The Human Truth Foundation

Mali (Republic of Mali)

By Vexen Crabtree 2013

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Mali
Republic of Mali
StatusIndependent State
Social and Moral Index184th best
CapitalBamako
Land Area1 220 190km21
LocationAfrica
Population16.3m (2011)2
Life Expectancy58.47yrs (2017)3
GNI$2 218 (2017)4
ISO3166-1 CodesML, MLI, 4665
Internet Domain.ml6
CurrencyFranc (XOF)7
Telephone+2238

1. Overview

The Sudanese Republic and Senegal became independent of France in 1960 as the Mali Federation. When Senegal withdrew after only a few months, what formerly made up the Sudanese Republic was renamed Mali. Rule by dictatorship was brought to a close in 1991 by a military coup that ushered in a period of democratic rule. President Alpha KONARE won Mali's first two democratic presidential elections in 1992 and 1997. In keeping with Mali's two-term constitutional limit, he stepped down in 2002 and was succeeded by Amadou TOURE, who was elected to a second term in 2007 elections that were widely judged to be free and fair. Malian returnees from Libya in 2011 exacerbated tensions in northern Mali, and Tuareg ethnic militias started a rebellion in January 2012. Low-mid level soldiers, frustrated with the poor handling of the rebellion overthrew TOURE on 22 March. Intensive mediation efforts led by the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) returned power to a civilian administration in April with the appointment of interim President Dioncounda TRAORE. The post-coup chaos led to rebels expelling the Malian military from the three northern regions of the country and allowed Islamic militants to set up strongholds. Hundreds of thousands of northern Malians fled the violence to southern Mali and neighboring countries, exacerbating regional food insecurity in host communities. A military intervention to retake the three northern regions began in January 2013 and within a month most of the north had been retaken. Democratic elections are scheduled for mid-2013.

CIA's The World Factbook (2013)9

Book CoverLike an exquisite sandcastle formed in a harsh desert landscape, Mali is blessed with an extraordinary amount of beauty, wonders, talents and knowledge. Few countries in Wesy Africa can boast such an array of sights, from fabled Timbuktu to riverside mosques that seem to spring from a child´s imagination. Yet for now, its landscapes, monuments, mosques and music bars are off-limits, sealed from tourists by a conflict that is threatening the culture of this remarkable country.

The beating heart of Mali is Bamako, where Ngoni and Kora musicians play to crowds of dancing Malians. Further west, Fula women strap their belongings to donkeys, forming caravans worthy of beauty pageants as they make their way across the hamada (dry, dusty scrubland). And in the northeast, the writings of venerable African civilisations remain locked in the beautiful libraries of Timbuktu.

Adding considerable depth to these attractions is Mali´s illustrious history, a story of ancient gold-rich empires along the Sahara´s southern fringe. And just as rich and deep is Mali´s world-famous musical soundtrack, a beguiling playlist of soulful desert blues, ancient griot tunes and frenetic dance rhythms.

"The World" by Lonely Planet (2014)10

2. Mali National and Social Development

UN HDI (2016)
Lower is better

Rank11
1Norway1
2Australia2
3Switzerland2
...
172Djibouti172
173Gambia173
174Ethiopia174
175Mali175
176Congo, DR176
177Liberia177
178Guinea-Bissau178
179Eritrea179
World Avg94.3
q=188.
Social & Moral
Development Index
Higher is better

Points12
1Iceland84.1
2Sweden80.8
3Norway80.0
...
181Pakistan40.2
182Afghanistan40.0
183Burundi39.8
184Mali39.4
185Mauritania39.2
186Palestine38.9
187Nigeria38.8
188Iraq38.5
World Avg54.5
q=198.

The United Nations produces an annual Human Development Report which includes the Human Development Index. The factors taken into account include life expectancy, education and schooling and Gross National Income (GNI) amongst many others..

The Social and Moral Development Index concentrates on moral issues and human rights, violence, public health, equality, tolerance, freedom and effectiveness in climate change mitigation and environmentalism, and on some technological issues. A country scores higher for achieving well in those areas, and for sustaining that achievement in the long term. Those countries towards the top of this index can truly said to be setting good examples and leading humankind onwards into a bright, humane, and free future. See: What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life.

