The Human Truth Foundation

Mali (Republic of Mali)

By Vexen Crabtree 2013

#mali

Mali
Republic of Mali
StatusIndependent State
Social and Moral Index146th best
CapitalBamako
Land Area1 220 190km21
LocationAfrica
Population19.1m2
Life Expectancy58.47yrs (2017)3
GNI$2 218 (2017)4
ISO3166-1 CodesML, MLI, 4665
Internet Domain.ml6
CurrencyFranc (XOF)7
Telephone+2238

1. Overview

The Sudanese Republic and Senegal became independent of France in 1960 as the Mali Federation. When Senegal withdrew after only a few months, what formerly made up the Sudanese Republic was renamed Mali. Rule by dictatorship was brought to a close in 1991 by a military coup that ushered in a period of democratic rule. President Alpha KONARE won Mali's first two democratic presidential elections in 1992 and 1997. In keeping with Mali's two-term constitutional limit, he stepped down in 2002 and was succeeded by Amadou TOURE, who was elected to a second term in 2007 elections that were widely judged to be free and fair. Malian returnees from Libya in 2011 exacerbated tensions in northern Mali, and Tuareg ethnic militias started a rebellion in January 2012. Low-mid level soldiers, frustrated with the poor handling of the rebellion overthrew TOURE on 22 March. Intensive mediation efforts led by the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) returned power to a civilian administration in April with the appointment of interim President Dioncounda TRAORE. The post-coup chaos led to rebels expelling the Malian military from the three northern regions of the country and allowed Islamic militants to set up strongholds. Hundreds of thousands of northern Malians fled the violence to southern Mali and neighboring countries, exacerbating regional food insecurity in host communities. A military intervention to retake the three northern regions began in January 2013 and within a month most of the north had been retaken. Democratic elections are scheduled for mid-2013.

CIA's The World Factbook (2013)9

Book CoverLike an exquisite sandcastle formed in a harsh desert landscape, Mali is blessed with an extraordinary amount of beauty, wonders, talents and knowledge. Few countries in Wesy Africa can boast such an array of sights, from fabled Timbuktu to riverside mosques that seem to spring from a child´s imagination. Yet for now, its landscapes, monuments, mosques and music bars are off-limits, sealed from tourists by a conflict that is threatening the culture of this remarkable country.

The beating heart of Mali is Bamako, where Ngoni and Kora musicians play to crowds of dancing Malians. Further west, Fula women strap their belongings to donkeys, forming caravans worthy of beauty pageants as they make their way across the hamada (dry, dusty scrubland). And in the northeast, the writings of venerable African civilisations remain locked in the beautiful libraries of Timbuktu.

Adding considerable depth to these attractions is Mali´s illustrious history, a story of ancient gold-rich empires along the Sahara´s southern fringe. And just as rich and deep is Mali´s world-famous musical soundtrack, a beguiling playlist of soulful desert blues, ancient griot tunes and frenetic dance rhythms.

"The World" by Lonely Planet (2014)10

2. Mali National and Social Development

#economics #human_development

UN HDI (2016)11
Pos.Lower is better
Rank11
1Norway1
2Australia2
3Switzerland2
...
172Djibouti172
173Gambia173
174Ethiopia174
175Mali175
176Congo, DR176
177Liberia177
178Guinea-Bissau178
179Eritrea179
World Avg94.3
q=188.
Gross National Income Per-Capita (2011)12
Pos.Higher is better
PPP $12
1Qatar$129 916
2Singapore$78 162
3Kuwait$76 075
...
163Nepal$2 337
164Yemen$2 300
165Senegal$2 250
166Mali$2 218
167Chad$1 991
168Benin$1 979
169S. Sudan$1 882
170Afghanistan$1 871
World Avg$17 240
q=193.
Social & Moral
Development Index
13,14
Pos.Lower is better
Avg Rank13,14
1Taiwan30.2
2Denmark30.5
3Norway30.9
...
143Togo108.1
144Cambodia108.6
145Malawi109.0
146Mali110.1
147Guinea110.2
148Madagascar110.5
149Ivory Coast110.8
150Tonga110.8
World Avg86.4
q=195.

