The Human Truth Foundation

Macedonia (Republic of Macedonia)

By Vexen Crabtree 2013


Comments:
FB, LJ

#charity #economics #happiness #homosexuality #morals #research #science #the_environment

Macedonia
Republic of Macedonia
StatusIndependent State
CapitalSkopje
Land Area 25 220km21
LocationEurope, The Balkans
Population2.1m (2011)2
Life Expectancy75.53yrs (2017)3
GNI$12 405 (2017)4
ISO3166-1 CodesMK, MKD, 8075
Internet Domain.mk6
CurrencyDenar (MKD)7
Telephone+3898

1. Overview

Macedonia gained its independence peacefully from Yugoslavia in 1991. Greece's objection to the new state's use of what it considered a Hellenic name and symbols delayed international recognition, which occurred under the provisional designation of "the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia." In 1995, Greece lifted a 20-month trade embargo and the two countries agreed to normalize relations, but the issue of the name remained unresolved and negotiations for a solution are ongoing. Since 2004, the United States and 133 other nations have recognized Macedonia by its constitutional name, Republic of Macedonia. Some ethnic Albanians, angered by perceived political and economic inequities, launched an insurgency in 2001 that eventually won the support of the majority of Macedonia's ethnic Albanian population and led to the internationally brokered Ohrid Framework Agreement, which ended the fighting and established guidelines for the creation of new laws that enhanced the rights of minorities. Fully implementing the Framework Agreement, maintaining momentum on democratic reforms, and stimulating economic growth and development continue to be challenges for Macedonia, although progress has been made over the past several years.

CIA's The World Factbook (2013)9

Book CoverDeep in the Balkan countryside, among slate-roofed villages, road-side cafes, lake panoramas and watermelon stalls, you find the soul of Macedonia. Macedonia is hard to beat. Part Balkan and part Mediterranean, and offering impressive ancient sites and buzzing modern nightlife, the country packs in much more action, activities and natural beauty than would seem possible for a place its size.

Easygoing Skopje remains one of Europe´s more unusual capitals, where constant urban renewal has made the city a continuous work in progress. With its hip cafes, restaurants, bars and clubs frequented by a large student population, Skopje is also emerging on the region´s entertainment scene.

In summer try hiking, mountain biking and climbing in remote mountains, some concealing medieval monasteries. Visit Ohrid, noted for its summer festival, sublime Byzantine churches and a large lake. Winter offers skiing at resorts such as Mavrovo, and food-and-grog festivities in the villages. Meeting the locals and partaking in the country´s living culture can be as memorable and rewarding as seeing the sights.

"The World" by Lonely Planet (2014)10

2. Macedonia National and Social Development

#human_development

UN HDI (2016)11
Pos.Lower is better
Rank11
1Norway1
2Australia2
3Switzerland2
...
79Brazil79
80Grenada79
81Bosnia & Herzegovina81
82Macedonia82
83Algeria83
84Armenia84
85Ukraine84
86Jordan86
World Avg94.3
q=188.
Social & Moral
Development Index
12
Pos.Higher is better
Points12
1Denmark84.2
2Sweden83.7
3Finland83.5
...
61Uzbekistan57.3
62Jamaica57.2
63Fiji57.2
64Macedonia57.0
65Bosnia & Herzegovina57.0
66Moldova57.0
67Brunei56.9
68Qatar56.9
World Avg54.1
q=198.

The United Nations produces an annual Human Development Report which includes the Human Development Index. The factors taken into account include life expectancy, education and schooling and Gross National Income (GNI) amongst many others..

The Social and Moral Development Index concentrates on moral issues and human rights, violence, public health, equality, tolerance, freedom and effectiveness in climate change mitigation and environmentalism, and on some technological issues. A country scores higher for achieving well in those areas, and for sustaining that achievement in the long term. Those countries towards the top of this index can truly said to be setting good examples and leading humankind onwards into a bright, humane, and free future. See: What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life.