3. Population and Demographics

Old-Age Dependency Ratio (2016)
Lower is better

Per 10013
1Uganda04.3
2Mali04.5
3Chad04.7
4Burkina Faso04.7
5Sierra Leone04.8
6Zambia04.8
7Eritrea04.9
8Gambia04.9
9Angola05.0
10Afghanistan05.0
11Zimbabwe05.0
12Nigeria05.1
World Avg18.3
q=185.
Emigrants (2010)
%14
1Dominica104.8
2Palestine68.4
3Samoa67.3
...
80Afghanistan8.1
81Paraguay7.9
82Russia7.9
83Mali7.6
84UK7.5
85Honduras7.5
86Austria7.1
87Uzbekistan7.0
World Avg11.5
q=192.
Fertility Rate (2013)
2.0 is best
15
1Korea, N.2.00
2Brunei1.99
3St Vincent & Grenadines2.01
...
173Uganda5.95
174Malawi5.98
175Timor-Leste (E. Timor)5.99
176Afghanistan6.03
177Mali6.16
178Zambia6.30
179Somalia6.30
180Niger6.96
World Avg2.81
q=180.

Immigrants (2010)
%14
1Qatar86.5
2Monaco71.6
3UAE70.0
...
142Bulgaria1.4
143Solomon Islands1.3
144Niger1.3
145Mali1.2
146Timor-Leste (E. Timor)1.2
147Guinea-Bissau1.2
148Korea, S.1.1
149Jamaica1.1
World Avg9.2
q=192.
Life Expectancy (2015)
Higher is better

Years16
1Hong Kong84.16
2Japan83.68
3Italy83.34
...
171Zimbabwe59.20
172Congo, DR59.06
173Burkina Faso59.01
174Mali58.47
175Equatorial Guinea57.91
176S. Africa57.66
177Burundi57.12
178S. Sudan56.13
World Avg71.27
q=190.
Population (2012)17
1China1.4b
2India1.3b
3USA315.8m
...
61Netherlands16.7m
62Niger16.6m
63Kazakhstan16.4m
64Mali16.3m
65Malawi15.9m
66Guatemala15.1m
67Ecuador14.9m
68Cambodia14.5m
World Avg36.0m
q=195.

Mali's population is predicted to rise to 26.78 million by 2030. These millions of extra people will all need space to live, food to eat, energy to consume, and will increase the burden on the planet's resources. This country has a fertility rate of 6.16. The fertility rate is, in simple terms, the average amount of children that each woman has. The higher the figure, the quicker the population is growing, although, to calculate the rate you also need to take into account morbidity, i.e., the rate at which people die. If people live healthy and long lives and morbidity is low, then, 2.0 approximates to the replacement rate, which would keep the population stable. If all countries had such a fertility rate, population growth would end. The actual replacement rate in most developed countries is around 2.1.

4. Gender Equality

Gender Inequality (2015)
Lower is better18
1Switzerland0.04
2Denmark0.04
3Netherlands0.04
...
152Tonga0.66
153Congo, DR0.66
154Afghanistan0.67
155Ivory Coast0.67
156Mali0.69
157Chad0.69
158Niger0.70
159Yemen0.77
World Avg0.36
q=159.
Year Women Can Vote
Lower is better

Year19
1New Zealand1893
2Australia1902
3Finland1906
...
105Eritrea1955
106Honduras1955
107Cambodia1955
108Mali1956
109Benin1956
110Mauritius1956
111Somalia1956
112Gabon1956
World Avg1930
q=189.

Gender inequality is not a necessary part of early human development. Although a separation of roles is almost universal due to different strengths between the genders, this does not have to mean that women are subdued, and, such patriarchialism is not universal in ancient history. Those cultures and peoples who shed, or never developed, the idea that mankind ought to dominate womankind, are better cultures and peoples than those who, even today, cling violently to those mores.

The 1950s saw a late rush of 43 countries, including Mali and many developing nations, move to cease preventing women from voting. Mali culture has a severe problem with gender equality, with male rights dominating those of women. Things need to change.

See:

5. Religion and Beliefs

#buddhism #christianity #hinduism #islam #judaism

Religiosity (2009)
Lower is better
%20
1Estonia16
2Sweden17
3Denmark19
...
87Qatar95
88Zambia95
89Ghana95
90Mali95
91Chad95
92Algeria95
93Rwanda95
94Cambodia96
World Avg75.1
q=114.
Disbelief In God (2007)
Higher is better21
1Vietnam81
2Japan65
3Sweden64
...
130Malawi0
131Chad0
132Nepal0
133Morocco0
134Mauritania0
135Mali0
136Senegal0
137Oman0
World Avg9.9
q=137.

