The Human Truth Foundation

Mali (Republic of Mali)

By Vexen Crabtree 2013


Comments:
FB, LJ

#charity #economics #happiness #homosexuality #intelligence #mali #morals #research #science #the_environment

Mali
Republic of Mali
StatusIndependent State
CapitalBamako
Land Area1 220 190km21
LocationAfrica
Population16.3m (2011)2
Life Expectancy58.47yrs (2017)3
GNI$2 218 (2017)4
ISO3166-1 CodesML, MLI, 4665
Internet Domain.ml6
CurrencyFranc (XOF)7
Telephone+2238

1. Overview

The Sudanese Republic and Senegal became independent of France in 1960 as the Mali Federation. When Senegal withdrew after only a few months, what formerly made up the Sudanese Republic was renamed Mali. Rule by dictatorship was brought to a close in 1991 by a military coup that ushered in a period of democratic rule. President Alpha KONARE won Mali's first two democratic presidential elections in 1992 and 1997. In keeping with Mali's two-term constitutional limit, he stepped down in 2002 and was succeeded by Amadou TOURE, who was elected to a second term in 2007 elections that were widely judged to be free and fair. Malian returnees from Libya in 2011 exacerbated tensions in northern Mali, and Tuareg ethnic militias started a rebellion in January 2012. Low-mid level soldiers, frustrated with the poor handling of the rebellion overthrew TOURE on 22 March. Intensive mediation efforts led by the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) returned power to a civilian administration in April with the appointment of interim President Dioncounda TRAORE. The post-coup chaos led to rebels expelling the Malian military from the three northern regions of the country and allowed Islamic militants to set up strongholds. Hundreds of thousands of northern Malians fled the violence to southern Mali and neighboring countries, exacerbating regional food insecurity in host communities. A military intervention to retake the three northern regions began in January 2013 and within a month most of the north had been retaken. Democratic elections are scheduled for mid-2013.

CIA's The World Factbook (2013)9

Book CoverLike an exquisite sandcastle formed in a harsh desert landscape, Mali is blessed with an extraordinary amount of beauty, wonders, talents and knowledge. Few countries in Wesy Africa can boast such an array of sights, from fabled Timbuktu to riverside mosques that seem to spring from a child´s imagination. Yet for now, its landscapes, monuments, mosques and music bars are off-limits, sealed from tourists by a conflict that is threatening the culture of this remarkable country.

The beating heart of Mali is Bamako, where Ngoni and Kora musicians play to crowds of dancing Malians. Further west, Fula women strap their belongings to donkeys, forming caravans worthy of beauty pageants as they make their way across the hamada (dry, dusty scrubland). And in the northeast, the writings of venerable African civilisations remain locked in the beautiful libraries of Timbuktu.

Adding considerable depth to these attractions is Mali´s illustrious history, a story of ancient gold-rich empires along the Sahara´s southern fringe. And just as rich and deep is Mali´s world-famous musical soundtrack, a beguiling playlist of soulful desert blues, ancient griot tunes and frenetic dance rhythms.

"The World" by Lonely Planet (2014)10

2. Mali National and Social Development

#human_development

UN HDI (2016)11
Pos.Lower is better
Rank11
1Norway1
2Australia2
3Switzerland2
...
172Djibouti172
173Gambia173
174Ethiopia174
175Mali175
176Congo, DR176
177Liberia177
178Guinea-Bissau178
179Eritrea179
World Avg94.3
q=188.
Social & Moral
Development Index
12
Pos.Higher is better
Points12
1Denmark84.2
2Sweden83.7
3Finland83.5
...
181Congo, (Brazzaville)39.1
182Palestine38.9
183Mauritania38.3
184Mali38.0
185Niger38.0
186Sudan37.9
187Syria35.7
188Burundi35.6
World Avg54.1
q=198.

The United Nations produces an annual Human Development Report which includes the Human Development Index. The factors taken into account include life expectancy, education and schooling and Gross National Income (GNI) amongst many others..