3. Population and Demographics

#demographics #health #immigration #life_expectancy #overpopulation #population

Old-Age Dependency Ratio (2016)13
Pos.Lower is better
Per 10013
1Uganda04.3
2Mali04.5
3Chad04.7
...
132Uruguay26.8
133Cyprus26.9
134Chile27.0
135Macedonia27.7
136Luxembourg28.3
137Armenia28.7
138Thailand29.2
139Ireland29.2
World Avg18.3
q=185.
Emigrants (2010)14
Pos.
%14
1Dominica104.8
2Palestine68.4
3Samoa67.3
...
21Georgia25.1
22Kazakhstan23.6
23St Lucia23.3
24Macedonia21.9
25Sao Tome & Principe21.9
26Moldova21.5
27Fiji21.3
28Portugal20.8
World Avg11.5
q=192.
Fertility Rate (2013)15
Pos.2.0 is best15
1Korea, N.2.00
2Brunei1.99
3St Vincent & Grenadines2.01
...
99Japan1.40
100Poland1.40
101Nepal2.60
102Macedonia1.40
103Fiji2.61
104Korea, S.1.38
105Slovakia1.36
106Botswana2.64
World Avg2.81
q=180.

Immigrants (2010)14
Pos.
%14
1Qatar86.5
2Monaco71.6
3UAE70.0
...
69Italy7.4
70Montenegro6.8
71Burkina Faso6.4
72Macedonia6.3
73Namibia6.3
74St Lucia5.9
75Botswana5.8
76Bhutan5.7
World Avg9.2
q=192.
Life Expectancy (2015)16
Pos.Higher is better
Years16
1Hong Kong84.16
2Japan83.68
3Italy83.34
...
61Barbados75.77
62Iran75.58
63Bahamas75.56
64Macedonia75.53
65Turkey75.53
66Hungary75.31
67Nicaragua75.21
68St Lucia75.20
World Avg71.27
q=190.
Population (2012)17
Pos.The Overpopulation of the Earth17
1China1.4b
2India1.3b
3USA315.8m
...
140Namibia2.4m
141Latvia2.2m
142Lesotho2.2m
143Macedonia2.1m
144Botswana2.1m
145Slovenia2.0m
146Qatar1.9m
147Gambia1.8m
World Avg36.0m
q=195.

Macedonia's population is predicted to fall to 2 043 000 by 2030. Developed countries with falling populations face a pension's crises, whereby an incresingly ageing population must be cared for by fewer and fewer workers. Economic stability can be maintained by increasing foreign workers from younger countries. This country has a fertility rate of 1.40. The fertility rate is, in simple terms, the average amount of children that each woman has. The higher the figure, the quicker the population is growing, although, to calculate the rate you also need to take into account morbidity, i.e., the rate at which people die. If people live healthy and long lives and morbidity is low, then, 2.0 approximates to the replacement rate, which would keep the population stable. If all countries had such a fertility rate, population growth would end. The actual replacement rate in most developed countries is around 2.1.

4. Politics and Freedom

#burundi #corruption #eritrea #france #freedom #human_development #human_rights #indonesia #mass_media #peace #politics #slavery

Corruption (2012-2016)18
Pos.Higher is better
Avg Score18
1Denmark90.8
2New Zealand90.6
3Finland89.4
...
69S. Africa43.6
70Montenegro43.2
71Sao Tome & Principe42.8
72Macedonia42.2
73Solomon Islands42.0
74Greece41.8
75Senegal41.8
76Bulgaria41.4
World Avg43.05
q=176.
Global Peace Index (2012)19
Pos.Lower is better19
1Iceland1.11
2New Zealand1.24
3Denmark1.24
...
65Bosnia & Herzegovina1.92
66Moldova1.93
67Albania1.93
68Macedonia1.94
69Guyana1.94
70Cuba1.95
71Ukraine1.95
72Tunisia1.96
World Avg2.02
q=157.
Nominal Commitment to HR (2009)20
Pos.Higher is better
Treaties20
1Argentina24
2Chile23
3Costa Rica23
...
33Cyprus20
34Namibia20
35Ukraine20
36Macedonia20
37Slovakia20
38Honduras20
39S. Africa20
40Liechtenstein20
World Avg15.1
q=194.

