The Human Truth Foundation

Mali (Republic of Mali)

By Vexen Crabtree 2013

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#Mali

Mali
Republic of Mali
StatusIndependent State
Social and Moral Index181st best
CapitalBamako
Land Area11 220 190 km2
LocationAfrica
Population2 16.32 million
Life Expectancy351.857yrs (2012)
GNI3$ 853
ISO3166-1 Codes4ML, MLI, 466
Internet Domain5.ml
Currency6Franc (XOF)
Telephone7+223

1. Overview

The Sudanese Republic and Senegal became independent of France in 1960 as the Mali Federation. When Senegal withdrew after only a few months, what formerly made up the Sudanese Republic was renamed Mali. Rule by dictatorship was brought to a close in 1991 by a military coup that ushered in a period of democratic rule. President Alpha KONARE won Mali's first two democratic presidential elections in 1992 and 1997. In keeping with Mali's two-term constitutional limit, he stepped down in 2002 and was succeeded by Amadou TOURE, who was elected to a second term in 2007 elections that were widely judged to be free and fair. Malian returnees from Libya in 2011 exacerbated tensions in northern Mali, and Tuareg ethnic militias started a rebellion in January 2012. Low-mid level soldiers, frustrated with the poor handling of the rebellion overthrew TOURE on 22 March. Intensive mediation efforts led by the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) returned power to a civilian administration in April with the appointment of interim President Dioncounda TRAORE. The post-coup chaos led to rebels expelling the Malian military from the three northern regions of the country and allowed Islamic militants to set up strongholds. Hundreds of thousands of northern Malians fled the violence to southern Mali and neighboring countries, exacerbating regional food insecurity in host communities. A military intervention to retake the three northern regions began in January 2013 and within a month most of the north had been retaken. Democratic elections are scheduled for mid-2013.

CIA's The World Factbook (2013)8

2. Mali National and Social Development

UN's Human Development Index
Country2012
score
Average
1980-2010
1Norway95.587.3
2Australia93.888.9
3USA93.787.8
...
175Afghanistan37.426.7
176Guinea-Bissau36.435.1
177Sierra Leone35.926.9
178Guinea35.534.2
179Burundi35.525.2
180Central African Rep.35.230.9
181Eritrea35.134.5
182Mali34.425.2
183Burkina Faso34.332.9
184Chad34.030.6
185Mozambique32.725.4
186Niger30.422.3
187Congo, DR30.426.9
Data Source
Social and Moral Development
CountryScore
1Sweden88.9
2Iceland87.4
3Denmark87.2
...
178Burundi38.2
179Pakistan38.1
180Guinea-Bissau37.5
181Mali35.9
182Niger35.4
183Central African Rep.35.0
184Chad34.2
185Iraq33.7
186Mauritania33.6
187Yemen31.7
188Congo, DR30.0
189Sudan29.7
190Somalia29.7
191Afghanistan29.2
Data Source

The United Nations produces an annual Human Development Report which includes the Human Development Index. The factors taken into account include life expectancy, education and schooling and Gross National Income (GNI) amongst many others. The values in the chart are factored by 100.

The Social and Moral Development Index is a formulaic aggregation of many factors. It concentrates on moral issues and human rights, violence, equality, tolerance, freedom and effectiveness in climate change mitigation and environmentalism. A country scores higher for achieving well in those areas, and for sustaining that achievement in the long term. Those countries towards the top of this index can truly said to be setting good examples and leading humankind onwards into a bright, humane, and free future. See: "What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life" by Vexen Crabtree (2017).

3. Population and Life Expectancy

Life Expectancy (at birth)
1Japan83.6
2Hong Kong83
3Switzerland82.5
...
176S. Africa53.4
177Nigeria52.3
178Cameroon52.1
179Mali51.9
180Zimbabwe52.7
181Somalia51.5
182Angola51.5
183Equatorial Guinea51.4
Data Source
Fertility Rate
1Korea, N.2.0
2Brunei2.0
3St Vincent & Grenadines2.0
...
173Uganda6.0
174Malawi6.0
175Timor-Leste (E. Timor)6.0
176Afghanistan6.0
177Mali6.2
178Zambia6.3
179Somalia6.3
180Niger7.0
Data Source
Population (m=millions)
CountryPeoplePer km2
1China1 353.6m145
2India1 258.35m423
3USA 315.79m35
...
61Netherlands 16.71m496
62Niger 16.64m13
63Kazakhstan 16.38m6
64Mali 16.32m13
65Malawi 15.88m168
66Guatemala 15.14m141
67Ecuador 14.86m60
Data Source

Mali's population is predicted to rise to 26.78 million by 2030. These millions of extra people will all need space to live, food to eat, energy to consume, and will increase the burden on the planet's resources. This country has a fertility rate of 6.16.