The Social and Moral Development Index concentrates on moral issues and human rights, violence, public health, equality, tolerance, freedom and effectiveness in climate change mitigation and environmentalism, and on some technological issues. A country scores higher for achieving well in those areas, and for sustaining that achievement in the long term. Those countries towards the top of this index can truly said to be setting good examples and leading humankind onwards into a bright, humane, and free future. See: What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life.

3. Population and Demographics

#demographics #health #immigration #life_expectancy #Mali #overpopulation #population

Old-Age Dependency Ratio (2016)13
Pos.Lower is better
Per 10013
1Uganda04.3
2Mali04.5
3Chad04.7
4Burkina Faso04.7
5Sierra Leone04.8
6Zambia04.8
7Eritrea04.9
8Gambia04.9
9Angola05.0
10Afghanistan05.0
11Zimbabwe05.0
12Nigeria05.1
World Avg18.3
q=185.
Emigrants (2010)14
Pos.
%14
1Dominica104.8
2Palestine68.4
3Samoa67.3
...
80Afghanistan8.1
81Paraguay7.9
82Russia7.9
83Mali7.6
84UK7.5
85Honduras7.5
86Austria7.1
87Uzbekistan7.0
World Avg11.5
q=192.
Fertility Rate (2013)15
Pos.2.0 is best15
1Korea, N.2.00
2Brunei1.99
3St Vincent & Grenadines2.01
...
173Uganda5.95
174Malawi5.98
175Timor-Leste (E. Timor)5.99
176Afghanistan6.03
177Mali6.16
178Zambia6.30
179Somalia6.30
180Niger6.96
World Avg2.81
q=180.

Immigrants (2010)14
Pos.
%14
1Qatar86.5
2Monaco71.6
3UAE70.0
...
142Bulgaria1.4
143Solomon Islands1.3
144Niger1.3
145Mali1.2
146Timor-Leste (E. Timor)1.2
147Guinea-Bissau1.2
148Korea, S.1.1
149Jamaica1.1
World Avg9.2
q=192.
Life Expectancy (2015)16
Pos.Higher is better
Years16
1Hong Kong84.16
2Japan83.68
3Italy83.34
...
171Zimbabwe59.20
172Congo, DR59.06
173Burkina Faso59.01
174Mali58.47
175Equatorial Guinea57.91
176S. Africa57.66
177Burundi57.12
178S. Sudan56.13
World Avg71.27
q=190.
Population (2012)17
Pos.The Overpopulation of the Earth17
1China1.4b
2India1.3b
3USA315.8m
...
61Netherlands16.7m
62Niger16.6m
63Kazakhstan16.4m
64Mali16.3m
65Malawi15.9m
66Guatemala15.1m
67Ecuador14.9m
68Cambodia14.5m
World Avg36.0m
q=195.

Mali's population is predicted to rise to 26.78 million by 2030. These millions of extra people will all need space to live, food to eat, energy to consume, and will increase the burden on the planet's resources. This country has a fertility rate of 6.16. The fertility rate is, in simple terms, the average amount of children that each woman has. The higher the figure, the quicker the population is growing, although, to calculate the rate you also need to take into account morbidity, i.e., the rate at which people die. If people live healthy and long lives and morbidity is low, then, 2.0 approximates to the replacement rate, which would keep the population stable. If all countries had such a fertility rate, population growth would end. The actual replacement rate in most developed countries is around 2.1.

4. Politics and Freedom

#burundi #corruption #eritrea #france #freedom #human_development #human_rights #indonesia #Mali #mass_media #peace #politics #slavery

Corruption (2012-2016)18
Pos.Higher is better
Avg Score18
1Denmark90.8
2New Zealand90.6
3Finland89.4
...
114Mexico32.8
115Ecuador32.6
116Belarus32.6
117Mali32.2
118Tanzania32.2
119Vietnam31.4
120Dominican Rep.31.4
121Ivory Coast30.8
World Avg43.05
q=176.
Global Peace Index (2012)19
Pos.Lower is better19
1Iceland1.11
2New Zealand1.24
3Denmark1.24
...
98Tajikistan2.12
99Madagascar2.12
100Liberia2.13
101Mali2.13
102Sri Lanka2.15
103Congo, (Brazzaville)2.15
104Kazakhstan2.15
105Saudi Arabia2.18
World Avg2.02
q=157.
Nominal Commitment to HR (2009)20
Pos.Higher is better
Treaties20
1Argentina24
2Chile23
3Costa Rica23
...
19Brazil21
20Montenegro21
21Guatemala21
22Mali21
23Azerbaijan21
24Bosnia & Herzegovina21
25Bolivia21
26Australia21
World Avg15.1
q=194.

