.16
2Japan83.68
3Italy83.34
...
169Guinea59.22
170Uganda59.21
171Zimbabwe59.20
172Congo, DR59.06
173Burkina Faso59.01
174Mali58.47
175Equatorial Guinea57.91
176S. Africa57.66
World Avg71.27
q=190.
Population (2012)17
Pos.The Overpopulation of the Earth17
1China1.4b
2India1.3b
3USA315.8m
...
17Iran75.6m
18Turkey74.5m
19Thailand69.9m
20Congo, DR69.6m
21France63.5m
22UK62.8m
23Italy61.0m
24S. Africa50.7m
World Avg36.0m
q=195.

Congo, DR's population is predicted to rise to 105.96 million by 2030. These millions of extra people will all need space to live, food to eat, energy to consume, and will increase the burden on the planet's resources. This country has a fertility rate of 5.54. The fertility rate is, in simple terms, the average amount of children that each woman has. The higher the figure, the quicker the population is growing, although, to calculate the rate you also need to take into account morbidity, i.e., the rate at which people die. If people live healthy and long lives and morbidity is low, then, 2.0 approximates to the replacement rate, which would keep the population stable. If all countries had such a fertility rate, population growth would end. The actual replacement rate in most developed countries is around 2.1.

4. Politics and Freedom

#burundi #Congo #corruption #eritrea #france #freedom #human_development #human_rights #indonesia #mass_media #peace #politics #slavery

Corruption (2012-2016)18
Pos.Higher is better
Avg Score18
1Denmark90.8
2New Zealand90.6
3Finland89.4
...
152Central African Rep.23.8
153Tajikistan23.6
154Congo, (Brazzaville)22.8
155Congo, DR21.6
156Myanmar (Burma)21.4
157Zimbabwe21.0
158Cambodia21.0
159Chad20.4
World Avg43.05
q=176.
Global Peace Index (2012)19
Pos.Lower is better19
1Iceland1.11
2New Zealand1.24
3Denmark1.24
...
150Central African Rep.2.87
151Korea, N.2.93
152Russia2.94
153Congo, DR3.07
154Iraq3.19
155Sudan3.19
156Afghanistan3.25
157Somalia3.39
World Avg2.02
q=157.
Nominal Commitment to HR (2009)20
Pos.Higher is better
Treaties20
1Argentina24
2Chile23
3Costa Rica23
...
91Monaco16
92Latvia16
93Yemen16
94Congo, DR16
95Burundi16
96Nigeria16
97Benin16
98Gabon16
World Avg15.1
q=194.

Personal, Civil & Economic Freedom (2014)21
Pos.Lower is better
Rank21
1Hong Kong1
2Switzerland2
3New Zealand3
...
148Zimbabwe148
149Guinea149
150Angola150
151Congo, DR151
152Algeria152
153Myanmar (Burma)153
154Venezuela154
155Central African Rep.155
World Avg79.7
q=159.
Press Freedom (2013)22
Pos.Lower is better22
1Finland638
2Netherlands648
3Norway652
...
138Indonesia4105
139India4122
140Oman4151
141Congo, DR4166
142Cambodia4181
143Bangladesh4201
144Malaysia4273
145Palestine4309
World Avg3249
q=178.
Slavery (2018)23
Pos.Lower is better
% Victims23
1Japan0.03
2Canada0.05
3Taiwan0.05
...
153Chad1.20
154Sudan1.20
155Mongolia1.23
156Congo, DR1.37
157Somalia1.55
158Iran1.62
159Cambodia1.68
160Pakistan1.68
World Avg0.65
q=167.

The taking of slaves has been an unwholesome feature of Human cultures since prehistory24. Private households and national endeavours have frequently been augmented with the use of slaves. The Egyptian and Roman empires both thrived on them for both purposes. Aside from labourers they are often abused sexually by their owners and their owners' friends25. The era of colonialism and the beginnings of globalisation changed nothing: the imprisonment and forced movements of labour continued to destroy many lives except that new justifications were invented based on Christian doctrine and the effort to convert non-Christians. By 1786 over 12 million slaves had been extracted from Africa and sent to colonial labour camps, with a truly atrocious condition of life26. But they were not the only ones to blame; in Africa internal nations such as the Asantes sold and bought tens of thousands of slaves27.