The fertility rate is, in simple terms, the average amount of children that each woman has. The higher the figure, the quicker the population is growing, although, to calculate the rate you also need to take into account morbidity, i.e., the rate at which people die. If people live healthy and long lives and morbidity is low, then, 2.0 approximates to the replacement rate, which would keep the population stable. If all countries had such a fertility rate, population growth would end. The actual replacement rate in most developed countries is around 2.1.

4. Gender Equality

Female Vote and Stand
1New Zealand1893
2Australia1902
3Finland1906
...
105Cambodia1955
106Peru1955
107Ethiopia1955
108Mali1956
109Benin1956
110Mauritius1956
111Somalia1956
112Gabon1956
Gender Equality
1Netherlands0.04
2Sweden0.05
3Denmark0.06
...
138Ivory Coast0.63
139Mauritania0.64
140Sierra Leone0.64
141Mali0.65
142Central African Rep.0.65
143Liberia0.66
144Congo, DR0.68
145Saudi Arabia0.68
Data Source

Gender inequality is not a necessary part of early human development. Although a separation of roles is almost universal due to different strengths between the genders, this does not have to mean that women are subdued, and, such patriarchialism is not universal in ancient history. Those cultures and peoples who shed, or never developed, the idea that mankind ought to dominate womankind, are better cultures and peoples than those who, even today, cling violently to those mores.

The 1950s saw a late rush of 43 countries, including Mali and many developing nations, move to cease preventing women from voting. Mali culture has a severe problem with gender equality, with male rights dominating those of women. Things need to change.

See:

5. Religion and Beliefs

#buddhism #christianity #hinduism #islam #judaism

Disbelief In God
1Vietnam81%
2Japan65%
3Sweden64%
...
114Jordan0%
115Malawi0%
116Malaysia0%
117Mali0%
118Mauritania0%
119Nepal0%
120Morocco0%
121Libya0%
Data Source
How Many Are Religious?
1Estonia16%
2Sweden17%
3Denmark19%
...
90Qatar95%
91Zambia95%
92Ghana95%
93Mali95%
94Nigeria96%
95Senegal96%
96Philippines96%
97Cambodia96%
Data Source

Data from the Pew Forum, a professional polling outfit, states that in 2010 the religious makeup of this country was as follows in the table below9:

Christian3.2%
Muslim92.4%
Hindu0.1%
Buddhist0.1%
Folk Religion1.6%
Jew0.1%
Unaffiliated2.7%

The CIA World Factbook has slightly different data, and states: Muslim 94.8%, Christian 2.4%, Animist 2%, none 0.5%, unspecified 0.3% (2009 Census)10.

Links:

6. The Internet

IT Security Risks
271USA3.68
270Russia2.42
269India2.10
...
241Vietnam1.15
240Italy1.15
239France1.13
238Mali1.12
237British Virgin Islands1.08
236Indonesia1.05
235Brazil1.02
234Tajikistan1.01
Data Source
Internet Users in Population
1Iceland95.64
2Norway93.28
3Netherlands90.70
...
163Afghanistan3.65
164Benin3.13
165Mauritania3.00
166Mali2.70
167Ivory Coast2.60
168Iraq2.47
169Guinea-Bissau2.45
170Central African Rep.2.30
Data Source

Internet access has become an essential research tool. It facilitates an endless list of life improvements, from the ability to network and socialize without constraint, to access to a seemingly infinite repository of technical and procedural information on pretty much any task. The universal availability of data has sped up industrial development and personal learning at the national and personal level. Individuals can read any topic they wish regardless of the locality of expert teachers, and, entire nations can develop their technology and understanding of the world simply because they are now exposed to advanced societies and moral discourses online. Like every communications medium, the Internet has issues and causes a small range of problems, but these are insignificant compared to the advantages of having an online populace.

Links:

7. More Charts and Comparisons to Other Countries

Personal Charitability (2013-2016)11
CountryValue11
1Myanmar (Burma)1.25
2USA1.5
3New Zealand3.5
...
133Benin114.25
134Niger115
135Angola115
136Mali115.25
137Czech Rep.116.5
138Venezuela117.5
139Georgia117.75
140Togo118
Economic Freedom
1Hong Kong9.0
2Singapore8.8
3New Zealand8.4
...
114Guyana6.2
115Benin6.2
116Azerbaijan6.1
117Mali6.1
118Syria6.1
119Nigeria6.0
120Burkina Faso6.0
121Sierra Leone6.0
Data Source
Global Peace Index
1Iceland1.11
2New Zealand1.24
3Denmark1.24
...
98Tajikistan2.12
99Madagascar2.12
100Liberia2.13
101Mali2.13
102Sri Lanka2.14
103Congo, (Brazzaville)2.15
104Kazakhstan2.15
105Saudi Arabia2.18
Data Source
Average IQ
1Singapore108
2Korea, S.106
3Taiwan105
...
117Burundi69
118Ivory Coast69
119Malawi69
120Mali69
121Burkina Faso68
122Angola68
123Somalia68
124Chad68
Data Source
Human Rights Treaties
1Argentina24
2Ecuador23
3Germany23
...
22France21
23Montenegro21
24Senegal21
25Mali21
26Azerbaijan21
27Guatemala21
28Australia21
29Iceland20
Data Source
Press Freedom Index
1Finland99.0
2Netherlands99.0
3Norway99.0
...
95Ivory Coast99.3
96Liberia99.3
97Mongolia99.3
98Mali99.3
99Georgia99.3
100Lebanon99.3
101Albania99.3
102Maldives99.3
Data Source
R & D Spending
Country% RDP PPP
1Korea, S.4.2912
2Israel4.1112
3Japan3.5812
...
48Egypt0.6813
49Tunisia0.6814
50Belarus0.6713
51Mali0.6615
52Bulgaria0.6513
53Ethiopia0.6113
54Latvia0.6013
55Gabon0.5816
Gross National Income
1Qatar$87 478
2Liechtenstein$84 880
3Kuwait$52 793
...
175Togo$ 928
176Mozambique$ 906
177Sierra Leone$ 881
178Mali$ 853
179Madagascar$ 828
180Malawi$ 774
181Central African Rep.$ 722
182Niger$ 701
Data Source
Happiness
1Denmark7.8
2Netherlands7.6
3Norway7.6
...
138Bulgaria3.9
139Burundi3.8
140Nepal3.8
141Mali3.8
142Haiti3.8
143Afghanistan3.8
144Senegal3.8
145Benin3.7
Data Source
Environmental Performance
1Iceland93.5
2Switzerland89.1
3Costa Rica86.4
...
152Nigeria40.2
153Benin39.6
154Haiti39.5
155Mali39.4
156Turkmenistan38.4
157Niger37.6
158Togo36.4
159Angola36.3
Data Source
Gay Equality
1Netherlands405
2Belgium350
3Canada280
...
133Kazakhstan-10
134Kiribati-10
135Bhutan-10
136Mali-10
137Lesotho-10
138Liberia-10
139Niger-10
140Tajikistan-10
Data Source

Current edition: 2013 May 01
http://www.humantruth.info/mali.html
Parent page: Vexing International Issues

Social Media

References: (What's this?)

Charities Aid Foundation
World Giving Index. On www.cafonline.org.

CIA
(2013) World Factbook. The USA Government's Central Intelligence Agency (USA CIA) publishes The World Factbook, and the online version is frequently updated.

Crabtree, Vexen
(2017) "What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life" (2017). Accessed 2017 Feb 20.

Gallup
(2009) Religiosity. gallup.com/poll/142727/.... The survey question was "Is religion an important part of your daily life?" and results are charted for those who said "yes". 1000 adults were polled in each of 114 countries.

Lynn, Harvey & Nyborg
(2009) Average intelligence predicts atheism rates across 137 nations. Richard Lynn, John Harvey and Helmuth Nyborg article "Average intelligence predicts atheism rates across 137 nations" in Intelligence (2009 Jan/Feb) vol. 37 issue 1 pages 11-15. Online at www.sciencedirect.com, accessed 2009 Sep 15.

OECD
(2016) Research and development (R&D) - Gross domestic spending on R&D. Data from data.oecd.org. Accessed 2016 Sep 28.

United Nations
(2011) Human Development Report. This edition had the theme of Sustainability and Equity: A Better Future for All. Published on the United Nation's website at hdr.undp.org/.../HDR_2011_EN_Complete.pdf (accessed throughout 2013, Jan-Mar). UN Development Program: About the Human Development Index.
(2013) Human Development Report. This edition had the theme of The Rise of the South: Human Progress in a Diverse World. Published on the United Nation's HDR website at hdr.undp.org/.../hdr2013/ (accessed throughout 2013). UN Development Program: About the Human Development Index.

World Bank
Research and Development and a Percent of GDP PPP. Data from databank.worldbank.org. Accessed 2016 Sep 29.

Footnotes

  1. World Bank data on data.worldbank.org accessed 2013 Nov 04.^
  2. UN (2011) .^
  3. UN (2013) .^
  4. International Standards Organisation (ISO) standard ISO3166-1, on www.iso.org, accessed 2013 May 01.^
  5. Top level domains (TLDs) are managed by the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) on www.iana.org.^
  6. According to ISO4217.^
  7. According to ITU-T.^
  8. CIA (2013) https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/ml.html accessed 2014 Apr 27.^
  9. Pew Forum (2012) publication "The Global Religious Landscape: A Report on the Size and Distribution of the World´s Major Religious Groups as of 2010" (2012 Dec 18) accessed 2013 May 01.^
  10. CIA (2013) https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/ar.html accessed 2014 Apr 27.^
  11. Charities Aid Foundation . Average ranking across years 2013-2016. Lower is better.^
  12. OECD (2016) data for year 2014.^
  13. World Bank data for year 2013.^
  14. World Bank data for year 2012.^
  15. World Bank data for year 2010.^
  16. World Bank data for year 2009.^

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