Personal, Civil & Economic Freedom (2014)21
Pos.Lower is better
Rank21
1Hong Kong1
2Switzerland2
3New Zealand3
...
121Timor-Leste (E. Timor)120
122Burundi122
123Tunisia123
124Mali124
125Gambia125
126Cameroon126
127Guyana126
128Vietnam128
World Avg79.7
q=159.
Press Freedom (2013)22
Pos.Lower is better22
1Finland638
2Netherlands648
3Norway652
...
95Ivory Coast2977
96Liberia2989
97Mongolia2993
98Mali3003
99Georgia3009
100Lebanon3015
101Albania3088
102Maldives3110
World Avg3249
q=178.
Slavery (2018)23
Pos.Lower is better
% Victims23
1Japan0.03
2Canada0.05
3Taiwan0.05
...
71Poland0.34
72Singapore0.34
73Estonia0.36
74Mali0.36
75Hungary0.37
76Bangladesh0.37
77Cuba0.38
78Israel0.39
World Avg0.65
q=167.

The taking of slaves has been an unwholesome feature of Human cultures since prehistory24. Private households and national endeavours have frequently been augmented with the use of slaves. The Egyptian and Roman empires both thrived on them for both purposes. Aside from labourers they are often abused sexually by their owners and their owners' friends25. The era of colonialism and the beginnings of globalisation changed nothing: the imprisonment and forced movements of labour continued to destroy many lives except that new justifications were invented based on Christian doctrine and the effort to convert non-Christians. By 1786 over 12 million slaves had been extracted from Africa and sent to colonial labour camps, with a truly atrocious condition of life26. But they were not the only ones to blame; in Africa internal nations such as the Asantes sold and bought tens of thousands of slaves27.

The abolition of the slave trade was a long and slow process. Until a relatively modern time, even philosophers, religious leaders and those concerned with ethics justified, or ignored, the problem of slavery28. The first abolitionists were always the slaves themselves. Their protests and rebellions caused the industry to become too expensive to continue. After that, it was the economic costs of maintain slave colonies that led the British to reject and then oppose the slave trade globally. Finally, the enlightenment-era thinkers of France encouraged moral and ethical thinking including the declaration of the inherent value of human life and human dignity29. A long-overdue wave of compassionate and conscientious movements swept across the West, eliminating public support for slavery, until the industries and churches that supported it had no choice but to back down.

'Modern slavery' includes forced labour (often of the under-age), debt bondage (especially generational), sexual slavery, chattel slavery and other forms of abuse, some of which can be surprisingly difficult to detect, but often target those fleeing from warzones and the vulnerable.30. Some industries (diamond, clothing, coal) from some countries (Burundi23, Eritrea23, Indonesia31) are a particular concern. The Walk Free Foundation, say that in 2016, 40.3 million people were living in modern slavery32.

Mali practices conscription, which involves a mandatory period of service in the military. But the Walk Free Foundation reports that this sometimes becomes slave labour as some 'concscripts' are assigned to lengthy and arduous work which is clearly non-military in nature33 such as public infrastructure and civil construction work.

5. Gender Equality

#gender #Mali #misogyny #politics #women

Gender Inequality (2015)34
Pos.Lower is better34
1Switzerland0.04
2Denmark0.04
3Netherlands0.04
...
152Tonga0.66
153Congo, DR0.66
154Afghanistan0.67
155Ivory Coast0.67
156Mali0.69
157Chad0.69
158Niger0.70
159Yemen0.77
World Avg0.36
q=159.
Year Women Can Vote35
Pos.Lower is better
Year35
1New Zealand1893
2Australia1902
3Finland1906
...
105Eritrea1955
106Honduras1955
107Cambodia1955
108Mali1956
109Benin1956
110Mauritius1956
111Somalia1956
112Gabon1956
World Avg1930
q=189.