The abolition of the slave trade was a long and slow process. Until a relatively modern time, even philosophers, religious leaders and those concerned with ethics justified, or ignored, the problem of slavery28. The first abolitionists were always the slaves themselves. Their protests and rebellions caused the industry to become too expensive to continue. After that, it was the economic costs of maintain slave colonies that led the British to reject and then oppose the slave trade globally. Finally, the enlightenment-era thinkers of France encouraged moral and ethical thinking including the declaration of the inherent value of human life and human dignity29. A long-overdue wave of compassionate and conscientious movements swept across the West, eliminating public support for slavery, until the industries and churches that supported it had no choice but to back down.

'Modern slavery' includes forced labour (often of the under-age), debt bondage (especially generational), sexual slavery, chattel slavery and other forms of abuse, some of which can be surprisingly difficult to detect, but often target those fleeing from warzones and the vulnerable.30. Some industries (diamond, clothing, coal) from some countries (Burundi23, Eritrea23, Indonesia31) are a particular concern. The Walk Free Foundation, say that in 2016, 40.3 million people were living in modern slavery32.

5. Gender Equality

#Congo #gender #misogyny #politics #women

Gender Inequality (2015)33
Pos.Lower is better33
1Switzerland0.04
2Denmark0.04
3Netherlands0.04
...
150Liberia0.65
151Sierra Leone0.65
152Tonga0.66
153Congo, DR0.66
154Afghanistan0.67
155Ivory Coast0.67
156Mali0.69
157Chad0.69
World Avg0.36
q=159.
Year Women Can Vote34
Pos.Lower is better
Year34
1New Zealand1893
2Australia1902
3Finland1906
...
154Swaziland1968
155Nauru1968
156Congo, (Brazzaville)1970
157Congo, DR1970
158Yemen1970
159Switzerland1971
160Bangladesh1972
161Bahrain1973
World Avg1930
q=189.

Gender inequality is not a necessary part of early human development. Although a separation of roles is almost universal due to different strengths between the genders, this does not have to mean that women are subdued, and, such patriarchialism is not universal in ancient history. Those cultures and peoples who shed, or never developed, the idea that mankind ought to dominate womankind, are better cultures and peoples than those who, even today, cling violently to those mores.

Congo, DR culture has a severe problem with gender equality, with male rights dominating those of women. Things need to change.

See:

6. Religion and Beliefs

#buddhism #christianity #hinduism #islam #judaism #religion

Religiosity (2009)35
Pos.Lower is better
%35
1Estonia16
2Sweden17
3Denmark19
...
82Palestine93
83Nepal93
84Bahrain94
85Congo, DR94
86Kenya94
87Qatar95
88Zambia95
89Ghana95
World Avg75.1
q=114.

Data from the Pew Forum, a professional polling outfit, states that in 2010 the religious makeup of this country was as follows in the table below36:

Christian95.8%
Muslim1.5%
Hindu0.1%
Buddhist0.1%
Folk Religion0.7%
Jew0.1%
Unaffiliated1.8%

The CIA World Factbook has slightly different data, and states: Roman Catholic 50%, Protestant 20%, Kimbanguist 10%, Muslim 10%, other (includes syncretic sects and indigenous beliefs) 10%37.

Links:

7. The Internet

#Congo #internet #the_internet

Internet Users (2016)38
Pos.Higher is better38
1Iceland100%
2Faroe Islands99%
3Norway98%
...
188Central African Rep.5%
189Madagascar4%
190Ethiopia4%
191Congo, DR4%
192Guinea-Bissau4%
193Chad3%
194Myanmar (Burma)3%
195Sierra Leone2%
World Avg48.1%
q=201.

Internet access has become an essential research tool. It facilitates an endless list of life improvements, from the ability to network and socialize without constraint, to access to a seemingly infinite repository of technical and procedural information on pretty much any task. The universal availability of data has sped up industrial development and personal learning at the national and personal level. Individuals can read any topic they wish regardless of the locality of expert teachers, and, entire nations can develop their technology and understanding of the world simply because they are now exposed to advanced societies and moral discourses online. Like every communications medium, the Internet has issues and causes a small range of problems, but these are insignificant compared to the advantages of having an online populace.

8. Public Health Issues

#alcohol #Congo #health #parenting #population #smoking #vaccines

Adolescent Birth Rate (2015)33
Pos.Lower is better
Per 100033
1Korea, N.0.5
2Korea, S.1.6
3Switzerland2.9
...
174Congo, (Brazzaville)117.7
175Sierra Leone118.2
176Tanzania118.6
177Congo, DR122.6
178Chad133.5
179Ivory Coast135.5
180Malawi136.2
181Mozambique139.7
World Avg47.9
q=185.
Alcohol Consumption (2010)39
Pos.Lower is better
Per Capita39
1Libya0.1
2Pakistan0.1
3Kuwait0.1
...
57Gambia3.4
58Nauru3.5
59Mauritius3.6
60Congo, DR3.6
61Samoa3.6
62Sri Lanka3.7
63Korea, N.3.7
64Guatemala3.8
World Avg6.2
q=191.
Food Aid, Health Contributions & WHO Compliance (2017)40
Pos.Lower is better
Rank40
1Sweden1
2Ireland2
3Denmark3
...
124Antigua & Barbuda124
125Burkina Faso125
126Mauritius126
127Congo, DR127
128Gabon128
129Ivory Coast129
130Mongolia130
131Afghanistan131
World Avg82.0
q=163.

Infant Immunizations 2011-2015 (2015)41
Pos.Higher is better
Avg %41
1Hungary99.0
2China99.0
3Uzbekistan98.9
...
164Philippines77.9
165Sweden77.8
166Ivory Coast76.9
167Congo, DR76.5
168Timor-Leste (E. Timor)76.5
169Indonesia76.4
170Mali76.0
171India75.1
World Avg88.3
q=194.
Smoking Rates (2014)42
Pos.Lower is better42
1Guinea 15
2Solomon Islands 26
3Kiribati 28
4Uganda 41
5Rwanda 53
6Samoa 54
7Congo, DR 74
8Ethiopia 76
9Vanuatu 76
10Guyana 77
11Suriname 79
12Malawi 80
World Avg 819
q=182.

9. More Charts and Comparisons to Other Countries

Personal Charitability
(World Position, 2013-2016)
43
Pos.Lower is better43
1Myanmar (Burma)1.25
2USA1.5
3New Zealand3.5
...
147Russia126
148Lithuania126.25
149Armenia126.25
150Congo, DR126.5
151Turkey128
152Greece133
153Palestine135
q=156.
Intellectual Endeavours (2017)40
Pos.Lower is better
Rank40
1Ukraine1
2Czechia2
3Hungary3
...
135Uruguay135
136Honduras136
137Papua New Guinea137
138Congo, DR138
139Ecuador139
140Syria140
141Mauritania141
q=163.
Creativity and Culture (2017)40
Pos.Lower is better
Rank40
1Belgium1
2Netherlands2
3Estonia3
...
157Iran157
158Gabon158
159Central African Rep.159
160Burundi160
161Rwanda161
162Congo, DR162
163Libya163
q=163.
Peacekeeping and Security (2017)40
Pos.Lower is better
Rank40
1Samoa1
2S. Africa2
3Tunisia3
...
88Honduras88
89Namibia89
90Uganda90
91Congo, DR91
92Pakistan92
93Estonia93
94Bahamas94
q=163.
Refugees and UN Treaties (2017)40
Pos.Lower is better
Rank40
1Austria1
2Germany2
3Netherlands3
...
152Grenada152
153Angola153
154Guyana154
155Congo, DR155
156Ivory Coast156
157St Lucia157
158Vietnam158
q=163.
Open Trading, Aid and Development (2017)40
Pos.Lower is better
Rank40
1Ireland1
2Denmark2
3Sweden3
...
60Kyrgyzstan60
61Qatar61
62USA62
63Congo, DR63
64Honduras64
65Korea, S.65
66Benin66
q=163.
Research and Development (2016)
Pos.Higher is better
% RDP PPP
1Korea, S.4.29
2Israel4.11
3Japan3.58
...
109Myanmar (Burma)0.11
110Peru0.10
111Paraguay0.09
112Congo, DR0.08
113Indonesia0.08
114Saudi Arabia0.07
115Algeria0.07
116Cape Verde0.07
q=126.
Life Satisfaction (2011)44
Pos.Higher is better44
1Denmark7.8
2Norway7.6
3Netherlands7.6
...
131Tanzania4.1
132Sierra Leone4.1
133Guinea4.0
134Congo, DR4.0
135Rwanda4.0
136Burkina Faso4.0
137Comoros3.9
138Bulgaria3.9
q=150.
Gross National Income Per-Capita (2011)16
Pos.Higher is better
PPP $16
1Qatar$129 916
2Singapore$78 162
3Kuwait$76 075
...
186Malawi$1 073
187Guinea$1 058
188Niger$0 889
189Burundi$0 691
190Liberia$0 683
191Congo, DR$0 680
192Central African Rep.$0 587
193Somalia$0 294
q=193.
Environmental Performance (2018)45
Pos.Higher is better45
1Switzerland87.4
2France84.0
3Denmark81.6
...
173Lesotho33.8
174Haiti33.7
175Madagascar33.7
176Nepal31.4
177India30.6
178Congo, DR30.4
179Bangladesh29.6
180Burundi27.4
q=180.
LGBT Equality (2017)46
Pos.Higher is better
Score46
1Netherlands103
2Belgium90
3Sweden86
...
97Burkina Faso15
98Cambodia15
99Vanuatu15
100Congo, DR15
101Lesotho15
102Belize15
103Belarus15
104Kyrgyzstan15
q=196.

Current edition: 2013 May 01
Last Modified: 2017 Jun 18
http://www.humantruth.info/congo_dr.html
Parent page: Compare International Statistics by Region and Continent

All #tags used on this page - click for more:

#alcohol #angola #belgium #buddhism #burundi #chad #charity #christianity #Congo #congo,_dr #corruption #demographics #economics #eritrea #france #freedom #gender #happiness #health #hinduism #homosexuality #human_development #human_rights #immigration #indonesia #internet #islam #judaism #life_expectancy #mass_media #misogyny #morals #namibia #overpopulation #parenting #peace #politics #population #religion #research #rwanda #science #slavery #smoking #sudan #the_environment #the_internet #uganda #vaccines #women #zimbabwe

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References: (What's this?)

Book Cover

The Good Country Index. Published by The Good Country Inc., New York, USA. Website: goodcountry.org. The Good Country Index gauges how well countries are doing in helping international development. Edition 1.2 (2017) has 35 criteria.

Casely-Hayford, Gus
(2012) The Lost Kingdoms of Africa. Published by Bantram Press. A hardback book.

Charities Aid Foundation
World Giving Index. On www.cafonline.org.

CIA
(2013) World Factbook. The USA Government's Central Intelligence Agency (USA CIA) publishes The World Factbook, and the online version is frequently updated.

Crabtree, Vexen
(2018) "What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life" (2018). Accessed 2018 Aug 22.

The Fraser Institute
(2016) The Human Freedom Index. Published by The Cato Institute, The Fraser Institute and the Friedrich Naumann Foundation for Freedom. Covers data up to 2014. On www.fraserinstitute.org/.../human-freedom-index-2016.

Gallup
(2009) Religiosity. gallup.com/poll/142727/.... The survey question was "Is religion an important part of your daily life?" and results are charted for those who said "yes". 1000 adults were polled in each of 114 countries.

Klein, Naomi
(2004) No Logo. Originally published 2000, HarperCollins, London, UK. A paperback book.

Lonely Planet
(2014) The World. Subtitled: "A Traveller's Guide to the Planet". Published by Lonely Planet, London, UK. Each chapter is devoted to a specific country and includes a list of the most interesting places to visit and a few other cultural notes.

McCall, Andrew
(1979) The Medieval Underworld. 2004 edition. Published by Sutton Publishing. A paperback book.

Thomson, Oliver
(1993) A History of Sin. Published by Canongate Press. A hardback book.

United Nations
(2011) Human Development Report. Published by the UN Development Programme. This edition had the theme of Sustainability and Equity: A Better Future for All. Available on hdr.undp.org/... UN Development Program: About the Human Development Index.
(2013) Human Development Report. Published by the UN Development Programme. This edition had the theme of The Rise of the South: Human Progress in a Diverse World. Available on hdr.undp.org/... UN Development Program: About the Human Development Index.
(2017) Human Development Report. Published by the UN Development Programme. Data for 2015. Available on hdr.undp.org/.

Walk Free Foundation
(2018) Global Slavery Index. Published on www.walkfreefoundation.org/.

World Health Organisation. (WHO)
(2014) Global Status Report on Alcohol and Health. A copy can be found on the WHO website. Accessed 2015 Jan 04. It "presents a comprehensive perspective on the global, regional and country consumption of alcohol, patterns of drinking, health consequences and policy responses in Member States" and was published in Geneva on 2014 May 12.

Footnotes

  1. World Bank data on data.worldbank.org accessed 2013 Nov 04.^
  2. UN (2011) .^
  3. UN (2017). Table 1.^
  4. UN (2017). Gross National Income, per person. Table 1.^
  5. International Standards Organisation (ISO) standard ISO3166-1, on www.iso.org, accessed 2013 May 01.^
  6. Top level domains (TLDs) are managed by the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) on www.iana.org.^
  7. According to ISO4217.^
  8. According to ITU-T.^
  9. CIA (2013). Https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/cg.html accessed 2014 Apr 27.^
  10. Lonely Planet (2014). Chapter "Congo, Democratic Republic of the".^
  11. UN (2017). Table 1. Lower is better.^
  12. "What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life" by Vexen Crabtree (2018)^
  13. UN (2017). Dashboard 2. Higher is worse. Old-age is counted as 65+, and ratio is of these to people ages 15-64. Projections are for 2030 based on medium-fertility variant of growth.^
  14. UN (2013). Table 11.^
  15. UN (2013). Table 14. Births per woman (2012), expressed as deviance (positive or negative) from the value of 2.0.^
  16. UN (2017). Table 1. Higher is better.^^
  17. UN (2013). Table 14.^
  18. Transparency International Corruption Perceptions Index (2017). Accessed 2017 Dec 30. The scores given are the TI average for the years 2012-2016.^
  19. ^
  20. Max possible=24. Total amount of treaties ratified. Nominal Commitment to Human Rights report published by UCL School of Public Policy, London, UK, at ucl.ac.uk/spp/research/research-projects/nchr accessed 2011 Apr 30.^
  21. Fraser Institute, the (2016). Covers data for 2014.^
  22. Reporters Without Borders Report "2013 World Press Freedom Index: Dashed hopes after spring" at fr.rsf.org/.../classement_2013_gb-bd.pdf accessed 2013 Feb.^
  23. Walk Free Foundation (2018) .^
  24. Thomson (1993). P28.^
  25. McCall (1979). P180.^
  26. Thomson (1993). P166.^
  27. Casely-Hayford (2012). P253.^
  28. Thomson (1993). P31.^
  29. Thomson (1993). P199.^
  30. Thomson (1993). P28-29.^
  31. Klein (2004) .^
  32. Walk Free Foundation (2018). P2.^
  33. UN (2017). Table 5. Lower is better.^^
  34. "What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life: 2.6. Women Stand for Election & Vote" by Vexen Crabtree (2018)^
  35. Gallup (2009) .^
  36. Pew Forum (2012) publication "The Global Religious Landscape: A Report on the Size and Distribution of the World´s Major Religious Groups as of 2010" (2012 Dec 18) accessed 2013 May 01.^
  37. CIA (2013). Https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/ar.html accessed 2014 Apr 27.^
  38. internetlivestats.com/internet-users-by-country accessed 2017 Mar 10.^
  39. WHO (2014). Appendix 1. Alcohol Per Capita Consumption in liters of pure alcohol, 15+ years age population, consumed in 2010. Lower is better.^
  40. The Good Country Index (2017) .^^
  41. World Health Organisation data for 2011-2015 from 7 data series accessed 2017 May 21. Details in "Immunizations: International Statistics on Vaccines and the Autism Scare: 3. World Health Organisation Statistics" by Vexen Crabtree (2017).^
  42. Annual Cigarette Consumption Per Adult (age 15 and above) - compustible cigarettes. Euromonitor International (2014), via tobaccoatlas.org/topic/cigarette-use-globally/ . Accessed 2017 Jun 20.^
  43. Charities Aid Foundation. Average ranking across years 2013-2016. Lower is better.^
  44. UN (2013). Table 9. Higher is better. Table 9. The UN's data is the latest available from a range of data from 2007-2011.^
  45. Yale University Center for Environmental Law & Policy 2018 EPI.^
  46. Sources:^

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