Personal, Civil & Economic Freedom (2014)21
Pos.Lower is better
Rank21
1Hong Kong1
2Switzerland2
3New Zealand3
...
53Peru53
54Bosnia & Herzegovina54
55Armenia55
56Macedonia55
57Suriname55
58El Salvador58
59Ghana59
60Jamaica60
World Avg79.7
q=159.
Press Freedom (2013)22
Pos.Lower is better22
1Finland638
2Netherlands648
3Norway652
...
112Israel3297
113UAE3349
114Nigeria3411
115Macedonia3427
116Venezuela3444
117Nepal3461
118Ecuador3469
119Cameroon3478
World Avg3249
q=178.
Slavery (2018)23
Pos.Lower is better
% Victims23
1Japan0.03
2Canada0.05
3Taiwan0.05
...
140Guinea0.78
141Greece0.79
142Congo, (Brazzaville)0.80
143Macedonia0.87
144Swaziland0.88
145Thailand0.89
146Laos0.94
147Papua New Guinea1.03
World Avg0.65
q=167.

The taking of slaves has been an unwholesome feature of Human cultures since prehistory24. Private households and national endeavours have frequently been augmented with the use of slaves. The Egyptian and Roman empires both thrived on them for both purposes. Aside from labourers they are often abused sexually by their owners and their owners' friends25. The era of colonialism and the beginnings of globalisation changed nothing: the imprisonment and forced movements of labour continued to destroy many lives except that new justifications were invented based on Christian doctrine and the effort to convert non-Christians. By 1786 over 12 million slaves had been extracted from Africa and sent to colonial labour camps, with a truly atrocious condition of life26. But they were not the only ones to blame; in Africa internal nations such as the Asantes sold and bought tens of thousands of slaves27.

The abolition of the slave trade was a long and slow process. Until a relatively modern time, even philosophers, religious leaders and those concerned with ethics justified, or ignored, the problem of slavery28. The first abolitionists were always the slaves themselves. Their protests and rebellions caused the industry to become too expensive to continue. After that, it was the economic costs of maintain slave colonies that led the British to reject and then oppose the slave trade globally. Finally, the enlightenment-era thinkers of France encouraged moral and ethical thinking including the declaration of the inherent value of human life and human dignity29. A long-overdue wave of compassionate and conscientious movements swept across the West, eliminating public support for slavery, until the industries and churches that supported it had no choice but to back down.

'Modern slavery' includes forced labour (often of the under-age), debt bondage (especially generational), sexual slavery, chattel slavery and other forms of abuse, some of which can be surprisingly difficult to detect, but often target those fleeing from warzones and the vulnerable.30. Some industries (diamond, clothing, coal) from some countries (Burundi23, Eritrea23, Indonesia31) are a particular concern. The Walk Free Foundation, say that in 2016, 40.3 million people were living in modern slavery32.

5. Gender Equality

#gender #misogyny #politics #women

Gender Inequality (2015)33
Pos.Lower is better33
1Switzerland0.04
2Denmark0.04
3Netherlands0.04
...
33Montenegro0.16
34New Zealand0.16
35Bosnia & Herzegovina0.16
36Macedonia0.16
37China0.16
38Libya0.17
39Slovakia0.18
40Serbia0.18
World Avg0.36
q=159.
Year Women Can Vote34
Pos.Lower is better
Year34
1New Zealand1893
2Australia1902
3Finland1906
...
60Romania1946
61Panama1946
62Cameroon1946
63Macedonia1946
64Venezuela1946
65Guatemala1946
66Vietnam1946
67Trinidad & Tobago1946
World Avg1930
q=189.

Gender inequality is not a necessary part of early human development. Although a separation of roles is almost universal due to different strengths between the genders, this does not have to mean that women are subdued, and, such patriarchialism is not universal in ancient history. Those cultures and peoples who shed, or never developed, the idea that mankind ought to dominate womankind, are better cultures and peoples than those who, even today, cling violently to those mores.