The United Nations produces an annual Human Development Report which includes the Human Development Index. The factors taken into account include life expectancy, education and schooling and Gross National Income (GNI) amongst many others..

The Social and Moral Development Index concentrates on moral issues and human rights, violence, public health, equality, tolerance, freedom and effectiveness in climate change mitigation and environmentalism, and on some technological issues. A country scores higher for achieving well in those areas, and for sustaining that achievement in the long term. Those countries towards the top of this index can truly said to be setting good examples and leading humankind onwards into a bright, humane, and free future. See: Which are the Best Countries in the World? The Social and Moral Development Index.

3. Mali's Demographics

#birth_control #demographics #health #immigration #life_expectancy #longevity #migration #overpopulation #population

Population:

Mali's population is predicted to rise to 26.78 million by 2030. These millions of extra people will all need space to live, food to eat, energy to consume, and will increase the burden on the planet's resources. This country has a fertility rate of 6.16. The fertility rate is, in simple terms, the average amount of children that each woman has. The higher the figure, the quicker the population is growing, although, to calculate the rate you also need to take into account morbidity, i.e., the rate at which people die. If people live healthy and long lives and morbidity is low, then, 2.0 approximates to the replacement rate, which would keep the population stable. If all countries had such a fertility rate, population growth would end. The actual replacement rate in most developed countries is around 2.1.

Population (2018)2
Pos.
Population2
1China1.4b
2India1.4b
3USA327.1m
...
57Sri Lanka21.2m
58Burkina Faso19.8m
59Romania19.5m
60Mali19.1m
61Chile18.7m
62Kazakhstan18.3m
63Malawi18.1m
64Zambia17.4m
World Avg39.0m
q=195.
Life Expectancy (2015)12
Pos.Higher is better
Years12
1Hong Kong84.16
2Japan83.68
3Italy83.34
...
171Zimbabwe59.20
172Congo, DR59.06
173Burkina Faso59.01
174Mali58.47
175Equatorial Guinea57.91
176S. Africa57.66
177Burundi57.12
178S. Sudan56.13
World Avg71.27
q=190.
Fertility Rate (2013)15
Pos.2.0 is best15
1N. Korea2.00
2Brunei1.99
3St Vincent & Grenadines2.01
...
173Uganda5.95
174Malawi5.98
175Timor-Leste (E. Timor)5.99
176Afghanistan6.03
177Mali6.16
178Zambia6.30
179Somalia6.30
180Niger6.96
World Avg2.81
q=180.
Old-Age Dependency Ratio (2016)16
Pos.Lower is better
Per 10016
1Uganda04.3
2Mali04.5
3Chad04.7
4Burkina Faso04.7
5Sierra Leone04.8
6Zambia04.8
7Eritrea04.9
8Gambia04.9
9Angola05.0
10Afghanistan05.0
11Zimbabwe05.0
12Nigeria05.1
World Avg18.3
q=185.

Migration:

Immigrants (2017)17
Pos.
%17
1UAE88.4%
2Kuwait75.5%
3Qatar65.2%
...
125Kenya2.2%
126Angola2.1%
127Liberia2.1%
128Mali2.1%
129Georgia2.0%
130Guyana2.0%
131Central African Rep.1.9%
132Romania1.9%
World Avg9.4%
q=195.
Emigrants (2010)18
Pos.
%18
1Dominica104.8%
2Palestine68.4%
3Samoa67.3%
...
80Afghanistan8.1%
81Paraguay7.9%
82Russia7.9%
83Mali7.6%
84UK7.5%
85Honduras7.5%
86Austria7.1%
87Uzbekistan7.0%
World Avg11.5%
q=192.