Data from the Pew Forum, a professional polling outfit, states that in 2010 the religious makeup of this country was as follows in the table below22:

Christian3.2%
Muslim92.4%
Hindu0.1%
Buddhist0.1%
Folk Religion1.6%
Jew0.1%
Unaffiliated2.7%

The CIA World Factbook has slightly different data, and states: Muslim 94.8%, Christian 2.4%, Animist 2%, none 0.5%, unspecified 0.3% (2009 Census)23.

Links:

6. The Internet

Internet Users (2016)
Higher is better
24
1Iceland100%
2Faroe Islands99%
3Norway98%
...
168Iraq13%
169Kiribati13%
170Rwanda12%
171Mali12%
172Haiti12%
173Papua New Guinea12%
174Djibouti12%
175Cambodia11%
World Avg48.1%
q=201.
IT Security (2013)
Lower is better
25
1Ireland0.11
2Luxembourg0.11
3Belize0.11
...
45Brazil1.02
46Indonesia1.05
47British Virgin Islands1.08
48Mali1.12
49France1.13
50Italy1.15
51Vietnam1.15
52Nigeria1.18
World Avg0.98
q=81.

Internet access has become an essential research tool. It facilitates an endless list of life improvements, from the ability to network and socialize without constraint, to access to a seemingly infinite repository of technical and procedural information on pretty much any task. The universal availability of data has sped up industrial development and personal learning at the national and personal level. Individuals can read any topic they wish regardless of the locality of expert teachers, and, entire nations can develop their technology and understanding of the world simply because they are now exposed to advanced societies and moral discourses online. Like every communications medium, the Internet has issues and causes a small range of problems, but these are insignificant compared to the advantages of having an online populace.

7. Public Health Issues

Adolescent Birth Rate (2015)
Lower is better

Per 100018
1Korea, N.0.5
2Korea, S.1.6
3Switzerland2.9
...
178Chad133.5
179Ivory Coast135.5
180Malawi136.2
181Mozambique139.7
182Guinea140.6
183Angola164.3
184Mali174.6
185Niger202.4
World Avg47.9
q=185.
Alcohol Consumption (2010)
Lower is better

Per Capita26
1Libya0.1
2Pakistan0.1
3Kuwait0.1
...
24Iran1.0
25Algeria1.0
26Eritrea1.1
27Mali1.1
28Syria1.2
29Maldives1.2
30Djibouti1.3
31Malaysia1.3
World Avg6.2
q=191.
Infant Immunizations 2011-2015 (2015)
Higher is better

Avg %27
1Hungary99.0
2China99.0
3Uzbekistan98.9
...
167Congo, DR76.5
168Timor-Leste (E. Timor)76.5
169Indonesia76.4
170Mali76.0
171India75.1
172Ethiopia73.9
173Pakistan73.0
174Liberia72.6
World Avg88.3
q=194.

Smoking Rates (2014)
Lower is better
28
1Guinea 15
2Solomon Islands 26
3Kiribati 28
...
48Panama 224
49Grenada 224
50St Lucia 232
51Mali 236
52Dominican Rep. 245
53Togo 250
54Kenya 257
55Mauritius 261
World Avg 819
q=182.

8. Politics and Freedom

Nominal Commitment to HR (2009)
Higher is better

Treaties29
1Argentina24
2Chile23
3Costa Rica23
...
19Brazil21
20Montenegro21
21Guatemala21
22Mali21
23Azerbaijan21
24Bosnia & Herzegovina21
25Bolivia21
26Australia21
World Avg15.1
q=194.
Personal, Civil & Economic Freedom (2014)
Lower is better

Rank30
1Hong Kong1
2Switzerland2
3New Zealand3
...
121Timor-Leste (E. Timor)120
122Burundi122
123Tunisia123
124Mali124
125Gambia125
126Cameroon126
127Guyana126
128Vietnam128
World Avg79.7
q=159.
Press Freedom (2013)
Lower is better
31
1Finland638
2Netherlands648
3Norway652
...
95Ivory Coast2977
96Liberia2989
97Mongolia2993
98Mali3003
99Georgia3009
100Lebanon3015
101Albania3088
102Maldives3110
World Avg3249
q=178.