Gender inequality is not a necessary part of early human development. Although a separation of roles is almost universal due to different strengths between the genders, this does not have to mean that women are subdued, and, such patriarchialism is not universal in ancient history. Those cultures and peoples who shed, or never developed, the idea that mankind ought to dominate womankind, are better cultures and peoples than those who, even today, cling violently to those mores.

The 1950s saw a late rush of 43 countries, including Mali and many developing nations, move to cease preventing women from voting. Mali culture has a severe problem with gender equality, with male rights dominating those of women. Things need to change.

See:

6. Religion and Beliefs

#belief #buddhism #christianity #god #hinduism #islam #judaism #religion

Religiosity (2009)36
Pos.Lower is better
%36
1Estonia16
2Sweden17
3Denmark19
...
87Qatar95
88Zambia95
89Ghana95
90Mali95
91Chad95
92Algeria95
93Rwanda95
94Cambodia96
World Avg75.1
q=114.
Disbelief In God (2007)37
Pos.Higher is better37
1Vietnam81
2Japan65
3Sweden64
...
130Malawi0
131Chad0
132Nepal0
133Morocco0
134Mauritania0
135Mali0
136Senegal0
137Oman0
World Avg9.9
q=137.

Data from the Pew Forum, a professional polling outfit, states that in 2010 the religious makeup of this country was as follows in the table below38:

Christian3.2%
Muslim92.4%
Hindu0.1%
Buddhist0.1%
Folk Religion1.6%
Jew0.1%
Unaffiliated2.7%

The CIA World Factbook has slightly different data, and states: Muslim 94.8%, Christian 2.4%, Animist 2%, none 0.5%, unspecified 0.3% (2009 Census)39.

Links:

7. The Internet

#internet #it_security #Mali #the_internet

Internet Users (2016)40
Pos.Higher is better40
1Iceland100%
2Faroe Islands99%
3Norway98%
...
168Iraq13%
169Kiribati13%
170Rwanda12%
171Mali12%
172Haiti12%
173Papua New Guinea12%
174Djibouti12%
175Cambodia11%
World Avg48.1%
q=201.
IT Security (2013)41
Pos.Lower is better41
1Ireland0.11
2Luxembourg0.11
3Belize0.11
...
45Brazil1.02
46Indonesia1.05
47British Virgin Islands1.08
48Mali1.12
49France1.13
50Italy1.15
51Vietnam1.15
52Nigeria1.18
World Avg0.98
q=81.

Internet access has become an essential research tool. It facilitates an endless list of life improvements, from the ability to network and socialize without constraint, to access to a seemingly infinite repository of technical and procedural information on pretty much any task. The universal availability of data has sped up industrial development and personal learning at the national and personal level. Individuals can read any topic they wish regardless of the locality of expert teachers, and, entire nations can develop their technology and understanding of the world simply because they are now exposed to advanced societies and moral discourses online. Like every communications medium, the Internet has issues and causes a small range of problems, but these are insignificant compared to the advantages of having an online populace.

8. Public Health Issues

#alcohol #health #Mali #parenting #population #smoking #vaccines

Adolescent Birth Rate (2015)34
Pos.Lower is better
Per 100034
1Korea, N.0.5
2Korea, S.1.6
3Switzerland2.9
...
178Chad133.5
179Ivory Coast135.5
180Malawi136.2
181Mozambique139.7
182Guinea140.6
183Angola164.3
184Mali174.6
185Niger202.4
World Avg47.9
q=185.
Alcohol Consumption (2010)42
Pos.Lower is better
Per Capita42
1Libya0.1
2Pakistan0.1
3Kuwait0.1
...
24Iran1.0
25Algeria1.0
26Eritrea1.1
27Mali1.1
28Syria1.2
29Maldives1.2
30Djibouti1.3
31Malaysia1.3
World Avg6.2
q=191.
Food Aid, Health Contributions & WHO Compliance (2017)43
Pos.Lower is better
Rank43
1Sweden1
2Ireland2
3Denmark3
...
139Ghana139
140Chad140
141Rwanda141
142Mali142
143Niger143
144Marshall Islands144
145Botswana145
146Samoa146
World Avg82.0
q=163.