4. Human Rights, Equality & Tolerance

#equality #freedom #human_rights #mali #politics #tolerance

Mali is generally poor at ensuring human rights and freedom compared to the rest of the world. Mali does worse than average when it comes to commentary in Human Rights Watch reports19, supporting press freedom20, LGBT equality21 (still high for Africa) and in supporting personal, civil & economic freedoms22. And finally, it falls into the worst-performing 20 when it comes to opposing gender inequality23 (amongst the highest in Africa). At times, Mali's conscription programme descends into simple slave labour24 and both government and militia forces use child soldiers25. "Government forces conducted counterterrorism operationsthat resulted in arbitrary arrests, summary executions, torture, and ill-treatment"25Conflicts have caused "a rule of law and security vacuum, facilitating rampant banditry and displacement. In central Mali, Islamist armed group presence and intimidation of the population steadily increased [in 2017]"25.

For tables, charts and commentary, see:

5. Mali's Health

#alcohol #birth_control #demographics #health #life_expectancy #longevity #Mali #obesity #overpopulation #parenting #population #smoking #vaccines

Health (2020)26,27
Pos.Lower is better
Avg Rank26,27
1Hong Kong18.0
2Singapore41.5
3Maldives43.3
...
174Cameroon118.0
175Chad118.6
176Swaziland120.0
177Mali120.6
178Namibia121.1
179Papua New Guinea122.0
180Congo, (Brazzaville)123.1
181Gabon131.4
182Iraq132.0
World Avg92.3
q=187.

The countries with the best overall approach to public health, in terms of both public policy and individual lifestyle choices, are Hong Kong, Singapore and The Maldives26. These countries are worth emulating. And, although often through no fault of the average citizen, the worst countries are S. Sudan, Nigeria and Equatorial Guinea26.

The data sets used to calculate points for each country are its average life expectancy, its alcohol consumption rate, its fertility rate, its smoking rate, its suicide rate, its food aid and health contributions and WHO compliance, the prevalence of overweight adults, its adolescent birth rate and its immunizations take-up. The regions with the best average results per country are Scandinavia, Asia and Europe26, whereas the worst are Africa, Micronesia and Polynesia26.

Health:

Mali is a pretty unhealthy country. Mali does better than average in terms of its alcohol consumption rate28 and in its smoking rate29. But unfortunately Mali gets most other things wrong. It does worse than average in terms of its food aid and health contributions and WHO compliance30 and in its immunizations take-up31. It sits amongst the bottom 20 in its average life expectancy12 and in its fertility rate15 (amongst the highest in Africa). And finally, it is second-from-the-bottom in its adolescent birth rate23. The prevalence of overweight adults has increased by 14% over the past 40 years.
Life Expectancy (2015)12
Pos.Higher is better
Years12
1Hong Kong84.16
2Japan83.68
3Italy83.34
...
171Zimbabwe59.20
172Congo, DR59.06
173Burkina Faso59.01
174Mali58.47
175Equatorial Guinea57.91
176S. Africa57.66
177Burundi57.12
178S. Sudan56.13
World Avg71.27
q=190.
Alcohol Consumption (2016)28
Pos.Lower is better
Per Capita28
1Bangladesh0.0
2Kuwait0.0
3Libya0.0
...
30Papua New Guinea1.2
31Eritrea1.3
32Guinea1.3
33Mali1.3
34Solomon Islands1.4
35Tonga1.5
36Lebanon1.5
37Chad1.6
World Avg6.2
q=189.
Fertility Rate (2013)15
Pos.2.0 is best15
1N. Korea2.00
2Brunei1.99
3St Vincent & Grenadines2.01
...
173Uganda5.95
174Malawi5.98
175Timor-Leste (E. Timor)5.99
176Afghanistan6.03
177Mali6.16
178Zambia6.30
179Somalia6.30
180Niger6.96
World Avg2.81
q=180.
Smoking Rates (2014)29
Pos.Higher is worse29
182Montenegro4 125
181Belarus3 831
180Lebanon3 023
...
54Kenya 257
53Togo 250
52Dominican Rep. 245
51Mali 236
50St Lucia 232
49Grenada 224
48Panama 224
47Maldives 215
World Avg 819
q=182.
Food Aid, Health Contributions & WHO Compliance (2017)30
Pos.Lower is better
Rank30
1Sweden1
2Ireland2
3Denmark3
...
139Ghana139
140Chad140
141Rwanda141
142Mali142
143Niger143
144Marshall Islands144
145Botswana145
146Samoa146
World Avg82.0
q=163.
Overweight Adults (2016)32
Pos.Lower is better
%32
1Vietnam18.3
2India19.7
3Bangladesh20.0
...
33Tanzania27.7
34Zambia27.8
35Togo28.1
36Mali28.1
37Indonesia28.2
38Somalia28.4
39Senegal28.4
40Pakistan28.4
World Avg49.0
q=191.