9. More Charts and Comparisons to Other Countries

Personal Charitability
(World Position, 2013-2016)
Lower is better
32
1Myanmar (Burma)1.25
2USA1.5
3New Zealand3.5
...
133Benin114.25
134Niger115
135Angola115
136Mali115.25
137Czech Rep.116.5
138Venezuela117.5
139Georgia117.75
q=156.
Global Peace Index (2012)
Lower is better
33
1Iceland1.11
2New Zealand1.24
3Denmark1.24
...
98Tajikistan2.12
99Madagascar2.12
100Liberia2.13
101Mali2.13
102Sri Lanka2.15
103Congo, (Brazzaville)2.15
104Kazakhstan2.15
105Saudi Arabia2.18
q=157.
Research and Development
Higher is better

% RDP PPP
1Korea, S.4.29
2Israel4.11
3Japan3.58
...
48Tunisia0.68
49Egypt0.68
50Belarus0.67
51Mali0.66
52Bulgaria0.65
53Ethiopia0.61
54Latvia0.60
55Gabon0.58
q=126.
Life Satisfaction (2011)
Higher is better
34
1Denmark7.8
2Norway7.6
3Netherlands7.6
...
136Burkina Faso4.0
137Comoros3.9
138Bulgaria3.9
139Mali3.8
140Senegal3.8
141Nepal3.8
142Haiti3.8
143Burundi3.8
q=150.
Gross National Income Per-Capita (2011)
Higher is better
PPP $16
1Qatar$129 916
2Singapore$78 162
3Kuwait$76 075
...
163Nepal$2 337
164Yemen$2 300
165Senegal$2 250
166Mali$2 218
167Chad$1 991
168Benin$1 979
169S. Sudan$1 882
170Afghanistan$1 871
q=193.
Environmental Performance (2010)
Higher is better
35
1Iceland93.5
2Switzerland89.1
3Costa Rica86.4
...
152Nigeria40.2
153Benin39.6
154Haiti39.5
155Mali39.4
156Turkmenistan38.4
157Niger37.6
158Togo36.4
159Angola36.3
q=162.
LGBT Equality (2013)
Higher is better

Score36
1Netherlands405
2Belgium350
3Canada280
...
135Liberia-10
136Iraq-10
137Kazakhstan-10
138Mali-10
139Indonesia-10
140Bhutan-10
141Guinea-Bissau-15
142Singapore-20
q=211.

Current edition: 2013 May 01
Last Modified: 2017 Jun 21
http://www.humantruth.info/mali.html
Parent page: Compare International Statistics by Region and Continent

All #tags used on this page - click for more:

#buddhism #christianity #hinduism #islam #judaism #mali

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References: (What's this?)

Charities Aid Foundation
World Giving Index. On www.cafonline.org.

CIA
(2013) World Factbook. The USA Government's Central Intelligence Agency (USA CIA) publishes The World Factbook, and the online version is frequently updated.

Crabtree, Vexen
(2017) "What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life" (2017). Accessed 2017 Jun 22.

Gallup
(2009) Religiosity. gallup.com/poll/142727/.... The survey question was "Is religion an important part of your daily life?" and results are charted for those who said "yes". 1000 adults were polled in each of 114 countries.

Lonely Planet
(2014) The World. Subtitled: "A Traveller's Guide to the Planet". Published by Lonely Planet, London, UK. Each chapter is devoted to a specific country and includes a list of the most interesting places to visit and a few other cultural notes..

Lynn, Harvey & Nyborg
(2009) Average intelligence predicts atheism rates across 137 nations. Richard Lynn, John Harvey and Helmuth Nyborg article "Average intelligence predicts atheism rates across 137 nations" in Intelligence (2009 Jan/Feb) vol. 37 issue 1 pages 11-15. Online at www.sciencedirect.com, accessed 2009 Sep 15.

The Fraser Institute
(2016) The Human Freedom Index. Published by The Cato Institute, The Fraser Institute and the Friedrich Naumann Foundation for Freedom. Covers data up to 2014. On www.fraserinstitute.org/.../human-freedom-index-2016..