Macedonia is on the way towards ending gender inequality.

See:

6. Religion and Beliefs

#buddhism #christianity #hinduism #islam #judaism #religion

Religiosity (2009)35
Pos.Lower is better
%35
1Estonia16
2Sweden17
3Denmark19
...
41Mexico73
42Poland75
43Cyprus75
44Macedonia76
45Bosnia & Herzegovina77
46Venezuela79
47Costa Rica79
48Turkmenistan80
World Avg75.1
q=114.

Data from the Pew Forum, a professional polling outfit, states that in 2010 the religious makeup of this country was as follows in the table below36:

Christian59.3%
Muslim39.3%
Hindu0.1%
Buddhist0.1%
Folk Religion0.1%
Jew0.1%
Unaffiliated1.4%

It appears that when asked "What religion are you" many give pollsters the 'correct' answer despite how they actually feel, and despite what they actually believe. Although 99% of the populace say they belong to a religion, only 76% say that they are religious when the question is phrased as "Is religion an important part of your daily life?".

For more on this phenomenon, see:

The CIA World Factbook has slightly different data, and states: Macedonian Orthodox 64.7%, Muslim 33.3%, other Christian 0.37%, other and unspecified 1.63% (2002 census)37.

Links:

7. The Internet

#internet #the_internet

Internet Users (2016)38
Pos.Higher is better38
1Iceland100%
2Faroe Islands99%
3Norway98%
...
55Russia71%
56Oman71%
57New Caledonia70%
58Macedonia69%
59Argentina69%
60Trinidad & Tobago69%
61Malaysia69%
62Greenland67%
World Avg48.1%
q=201.
IPv6 Uptake (2017)39
Pos.Higher is better
Ratio39
1Belgium55.4
2Germany41.8
3Switzerland35.1
...
80Liechtenstein0.0
81Cyprus0.0
82Philippines0.0
83Macedonia0.0
84Pakistan0.0
85Paraguay0.0
86Chile0.0
87US Virgin Islands0.0
World Avg3.82
q=176.

Internet access has become an essential research tool. It facilitates an endless list of life improvements, from the ability to network and socialize without constraint, to access to a seemingly infinite repository of technical and procedural information on pretty much any task. The universal availability of data has sped up industrial development and personal learning at the national and personal level. Individuals can read any topic they wish regardless of the locality of expert teachers, and, entire nations can develop their technology and understanding of the world simply because they are now exposed to advanced societies and moral discourses online. Like every communications medium, the Internet has issues and causes a small range of problems, but these are insignificant compared to the advantages of having an online populace.

8. Public Health Issues

#alcohol #health #mental_health #parenting #population #smoking #suicide #vaccines

Adolescent Birth Rate (2015)33
Pos.Lower is better
Per 100033
1Korea, N.0.5
2Korea, S.1.6
3Switzerland2.9
...
54Myanmar (Burma)16.5
55Malta16.6
56Kiribati17.2
57Macedonia17.6
58Uzbekistan17.7
59Hungary18.0
60Belarus18.2
61Serbia19.0
World Avg47.9
q=185.
Alcohol Consumption (2010)40
Pos.Lower is better
Per Capita40
1Libya0.1
2Pakistan0.1
3Kuwait0.1
...
102China6.7
103Italy6.7
104Trinidad & Tobago6.7
105Macedonia6.7
106Burkina Faso6.8
107Barbados6.8
108Mongolia6.9
109Cape Verde6.9
World Avg6.2
q=191.
Food Aid, Health Contributions & WHO Compliance (2017)41
Pos.Lower is better
Rank41
1Sweden1
2Ireland2
3Denmark3
...
31Armenia31
32Bangladesh32
33Hungary33
34Macedonia34
35India35
36Fiji36
37Thailand37
38Pakistan38
World Avg82.0
q=163.