Children's Health:

Adolescent Birth Rate (2015)23
Pos.Lower is better
Per 100023
1N. Korea0.5
2S. Korea1.6
3Switzerland2.9
...
178Chad133.5
179Ivory Coast135.5
180Malawi136.2
181Mozambique139.7
182Guinea140.6
183Angola164.3
184Mali174.6
185Niger202.4
World Avg47.9
q=185.
Infant Immunizations 2011-2015 (2015)31
Pos.Higher is better
Avg %31
1Hungary99.0
2China99.0
3Uzbekistan98.9
...
167Congo, DR76.5
168Timor-Leste (E. Timor)76.5
169Indonesia76.4
170Mali76.0
171India75.1
172Ethiopia73.9
173Pakistan73.0
174Liberia72.6
World Avg88.3
q=194.

6. Mali's Modernity and Learning

#education #intelligence #it_security #modernity #religion #research #science #technology #the_internet

Modernity and Learning (2020)33
Pos.Lower is better
Avg Rank33
1Finland8.0
2Belgium9.1
3Denmark10.0
...
142Burkina Faso95.7
143Benin97.0
144Syria97.7
145Mali98.1
146Togo99.4
147Malawi99.8
148Gabon100.2
149Swaziland100.4
150Angola101.3
World Avg69.0
q=180.

Modernity and Education:

Research and Development (2016)
Pos.Higher is better
% RDP PPP
1S. Korea4.2934
2Israel4.1134
3Japan3.5834
...
48Tunisia0.6835
49Egypt0.6836
50Belarus0.6736
51Mali0.6637
52Bulgaria0.6536
53Ethiopia0.6136
54Latvia0.6036
55Gabon0.5838
World Avg0.84
q=126.
Secondary Education (2018)39
Pos.Higher is better39
1Luxembourg100.0%
2Estonia100.0%
3Austria100.0%
...
159Ethiopia17.1%
160Rwanda16.3%
161Tanzania14.3%
162Mali13.1%
163Papua New Guinea12.5%
164Bhutan12.0%
165Guinea11.7%
166Burundi9.3%
World Avg63.0%
q=169.
Length of Schooling (2018)40
Pos.Higher is better
Years40
1Australia22.1
2Belgium19.7
3Finland19.3
...
184Pakistan8.5
185Tanzania8.0
186Sudan7.7
187Mali7.6
188Central African Rep.7.6
189Chad7.5
190Djibouti6.5
191Niger6.5
World Avg13.2
q=193.
Intellectual Endeavours (2017)30
Pos.Lower is better
Rank30
1Ukraine1
2Czechia2
3Hungary3
...
140Syria140
141Mauritania141
142Nigeria142
143Mali143
144Congo, (Brazzaville)144
145Qatar145
146Philippines146
147Mozambique147
World Avg82.0
q=163.
Religiosity (2009)41
Pos.Lower is better
%41
1Estonia16
2Sweden17
3Denmark19
...
87Qatar95
88Zambia95
89Ghana95
90Mali95
91Chad95
92Algeria95
93Rwanda95
94Cambodia96
World Avg75.1
q=114.
IQ (2006)42
Pos.Higher is better42
1Hong Kong108
2Singapore108
3S. Korea106
...
117Ivory Coast69
118Malawi69
119Niger69
120Mali69
121Burundi69
122Nigeria69
123Chad68
124Burkina Faso68
World Avg85.6
q=138.