Infant Immunizations 2011-2015 (2015)44
Pos.Higher is better
Avg %44
1Hungary99.0
2China99.0
3Uzbekistan98.9
...
167Congo, DR76.5
168Timor-Leste (E. Timor)76.5
169Indonesia76.4
170Mali76.0
171India75.1
172Ethiopia73.9
173Pakistan73.0
174Liberia72.6
World Avg88.3
q=194.
Smoking Rates (2014)45
Pos.Lower is better45
1Guinea 15
2Solomon Islands 26
3Kiribati 28
...
48Panama 224
49Grenada 224
50St Lucia 232
51Mali 236
52Dominican Rep. 245
53Togo 250
54Kenya 257
55Mauritius 261
World Avg 819
q=182.

9. More Charts and Comparisons to Other Countries

Personal Charitability
(World Position, 2013-2016)
46
Pos.Lower is better46
1Myanmar (Burma)1.25
2USA1.5
3New Zealand3.5
...
133Benin114.25
134Niger115
135Angola115
136Mali115.25
137Czechia116.5
138Venezuela117.5
139Georgia117.75
q=156.
Intellectual Endeavours (2017)43
Pos.Lower is better
Rank43
1Ukraine1
2Czechia2
3Hungary3
...
140Syria140
141Mauritania141
142Nigeria142
143Mali143
144Congo, (Brazzaville)144
145Qatar145
146Philippines146
q=163.
Creativity and Culture (2017)43
Pos.Lower is better
Rank43
1Belgium1
2Netherlands2
3Estonia3
...
131Kazakhstan131
132Guinea132
133Timor-Leste (E. Timor)133
134Mali134
135Chad135
136Saudi Arabia136
137Congo, (Brazzaville)137
q=163.
Peacekeeping and Security (2017)43
Pos.Lower is better
Rank43
1Samoa1
2S. Africa2
3Tunisia3
...
152Afghanistan152
153Lebanon153
154Liberia154
155Mali155
156Swaziland156
157Yemen157
158Iraq158
q=163.
Refugees and UN Treaties (2017)43
Pos.Lower is better
Rank43
1Austria1
2Germany2
3Netherlands3
...
136Trinidad & Tobago136
137Nigeria137
138Cambodia138
139Mali139
140Haiti140
141Mongolia141
142Syria142
q=163.
Open Trading, Aid and Development (2017)43
Pos.Lower is better
Rank43
1Ireland1
2Denmark2
3Sweden3
...
54Rwanda54
55Swaziland55
56Luxembourg56
57Mali57
58El Salvador58
59Senegal59
60Kyrgyzstan60
q=163.
Research and Development (2016)
Pos.Higher is better
% RDP PPP
1Korea, S.4.29
2Israel4.11
3Japan3.58
...
48Tunisia0.68
49Egypt0.68
50Belarus0.67
51Mali0.66
52Bulgaria0.65
53Ethiopia0.61
54Latvia0.60
55Gabon0.58
q=126.
Life Satisfaction (2011)47
Pos.Higher is better47
1Denmark7.8
2Norway7.6
3Netherlands7.6
...
136Burkina Faso4.0
137Comoros3.9
138Bulgaria3.9
139Mali3.8
140Senegal3.8
141Nepal3.8
142Haiti3.8
143Burundi3.8
q=150.
Gross National Income Per-Capita (2011)16
Pos.Higher is better
PPP $16
1Qatar$129 916
2Singapore$78 162
3Kuwait$76 075
...
163Nepal$2 337
164Yemen$2 300
165Senegal$2 250
166Mali$2 218
167Chad$1 991
168Benin$1 979
169S. Sudan$1 882
170Afghanistan$1 871
q=193.
Environmental Performance (2018)48
Pos.Higher is better48
1Switzerland87.4
2France84.0
3Denmark81.6
...
144Vanuatu44.6
145Uganda44.3
146Comoros44.2
147Mali43.7
148Rwanda43.7
149Zimbabwe43.4
150Cambodia43.2
151Solomon Islands43.2
q=180.
LGBT Equality (2017)49
Pos.Higher is better
Score49
1Netherlands103
2Belgium90
3Sweden86
...
105Jordan12
106China12
107Djibouti11
108Mali11
109Tajikistan11
110Gabon10
111Bahamas10
112Kazakhstan8
q=196.
IQ (2006)50
Pos.Higher is better50
1Hong Kong108
2Singapore108
3Korea, S.106
...
117Ivory Coast69
118Malawi69
119Niger69
120Mali69
121Burundi69
122Nigeria69
123Chad68
124Burkina Faso68
q=138.

Current edition: 2013 May 01
Last Modified: 2018 Aug 17
http://www.humantruth.info/mali.html
Parent page: Compare International Statistics by Region and Continent

All #tags used on this page - click for more:

#alcohol #belief #buddhism #burundi #charity #christianity #corruption #demographics #economics #eritrea #france #freedom #gender #god #happiness #health #hinduism #homosexuality #human_development #human_rights #immigration #indonesia #intelligence #internet #islam #it_security #judaism #life_expectancy #mali #mass_media #misogyny #morals #overpopulation #parenting #peace #politics #population #religion #research #science #slavery #smoking #the_environment #the_internet #vaccines #women

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References: (What's this?)

Book Cover

The Good Country Index. Published by The Good Country Inc., New York, USA. Website: goodcountry.org. The Good Country Index gauges how well countries are doing in helping international development. Edition 1.2 (2017) has 35 criteria.

Casely-Hayford, Gus
(2012) The Lost Kingdoms of Africa. Published by Bantram Press. A hardback book.

Charities Aid Foundation
World Giving Index. On www.cafonline.org.

CIA
(2013) World Factbook. The USA Government's Central Intelligence Agency (USA CIA) publishes The World Factbook, and the online version is frequently updated.

Crabtree, Vexen
(2018) "What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life" (2018). Accessed 2018 Aug 22.

The Fraser Institute
(2016) The Human Freedom Index. Published by The Cato Institute, The Fraser Institute and the Friedrich Naumann Foundation for Freedom. Covers data up to 2014. On www.fraserinstitute.org/.../human-freedom-index-2016.

Gallup
(2009) Religiosity. gallup.com/poll/142727/.... The survey question was "Is religion an important part of your daily life?" and results are charted for those who said "yes". 1000 adults were polled in each of 114 countries.

Klein, Naomi
(2004) No Logo. Originally published 2000, HarperCollins, London, UK. A paperback book.

Lonely Planet
(2014) The World. Subtitled: "A Traveller's Guide to the Planet". Published by Lonely Planet, London, UK. Each chapter is devoted to a specific country and includes a list of the most interesting places to visit and a few other cultural notes.

Lynn, Harvey & Nyborg
(2009) Average intelligence predicts atheism rates across 137 nations. Richard Lynn, John Harvey and Helmuth Nyborg. Published in Intelligence (2009 Jan/Feb) vol. 37 issue 1 pages 11-15. Online at www.sciencedirect.com, accessed 2009 Sep 15.

McCall, Andrew
(1979) The Medieval Underworld. 2004 edition. Published by Sutton Publishing. A paperback book.

Thomson, Oliver
(1993) A History of Sin. Published by Canongate Press. A hardback book.

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(2011) Human Development Report. Published by the UN Development Programme. This edition had the theme of Sustainability and Equity: A Better Future for All. Available on hdr.undp.org/... UN Development Program: About the Human Development Index.
(2013) Human Development Report. Published by the UN Development Programme. This edition had the theme of The Rise of the South: Human Progress in a Diverse World. Available on hdr.undp.org/... UN Development Program: About the Human Development Index.
(2017) Human Development Report. Published by the UN Development Programme. Data for 2015. Available on hdr.undp.org/.

Walk Free Foundation
(2018) Global Slavery Index. Published on www.walkfreefoundation.org/.

World Health Organisation. (WHO)
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Footnotes

  1. World Bank data on data.worldbank.org accessed 2013 Nov 04.^
  2. UN (2011) .^
  3. UN (2017). Table 1.^
  4. UN (2017). Gross National Income, per person. Table 1.^
  5. International Standards Organisation (ISO) standard ISO3166-1, on www.iso.org, accessed 2013 May 01.^
  6. Top level domains (TLDs) are managed by the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) on www.iana.org.^
  7. According to ISO4217.^
  8. According to ITU-T.^
  9. CIA (2013). Https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/ml.html accessed 2014 Apr 27.^
  10. Lonely Planet (2014). Chapter "Mali".^
  11. UN (2017). Table 1. Lower is better.^
  12. "What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life" by Vexen Crabtree (2018)^
  13. UN (2017). Dashboard 2. Higher is worse. Old-age is counted as 65+, and ratio is of these to people ages 15-64. Projections are for 2030 based on medium-fertility variant of growth.^
  14. UN (2013). Table 11.^
  15. UN (2013). Table 14. Births per woman (2012), expressed as deviance (positive or negative) from the value of 2.0.^
  16. UN (2017). Table 1. Higher is better.^^
  17. UN (2013). Table 14.^
  18. Transparency International Corruption Perceptions Index (2017). Accessed 2017 Dec 30. The scores given are the TI average for the years 2012-2016.^
  19. ^
  20. Max possible=24. Total amount of treaties ratified. Nominal Commitment to Human Rights report published by UCL School of Public Policy, London, UK, at ucl.ac.uk/spp/research/research-projects/nchr accessed 2011 Apr 30.^
  21. Fraser Institute, the (2016). Covers data for 2014.^
  22. Reporters Without Borders Report "2013 World Press Freedom Index: Dashed hopes after spring" at fr.rsf.org/.../classement_2013_gb-bd.pdf accessed 2013 Feb.^
  23. Walk Free Foundation (2018) .^
  24. Thomson (1993). P28.^
  25. McCall (1979). P180.^
  26. Thomson (1993). P166.^
  27. Casely-Hayford (2012). P253.^
  28. Thomson (1993). P31.^
  29. Thomson (1993). P199.^
  30. Thomson (1993). P28-29.^
  31. Klein (2004) .^
  32. Walk Free Foundation (2018). P2.^
  33. Walk Free Foundation (2018). P44.^
  34. UN (2017). Table 5. Lower is better.^^
  35. "What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life: 2.6. Women Stand for Election & Vote" by Vexen Crabtree (2018)^
  36. Gallup (2009) .^
  37. Zuckerman, P. (2007). Atheism: contemporary numbers and patterns. In M.Martin (Ed.), The Cambridge Companion to Atheism. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. In "Average intelligence predicts atheism rates across 137 nations" by Lynn et al. (2009)50.^
  38. Pew Forum (2012) publication "The Global Religious Landscape: A Report on the Size and Distribution of the World´s Major Religious Groups as of 2010" (2012 Dec 18) accessed 2013 May 01.^
  39. CIA (2013). Https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/ar.html accessed 2014 Apr 27.^
  40. internetlivestats.com/internet-users-by-country accessed 2017 Mar 10.^
  41. "What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life: 3.4. Malware and Email Spam" by Vexen Crabtree (2018)^
  42. WHO (2014). Appendix 1. Alcohol Per Capita Consumption in liters of pure alcohol, 15+ years age population, consumed in 2010. Lower is better.^
  43. The Good Country Index (2017) .^^
  44. World Health Organisation data for 2011-2015 from 7 data series accessed 2017 May 21. Details in "Immunizations: International Statistics on Vaccines and the Autism Scare: 3. World Health Organisation Statistics" by Vexen Crabtree (2017).^
  45. Annual Cigarette Consumption Per Adult (age 15 and above) - compustible cigarettes. Euromonitor International (2014), via tobaccoatlas.org/topic/cigarette-use-globally/ . Accessed 2017 Jun 20.^
  46. Charities Aid Foundation. Average ranking across years 2013-2016. Lower is better.^
  47. UN (2013). Table 9. Higher is better. Table 9. The UN's data is the latest available from a range of data from 2007-2011.^
  48. Yale University Center for Environmental Law & Policy 2018 EPI.^
  49. Sources:^
  50. Lynn, Harvey & Nyborg (2009) .^

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