Infant Immunizations 2011-2015 (2015)42
Pos.Higher is better
Avg %42
1Hungary99.0
2China99.0
3Uzbekistan98.9
...
66Israel95.2
67Grenada95.2
68Slovenia95.2
69Macedonia95.2
70Belize95.1
71Algeria95.0
72Tuvalu94.9
73Eritrea94.7
World Avg88.3
q=194.
Smoking Rates (2014)43
Pos.Lower is better43
1Guinea 15
2Solomon Islands 26
3Kiribati 28
...
175Luxembourg2 284
176Belgium2 353
177Slovenia2 637
178Russia2 690
179Macedonia2 732
180Lebanon3 023
181Belarus3 831
182Montenegro4 125
World Avg 819
q=182.
Suicide Rate (2013)44
Pos.Lower is better
Per 100k44
1Haiti0
2Grenada0
3Egypt0.1
...
34Nicaragua11.6
35Costa Rica12.1
36Italy12.8
37Macedonia13.5
38Mauritius13.7
39UK13.9
40Ecuador14.1
41Spain15.3
World Avg20.93
q=91.

9. More Charts and Comparisons to Other Countries

Personal Charitability
(World Position, 2013-2016)
45
Pos.Lower is better45
1Myanmar (Burma)1.25
2USA1.5
3New Zealand3.5
...
107Burkina Faso93.75
108Belarus94.75
109Poland96.5
110Macedonia98.75
111Romania99.75
112Cambodia99.75
113Ukraine100
q=156.
Intellectual Endeavours (2017)41
Pos.Lower is better
Rank41
1Ukraine1
2Czechia2
3Hungary3
...
16Bosnia & Herzegovina16
17Sweden17
18Lithuania18
19Macedonia19
20Australia20
21Germany21
22Grenada22
q=163.
Creativity and Culture (2017)41
Pos.Lower is better
Rank41
1Belgium1
2Netherlands2
3Estonia3
...
52Bahamas52
53UAE53
54Thailand54
55Macedonia55
56Mauritania56
57India57
58Philippines58
q=163.
Peacekeeping and Security (2017)41
Pos.Lower is better
Rank41
1Samoa1
2S. Africa2
3Tunisia3
...
132Belarus132
133Portugal133
134El Salvador134
135Macedonia135
136Armenia136
137Dominica137
138Cape Verde138
q=163.
Refugees and UN Treaties (2017)41
Pos.Lower is better
Rank41
1Austria1
2Germany2
3Netherlands3
...
51Dominican Rep.51
52Slovakia52
53UAE53
54Macedonia54
55Zambia55
56Lithuania56
57Ukraine57
q=163.
Open Trading, Aid and Development (2017)41
Pos.Lower is better
Rank41
1Ireland1
2Denmark2
3Sweden3
...
71Montenegro71
72Ukraine72
73Chile73
74Macedonia74
75Oman75
76Dominican Rep.76
77Slovenia77
q=163.
Research and Development (2016)
Pos.Higher is better
% RDP PPP
1Korea, S.4.29
2Israel4.11
3Japan3.58
...
62Costa Rica0.47
63Qatar0.47
64Cuba0.47
65Macedonia0.44
66Puerto Rico0.44
67Jordan0.43
68Mozambique0.42
69Thailand0.39
q=126.
Life Satisfaction (2011)46
Pos.Higher is better46
1Denmark7.8
2Norway7.6
3Netherlands7.6
...
119Tajikistan4.3
120Georgia4.2
121Uganda4.2
122Macedonia4.2
123Ivory Coast4.2
124Cambodia4.2
125Angola4.2
126Sri Lanka4.2
q=150.
Gross National Income Per-Capita (2011)16
Pos.Higher is better
PPP $16
1Qatar$129 916
2Singapore$78 162
3Kuwait$76 075
...
84Lebanon$13 312
85Colombia$12 762
86Dominican Rep.$12 756
87Macedonia$12 405
88Serbia$12 202
89S. Africa$12 087
90Nauru$12 058
91Iraq$11 608
q=193.
Environmental Performance (2018)47
Pos.Higher is better47
1Switzerland87.4
2France84.0
3Denmark81.6
...
65Montenegro61.3
66Egypt61.2
67Lebanon61.1
68Macedonia61.1
69Brazil60.7
70Sri Lanka60.6
71Equatorial Guinea60.4
72Mexico59.7
q=180.
LGBT Equality (2017)48
Pos.Higher is better
Score48
1Netherlands103
2Belgium90
3Sweden86
...
68Ukraine25
69Mongolia25
70Liechtenstein25
71Macedonia25
72Cape Verde25
73Moldova25
74Turkey25
75Latvia25
q=196.

Current edition: 2013 May 01
Last Modified: 2017 Jun 21
http://www.humantruth.info/macedonia.html
Parent page: Compare International Statistics by Region and Continent

All #tags used on this page - click for more:

#alcohol #buddhism #burundi #charity #christianity #corruption #demographics #economics #eritrea #france #freedom #gender #happiness #health #hinduism #homosexuality #human_development #human_rights #immigration #indonesia #internet #islam #judaism #life_expectancy #mass_media #mental_health #misogyny #morals #overpopulation #parenting #peace #politics #population #religion #research #science #slavery #smoking #suicide #the_environment #the_internet #vaccines #women

Social Media

References: (What's this?)

The Good Country Index. Published by The Good Country Inc., New York, USA. Website: goodcountry.org. The Good Country Index gauges how well countries are doing in helping international development. Edition 1.2 (2017) has 35 criteria.

Casely-Hayford, Gus
(2012) The Lost Kingdoms of Africa. Published by Bantram Press. A hardback book.

Charities Aid Foundation
World Giving Index. On www.cafonline.org.

CIA
(2013) World Factbook. The USA Government's Central Intelligence Agency (USA CIA) publishes The World Factbook, and the online version is frequently updated.

Crabtree, Vexen
(2018) "What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life" (2018). Accessed 2018 Aug 22.

The Fraser Institute
(2016) The Human Freedom Index. Published by The Cato Institute, The Fraser Institute and the Friedrich Naumann Foundation for Freedom. Covers data up to 2014. On www.fraserinstitute.org/.../human-freedom-index-2016.

Gallup
(2009) Religiosity. gallup.com/poll/142727/.... The survey question was "Is religion an important part of your daily life?" and results are charted for those who said "yes". 1000 adults were polled in each of 114 countries.

Klein, Naomi
(2004) No Logo. Originally published 2000, HarperCollins, London, UK. A paperback book.

Lonely Planet
(2014) The World. Subtitled: "A Traveller's Guide to the Planet". Published by Lonely Planet, London, UK. Each chapter is devoted to a specific country and includes a list of the most interesting places to visit and a few other cultural notes.

McCall, Andrew
(1979) The Medieval Underworld. 2004 edition. Published by Sutton Publishing. A paperback book.

Thomson, Oliver
(1993) A History of Sin. Published by Canongate Press. A hardback book.

United Nations
(2011) Human Development Report. Published by the UN Development Programme. This edition had the theme of Sustainability and Equity: A Better Future for All. Available on hdr.undp.org/... UN Development Program: About the Human Development Index.
(2013) Human Development Report. Published by the UN Development Programme. This edition had the theme of The Rise of the South: Human Progress in a Diverse World. Available on hdr.undp.org/... UN Development Program: About the Human Development Index.
(2017) Human Development Report. Published by the UN Development Programme. Data for 2015. Available on hdr.undp.org/.

Walk Free Foundation
(2018) Global Slavery Index. Published on www.walkfreefoundation.org/.

World Health Organisation. (WHO)
(2014) Global Status Report on Alcohol and Health. A copy can be found on the WHO website. Accessed 2015 Jan 04. It "presents a comprehensive perspective on the global, regional and country consumption of alcohol, patterns of drinking, health consequences and policy responses in Member States" and was published in Geneva on 2014 May 12.

Footnotes

  1. World Bank data on data.worldbank.org accessed 2013 Nov 04.^
  2. UN (2011) .^
  3. UN (2017). Table 1.^
  4. UN (2017). Gross National Income, per person. Table 1.^
  5. International Standards Organisation (ISO) standard ISO3166-1, on www.iso.org, accessed 2013 May 01.^
  6. Top level domains (TLDs) are managed by the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) on www.iana.org.^
  7. According to ISO4217.^
  8. According to ITU-T.^
  9. CIA (2013). Https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/mk.html accessed 2014 Apr 27.^
  10. Lonely Planet (2014). Chapter "Macedonia".^
  11. UN (2017). Table 1. Lower is better.^
  12. "What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life" by Vexen Crabtree (2018)^
  13. UN (2017). Dashboard 2. Higher is worse. Old-age is counted as 65+, and ratio is of these to people ages 15-64. Projections are for 2030 based on medium-fertility variant of growth.^
  14. UN (2013). Table 11.^
  15. UN (2013). Table 14. Births per woman (2012), expressed as deviance (positive or negative) from the value of 2.0.^
  16. UN (2017). Table 1. Higher is better.^^
  17. UN (2013). Table 14.^
  18. Transparency International Corruption Perceptions Index (2017). Accessed 2017 Dec 30. The scores given are the TI average for the years 2012-2016.^
  19. ^
  20. Max possible=24. Total amount of treaties ratified. Nominal Commitment to Human Rights report published by UCL School of Public Policy, London, UK, at ucl.ac.uk/spp/research/research-projects/nchr accessed 2011 Apr 30.^
  21. Fraser Institute, the (2016). Covers data for 2014.^
  22. Reporters Without Borders Report "2013 World Press Freedom Index: Dashed hopes after spring" at fr.rsf.org/.../classement_2013_gb-bd.pdf accessed 2013 Feb.^
  23. Walk Free Foundation (2018) .^
  24. Thomson (1993). P28.^
  25. McCall (1979). P180.^
  26. Thomson (1993). P166.^
  27. Casely-Hayford (2012). P253.^
  28. Thomson (1993). P31.^
  29. Thomson (1993). P199.^
  30. Thomson (1993). P28-29.^
  31. Klein (2004) .^
  32. Walk Free Foundation (2018). P2.^
  33. UN (2017). Table 5. Lower is better.^^
  34. "What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life: 2.6. Women Stand for Election & Vote" by Vexen Crabtree (2018)^
  35. Gallup (2009) .^
  36. Pew Forum (2012) publication "The Global Religious Landscape: A Report on the Size and Distribution of the World´s Major Religious Groups as of 2010" (2012 Dec 18) accessed 2013 May 01.^
  37. CIA (2013). Https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/ar.html accessed 2014 Apr 27.^
  38. internetlivestats.com/internet-users-by-country accessed 2017 Mar 10.^
  39. % of internet access via native IPv6 compared to IPv4. As of 2017 Jun 20, from http://www.cidr-report.org. Accessed 2017 Jun 20.^
  40. WHO (2014). Appendix 1. Alcohol Per Capita Consumption in liters of pure alcohol, 15+ years age population, consumed in 2010. Lower is better.^
  41. The Good Country Index (2017) .^^
  42. World Health Organisation data for 2011-2015 from 7 data series accessed 2017 May 21. Details in "Immunizations: International Statistics on Vaccines and the Autism Scare: 3. World Health Organisation Statistics" by Vexen Crabtree (2017).^
  43. Annual Cigarette Consumption Per Adult (age 15 and above) - compustible cigarettes. Euromonitor International (2014), via tobaccoatlas.org/topic/cigarette-use-globally/ . Accessed 2017 Jun 20.^
  44. UN (2013). World Health Organisation statistics. Suicide Rates Per 100k.^
  45. Charities Aid Foundation. Average ranking across years 2013-2016. Lower is better.^
  46. UN (2013). Table 9. Higher is better. Table 9. The UN's data is the latest available from a range of data from 2007-2011.^
  47. Yale University Center for Environmental Law & Policy 2018 EPI.^
  48. Sources:^

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