Technology and Information:

Internet Users (2016)43
Pos.Higher is better43
1Iceland100%
2Faroe Islands99%
3Norway98%
...
168Iraq13%
169Kiribati13%
170Rwanda12%
171Mali12%
172Haiti12%
173Papua New Guinea12%
174Djibouti12%
175Cambodia11%
World Avg48.1%
q=201.
IT Security (2013)44
Pos.Lower is better44
1Ireland0.11
2Luxembourg0.11
3Belize0.11
...
45Brazil1.02
46Indonesia1.05
47British Virgin Islands1.08
48Mali1.12
49France1.13
50Italy1.15
51Vietnam1.15
52Nigeria1.18
World Avg0.98
q=81.

7. National Culture

#charity #corruption #happiness #morals #politics

Personal Charitability
(World Position, 2013-2016)
45
Pos.Lower is better45
1Myanmar (Burma)1.25
2USA1.5
3New Zealand3.5
...
133Benin114.25
134Niger115
135Angola115
136Mali115.25
137Czechia116.5
138Venezuela117.5
139Georgia117.75
140Togo118
World Avg68.1185897435897
q=156.
Corruption (2012-2016)46
Pos.Higher is better
Avg Score46
1Denmark90.8
2New Zealand90.6
3Finland89.4
...
114Mexico32.8
115Ecuador32.6
116Belarus32.6
117Mali32.2
118Tanzania32.2
119Vietnam31.4
120Dominican Rep.31.4
121Ivory Coast30.8
World Avg43.05
q=176.
Happiness (2018)47
Pos.Higher is better47
1Finland7.6
2Norway7.6
3Denmark7.6
...
115Bangladesh4.5
116Sri Lanka4.5
117Iraq4.5
118Mali4.4
119Namibia4.4
120Cambodia4.4
121Burkina Faso4.4
122Egypt4.4
World Avg5.38
q=156.
Creativity and Culture (2017)30
Pos.Lower is better
Rank30
1Belgium1
2Netherlands2
3Estonia3
...
131Kazakhstan131
132Guinea132
133Timor-Leste (E. Timor)133
134Mali134
135Chad135
136Saudi Arabia136
137Congo, (Brazzaville)137
138Algeria138
World Avg82.0
q=163.
Open Trading, Aid and Development (2017)30
Pos.Lower is better
Rank30
1Ireland1
2Denmark2
3Sweden3
...
54Rwanda54
55Swaziland55
56Luxembourg56
57Mali57
58El Salvador58
59Senegal59
60Kyrgyzstan60
61Qatar61
World Avg82.0
q=163.

8. Peace Versus Instability

#extremism #human_development #peace #politics #religious_violence #terrorism

Global Peace Index (2012)48
Pos.Lower is better48
1Iceland1.11
2New Zealand1.24
3Denmark1.24
...
98Tajikistan2.12
99Madagascar2.12
100Liberia2.13
101Mali2.13
102Sri Lanka2.15
103Congo, (Brazzaville)2.15
104Kazakhstan2.15
105Saudi Arabia2.18
World Avg2.02
q=157.
Peacekeeping and Security (2017)30
Pos.Lower is better
Rank30
1Samoa1
2S. Africa2
3Tunisia3
...
152Afghanistan152
153Lebanon153
154Liberia154
155Mali155
156Swaziland156
157Yemen157
158Iraq158
159Bahrain159
World Avg82.0
q=163.
Refugees and UN Treaties (2017)30
Pos.Lower is better
Rank30
1Austria1
2Germany2
3Netherlands3
...
136Trinidad & Tobago136
137Nigeria137
138Cambodia138
139Mali139
140Haiti140
141Mongolia141
142Syria142
143Mauritania143
World Avg82.0
q=163.
Impact of Terrorism (2019)49
Pos.Lower is better
Score49
1Togo0.00
2Mongolia0.00
3Swaziland0.00
...
135Turkey6.53
136Cameroon6.62
137Central African Rep.6.62
138Mali6.65
139Libya6.77
140Egypt6.79
141Congo, DR7.04
142Philippines7.14
World Avg2.78
q=150.