United Nations
(2011) Human Development Report. This edition had the theme of Sustainability and Equity: A Better Future for All. Published on the United Nation's website at hdr.undp.org/.../HDR_2011_EN_Complete.pdf (accessed throughout 2013, Jan-Mar). UN Development Program: About the Human Development Index.
(2013) Human Development Report. This edition had the theme of The Rise of the South: Human Progress in a Diverse World. Published on the United Nation's HDR website at hdr.undp.org/.../hdr2013/ (accessed throughout 2013). UN Development Program: About the Human Development Index.
(2017) Human Development Report. Published by the UN Development Programme. Data for 2015. Analysis conducted by the UN Development Report Office. Available on hdr.undp.org/..

World Health Organisation. (WHO)
(2014) Global Status Report on Alcohol and Health. A copy can be found on the WHO website. Accessed 2015 Jan 04. It "presents a comprehensive perspective on the global, regional and country consumption of alcohol, patterns of drinking, health consequences and policy responses in Member States" and was published in Geneva on 2014 May 12.

Footnotes

  1. World Bank data on data.worldbank.org accessed 2013 Nov 04.^
  2. UN (2011) .^
  3. UN (2017) Table 1.^
  4. UN (2017) Gross National Income, per person. Table 1.^
  5. International Standards Organisation (ISO) standard ISO3166-1, on www.iso.org, accessed 2013 May 01.^
  6. Top level domains (TLDs) are managed by the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) on www.iana.org.^
  7. According to ISO4217.^
  8. According to ITU-T.^
  9. CIA (2013) https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/ml.html accessed 2014 Apr 27.^
  10. Lonely Planet (2014) chapter "Mali" .^
  11. UN (2017) Table 1. Lower is better.^
  12. "What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life" by Vexen Crabtree (2017)^
  13. UN (2017) Dashboard 2. Higher is worse. Old-age is counted as 65+, and ratio is of these to people ages 15-64. Projections are for 2030 based on medium-fertility variant of growth.^
  14. UN (2013) Table 11.^
  15. UN (2013) Table 14. Births per woman (2012), expressed as deviance (positive or negative) from the value of 2.0.^
  16. UN (2017) Table 1. Higher is better.^^
  17. UN (2013) Table 14.^
  18. UN (2017) Table 5. Lower is better.^^
  19. "What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life: 3.6. Women Stand for Election & Vote (1893+) New Zealand, Australia, Finland" by Vexen Crabtree (2017)^
  20. Gallup (2009) .^
  21. Zuckerman, P. (2007). Atheism: contemporary numbers and patterns. In M.Martin (Ed.), The Cambridge Companion to Atheism. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. In "Average intelligence predicts atheism rates across 137 nations" by Lynn et al. (2009).^
  22. Pew Forum (2012) publication "The Global Religious Landscape: A Report on the Size and Distribution of the World´s Major Religious Groups as of 2010" (2012 Dec 18) accessed 2013 May 01.^
  23. CIA (2013) https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/ar.html accessed 2014 Apr 27.^
  24. internetlivestats.com/internet-users-by-country accessed 2017 Mar 10.^
  25. "What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life: 4.4. Malware and Email Spam (2010-2) " by Vexen Crabtree (2017)^
  26. WHO (2014) Appendix 1. Alcohol Per Capita Consumption in liters of pure alcohol, 15+ years age population, consumed in 2010. Lower is better.^
  27. World Health Organisation data for 2011-2015 from 7 data series accessed 2017 May 21. Details in "Immunizations: International Statistics on Vaccines and the Autism Scare: 3. World Health Organisation Statistics" by Vexen Crabtree (2017).^
  28. Annual Cigarette Consumption Per Adult (age 15 and above) - compustible cigarettes. Euromonitor International (2014), via tobaccoatlas.org/topic/cigarette-use-globally/ . Accessed 2017 Jun 20.^
  29. Max possible=24. Total amount of treaties ratified. Nominal Commitment to Human Rights report published by UCL School of Public Policy, London, UK, at ucl.ac.uk/spp/research/research-projects/nchr accessed 2011 Apr 30.^
  30. Fraser Institute, the (2016) . Covers data for 2014.^
  31. Reporters Without Borders Report "2013 World Press Freedom Index: Dashed hopes after spring" at fr.rsf.org/.../classement_2013_gb-bd.pdf accessed 2013 Feb.^
  32. Charities Aid Foundation . Average ranking across years 2013-2016. Lower is better.^
  33. ^
  34. UN (2013) Table 9. Higher is better. Table 9. The UN's data is the latest available from a range of data from 2007-2011.^
  35. UN (2011) Table 6. Higher is better.^
  36. Higher is better. Sources:^

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