9. The Natural Environment

#biodiversity #climate_change #over-exploitation #the_environment

Forest Area Change 1990-2015 (2015)50
Pos.Higher is better
%50
1Iceland205.6
2Bahrain144.4
3Uruguay131.3
...
169Chad-27.3
170Paraguay-27.6
171Timor-Leste (E. Timor)-29.0
172Mali-29.5
173El Salvador-29.7
174Nicaragua-31.0
175Zimbabwe-36.6
176Sudan-37.5
World Avg02.8
q=184.
Environmental Performance (2018)51
Pos.Higher is better51
1Switzerland87.4
2France84.0
3Denmark81.6
...
144Vanuatu44.6
145Uganda44.3
146Comoros44.2
147Mali43.7
148Rwanda43.7
149Zimbabwe43.4
150Cambodia43.2
151Solomon Islands43.2
World Avg56.4
q=180.
Convention on Biological Diversity
Pos.Earlier is better
Signed
1China1993 Dec 29
2Guinea1993 Dec 29
3Cook Islands1993 Dec 29
...
113Oman1995 May 09
114Cambodia1995 May 10
115Central African Rep.1995 Jun 13
116Mali1995 Jun 27
117Cape Verde1995 Jun 27
118Russia1995 Jul 04
119Guatemala1995 Oct 08
120Uzbekistan1995 Oct 17
World Avg1899 Dec 30
q=197.
Rational Beliefs on the Environment (2011)52
Pos.Higher is better
%52
1Argentina78.3%
2Greece77.6%
3Brazil77.1%
...
23Uruguay62.4%
24Angola62.4%
25Bangladesh61.5%
26Mali60.7%
27Venezuela60.1%
28Morocco60.0%
29Malta57.3%
30Ecuador57.2%
World Avg39.9%
q=145.

10. Economic Inequality and Poverty

#capitalism #economics #health #inequality #life_expectancy #poverty #social_development

Inequality in Life Expectancy (2019)53
Pos.Higher is worse53
184Chad40.90
183Central African Rep.40.10
182Sierra Leone39.00
181Somalia38.90
180Nigeria37.10
179Mali36.70
178S. Sudan36.20
177Congo, DR36.10
176Benin34.90
175Equatorial Guinea34.60
174Cameroon33.50
173Ivory Coast33.30
World Avg14.59
q=184.
Income Inequality (Gini Coefficient) (2017)54
Pos.Lower is better
%54
1Ukraine25.0
2Belarus25.4
3Slovenia25.4
...
39Estonia32.7
40Nepal32.8
41Tunisia32.8
42Mali33.0
43Bosnia & Herzegovina33.0
44UK33.2
45Pakistan33.5
46Armenia33.6
World Avg38.1
q=152.
Multidimensional Poverty (2018)55
Pos.Lower is better
Severity55
1Armenia.001
2Ukraine.001
3Serbia.001
...
92Burundi.403
93Mozambique.411
94Madagascar.453
95Mali.457
96Central African Rep..465
97Ethiopia.489
98Burkina Faso.519
99Chad.533
World Avg.154
q=101.

11. Religion and Beliefs

#belief #buddhism #christianity #god #hinduism #islam #judaism #religion

Religiosity (2009)41
Pos.Lower is better
%41
1Estonia16
2Sweden17
3Denmark19
...
87Qatar95
88Zambia95
89Ghana95
90Mali95
91Chad95
92Algeria95
93Rwanda95
94Cambodia96
World Avg75.1
q=114.
Disbelief In God (2007)56
Pos.Higher is better
%56
1Vietnam81
2Japan65
3Sweden64
...
130Malawi0
131Chad0
132Nepal0
133Morocco0
134Mauritania0
135Mali0
136Senegal0
137Oman0
World Avg9.9
q=137.

Data from the Pew Forum, a professional polling outfit, states that in 2010 the religious makeup of this country was as follows in the table below57:

Christian3.2%
Muslim92.4%
Hindu0.1%
Buddhist0.1%
Folk Religion1.6%
Jew0.1%
Unaffiliated2.7%

The CIA World Factbook has slightly different data, and states: Muslim 94.8%, Christian 2.4%, Animist 2%, none 0.5%, unspecified 0.3% (2009 Census)58.

Links: