The Human Truth Foundation

Rwanda (Republic of Rwanda)

By Vexen Crabtree 2013

#rwanda #UK

Rwanda
Republic of Rwanda
StatusIndependent State
Social and Moral Index135th best
CapitalKigali
Land Area 24 670km21
LocationAfrica
Population12.3m2
Life Expectancy64.75yrs (2017)3
GNI$1 617 (2017)4
ISO3166-1 CodesRW, RWA, 6465
Internet Domain.rw6
CurrencyFranc (RWF)7
Telephone+2508

1. Overview

In 1959, three years before independence from Belgium, the majority ethnic group, the Hutus, overthrew the ruling Tutsi king. Over the next several years, thousands of Tutsis were killed, and some 150,000 driven into exile in neighboring countries. The children of these exiles later formed a rebel group, the Rwandan Patriotic Front (RPF), and began a civil war in 1990. The war, along with several political and economic upheavals, exacerbated ethnic tensions, culminating in April 1994 in a state-orchestrated genocide, in which Rwandans killed up to a million of their fellow citizens, including approximately three-quarters of the Tutsi population. The genocide ended later that same year when the predominantly Tutsi RPF, operating out of Uganda and northern Rwanda, defeated the national army and Hutu militias, and established an RPF-led government of national unity. Approximately 2 million Hutu refugees - many fearing Tutsi retribution - fled to neighboring Burundi, Tanzania, Uganda, and former Zaire. Since then, most of the refugees have returned to Rwanda, but several thousand remained in the neighboring Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC, the former Zaire) and formed an extremist insurgency bent on retaking Rwanda, much as the RPF did in 1990. Rwanda held its first local elections in 1999 and its first post-genocide presidential and legislative elections in 2003. Rwanda in 2009 staged a joint military operation with the Congolese Army in DRC to rout out the Hutu extremist insurgency there, and Kigali and Kinshasa restored diplomatic relations. Rwanda also joined the Commonwealth in late 2009. In January 2013, Rwanda assumed a nonpermanent seat on the UN Security Council for the 2013-14 term.

CIA's The World Factbook (2013)9

Book CoverWhile the scars still run deep, Rwanda has done a remarkable job of healing its wounds and turning towards the future with a surprising measure of optimism. Mention Rwanda to anyone with a small measure of geopolitical conscience, and they´ll no doubt recall images of the horrific genocide that brutalised this tiny country in 1994 when, in the span of just three months, nearly one million Tutsis and moderate Hutus were systematically butchered. But since those dark days a miraculous transformation has been wrought and today the country is one of ethnic unity and relative political stability, and a new-found air of optimism pervades the country.

Tourism is once again a key contributor to the economy and the industry´s brightest star is the chance to track rare mountain gorillas through bamboo forests in the shadow of the Virunga volcanoes. Of course, `Le Pays des Mille Collines´ (the Land of a Thousand Hills) isn´t all monkey business: Rwanda is a lush country of endless mountains and stunning scenery. The shores of Lake Kivu conceal some of Africa´s best inland beaches, while Parc National Nyungwe Forest protects extensive tracts of montane rainforest.

"The World" by Lonely Planet (2014)10

2. Rwanda National and Social Development

#economics #human_development

UN HDI (2016)11
Pos.Lower is better
Rank11
1Norway1
2Australia2
3Switzerland2
...
156Solomon Islands156
157Mauritania157
158Madagascar158
159Rwanda159
160Comoros160
161Lesotho160
162Senegal162
163Uganda163
World Avg94.3
q=188.
Gross National Income Per-Capita (2011)12
Pos.Higher is better
PPP $12
1Qatar$129 916
2Singapore$78 162
3Kuwait$76 075
...
170Afghanistan$1 871
171Uganda$1 670
172Haiti$1 657
173Rwanda$1 617
174Zimbabwe$1 588
175Solomon Islands$1 561
176Gambia$1 541
177Burkina Faso$1 537
World Avg$17 240
q=193.
Social & Moral
Development Index
13,14
Pos.Lower is better
Avg Rank13,14
1Taiwan30.2
2Denmark30.5
3Norway30.9
...
132Zambia100.3
133Namibia100.8
134Botswana101.4
135Rwanda101.5
136Samoa102.7
137Vanuatu103.5
138Lesotho104.3
139Tanzania104.4
World Avg86.4
q=195.

The United Nations produces an annual Human Development Report which includes the Human Development Index. The factors taken into account include life expectancy, education and schooling and Gross National Income (GNI) amongst many others..

The Social and Moral Development Index concentrates on moral issues and human rights, violence, public health, equality, tolerance, freedom and effectiveness in climate change mitigation and environmentalism, and on some technological issues. A country scores higher for achieving well in those areas, and for sustaining that achievement in the long term. Those countries towards the top of this index can truly said to be setting good examples and leading humankind onwards into a bright, humane, and free future. See: Which are the Best Countries in the World? The Social and Moral Development Index.

3. Rwanda's Demographics

#birth_control #demographics #health #immigration #life_expectancy #longevity #migration #overpopulation #population

Population:

Rwanda's population is predicted to rise to 17.58 million by 2030. These millions of extra people will all need space to live, food to eat, energy to consume, and will increase the burden on the planet's resources. This country has a fertility rate of 5.30. The fertility rate is, in simple terms, the average amount of children that each woman has. The higher the figure, the quicker the population is growing, although, to calculate the rate you also need to take into account morbidity, i.e., the rate at which people die. If people live healthy and long lives and morbidity is low, then, 2.0 approximates to the replacement rate, which would keep the population stable. If all countries had such a fertility rate, population growth would end. The actual replacement rate in most developed countries is around 2.1.

Population (2018)2
Pos.
Population2
1China1.4b
2India1.4b
3USA327.1m
...
72Somalia15.0m
73Zimbabwe14.4m
74Guinea12.4m
75Rwanda12.3m
76Tunisia11.6m
77Benin11.5m
78Belgium11.5m
79Bolivia11.4m
World Avg39.0m
q=195.
Life Expectancy (2015)12
Pos.Higher is better
Years12
1Hong Kong84.16
2Japan83.68
3Italy83.34
...
144Tanzania65.51
145Namibia65.06
146Gabon64.94
147Rwanda64.75
148Ethiopia64.60
149Botswana64.51
150Eritrea64.19
151Yemen64.05
World Avg71.27
q=190.
Fertility Rate (2013)15
Pos.2.0 is best15
1N. Korea2.00
2Brunei1.99
3St Vincent & Grenadines2.01
...
164Liberia5.08
165Benin5.12
166Angola5.19
167Rwanda5.30
168Nigeria5.45
169Tanzania5.51
170Congo, DR5.54
171Burkina Faso5.77
World Avg2.81
q=180.
Old-Age Dependency Ratio (2016)16
Pos.Lower is better
Per 10016
1Uganda04.3
2Mali04.5
3Chad04.7
...
45Kuwait06.8
46Congo, (Brazzaville)07.0
47Solomon Islands07.0
48Rwanda07.0
49Namibia07.4
50Botswana07.7
51UAE07.7
52Oman07.8
World Avg18.3
q=185.

Migration:

Immigrants (2017)17
Pos.
%17
1UAE88.4%
2Kuwait75.5%
3Qatar65.2%
...
97Trinidad & Tobago3.7%
98Togo3.6%
99Uzbekistan3.6%
100Rwanda3.6%
101Moldova3.5%
102Slovakia3.4%
103Turkmenistan3.4%
104Iran3.3%
World Avg9.4%
q=195.
Emigrants (2010)18
Pos.
%18
1Dominica104.8%
2Palestine68.4%
3Samoa67.3%
...
143Angola2.8%
144France2.8%
145Costa Rica2.7%
146Rwanda2.6%
147Pakistan2.5%
148Vietnam2.5%
149Niger2.4%
150Argentina2.4%
World Avg11.5%
q=192.

4. Human Rights, Equality & Tolerance

#equality #freedom #human_rights #politics #rwanda #tolerance

Rwanda is generally poor at ensuring human rights and freedom compared to the rest of the world. Rwanda does worse than average in opposing gender inequality19 (still low for Africa), supporting personal, civil & economic freedoms20 (still good for Africa), commentary in Human Rights Watch reports21 and in LGBT equality22 (still good for Africa). And finally, it sits amongst the bottom 20 for supporting press freedom23. After many years of state "intimidation and interference", human rights and civil organisations in Rwanda are unable to operate and unable to document human rights abuses24. Likewise, political opponents to President Paul Kagame are intimidated and presented with enough barriers to make them unable to operate or campaign24. The police have been arresting and executing people even for minor crimes, and holding many people in unofficial detention centres where some prisoners are tortured, leading to human-rights aware countries such as the UK to deny extradition of wanted people to Rwanda.24.

For tables, charts and commentary, see:

5. Rwanda's Health

#alcohol #birth_control #demographics #health #life_expectancy #longevity #obesity #overpopulation #parenting #population #Rwanda #smoking #vaccines

Health (2020)25,26
Pos.Lower is better
Avg Rank25,26
1Hong Kong18.0
2Singapore41.5
3Maldives43.3
...
93Costa Rica91.9
94Lebanon92.3
95Georgia92.4
96Rwanda92.4
97Mongolia92.5
98Ethiopia92.9
99Latvia93.8
100Mexico93.8
101St Vincent & Grenadines93.9
World Avg92.3
q=187.

The countries with the best overall approach to public health, in terms of both public policy and individual lifestyle choices, are Hong Kong, Singapore and The Maldives25. These countries are worth emulating. And, although often through no fault of the average citizen, the worst countries are S. Sudan, Nigeria and Equatorial Guinea25.

The data sets used to calculate points for each country are its average life expectancy, its alcohol consumption rate, its fertility rate, its smoking rate, its suicide rate, its food aid and health contributions and WHO compliance, the prevalence of overweight adults, its adolescent birth rate and its immunizations take-up. The regions with the best average results per country are Scandinavia, Asia and Europe25, whereas the worst are Africa, Micronesia and Polynesia25.

Health:

Rwanda has some poor policies and cultural issues which cause some public health problems. Rwanda comes in the best 20 in its smoking rate27 (one of the best in Africa). It does better than average in terms of its immunizations take-up28 and in its adolescent birth rate19. Rwanda does not succeed in everything, however. It does worse than average in its alcohol consumption rate29, its food aid and health contributions and WHO compliance30 and in its average life expectancy12 (still high for Africa). And finally, it sits amongst the bottom 20 in terms of its fertility rate15. The prevalence of overweight adults has increased by 14% between 1976 and 2016.
Life Expectancy (2015)12
Pos.Higher is better
Years12
1Hong Kong84.16
2Japan83.68
3Italy83.34
...
144Tanzania65.51
145Namibia65.06
146Gabon64.94
147Rwanda64.75
148Ethiopia64.60
149Botswana64.51
150Eritrea64.19
151Yemen64.05
World Avg71.27
q=190.
Alcohol Consumption (2016)29
Pos.Lower is better
Per Capita29
1Bangladesh0.0
2Kuwait0.0
3Libya0.0
...
132Croatia8.9
133Cameroon8.9
134Canada8.9
135Rwanda9.0
136Iceland9.1
137Sweden9.2
138Chile9.3
139Grenada9.3
World Avg6.2
q=189.
Fertility Rate (2013)15
Pos.2.0 is best15
1N. Korea2.00
2Brunei1.99
3St Vincent & Grenadines2.01
...
164Liberia5.08
165Benin5.12
166Angola5.19
167Rwanda5.30
168Nigeria5.45
169Tanzania5.51
170Congo, DR5.54
171Burkina Faso5.77
World Avg2.81
q=180.
Smoking Rates (2014)27
Pos.Higher is worse27
182Montenegro4 125
181Belarus3 831
180Lebanon3 023
...
8Ethiopia 76
7Congo, DR 74
6Samoa 54
5Rwanda 53
4Uganda 41
3Kiribati 28
2Solomon Islands 26
1Guinea 15
World Avg 819
q=182.
Food Aid, Health Contributions & WHO Compliance (2017)30
Pos.Lower is better
Rank30
1Sweden1
2Ireland2
3Denmark3
...
138Albania138
139Ghana139
140Chad140
141Rwanda141
142Mali142
143Niger143
144Marshall Islands144
145Botswana145
World Avg82.0
q=163.
Overweight Adults (2016)31
Pos.Lower is better
%31
1Vietnam18.3
2India19.7
3Bangladesh20.0
...
16Malawi23.4
17Madagascar23.9
18Myanmar (Burma)24.8
19Rwanda25.1
20Congo, DR25.3
21Laos25.4
22Kenya25.5
23Central African Rep.26.2
World Avg49.0
q=191.

Children's Health:

Adolescent Birth Rate (2015)19
Pos.Lower is better
Per 100019
1N. Korea0.5
2S. Korea1.6
3Switzerland2.9
...
73Ukraine24.1
74India24.5
75Samoa25.0
76Rwanda26.3
77Iran26.7
78Turkey27.6
79Kazakhstan27.9
80Burundi28.3
World Avg47.9
q=185.
Infant Immunizations 2011-2015 (2015)28
Pos.Higher is better
Avg %28
1Hungary99.0
2China99.0
3Uzbekistan98.9
...
45Bahamas96.2
46Maldives96.2
47Tajikistan96.1
48Rwanda96.1
49Sao Tome & Principe96.0
50Malaysia96.0
51Croatia95.9
52Nicaragua95.9
World Avg88.3
q=194.

6. Rwanda's Modernity and Learning

#education #intelligence #it_security #modernity #politics #religion #technology #the_internet

Modernity and Learning (2020)32
Pos.Lower is better
Avg Rank32
1Finland8.0
2Belgium9.1
3Denmark10.0
...
121Marshall Islands86.8
122Samoa86.8
123Zambia89.0
124Rwanda89.1
125Algeria89.6
126Guatemala89.9
127Senegal90.0
128Sudan90.9
129Paraguay91.3
World Avg69.0
q=180.

Modernity and Education:

Secondary Education (2018)33
Pos.Higher is better33
1Luxembourg100.0%
2Estonia100.0%
3Austria100.0%
...
157Senegal17.6%
158Sudan17.5%
159Ethiopia17.1%
160Rwanda16.3%
161Tanzania14.3%
162Mali13.1%
163Papua New Guinea12.5%
164Bhutan12.0%
World Avg63.0%
q=169.
Length of Schooling (2018)34
Pos.Higher is better
Years34
1Australia22.1
2Belgium19.7
3Finland19.3
...
148Uganda11.2
149Comoros11.2
150Bangladesh11.2
151Rwanda11.2
152Iraq11.1
153Kenya11.1
154Laos11.1
155Malawi11.0
World Avg13.2
q=193.
Intellectual Endeavours (2017)30
Pos.Lower is better
Rank30
1Ukraine1
2Czechia2
3Hungary3
...
115Bahrain115
116Kazakhstan116
117Sri Lanka117
118Rwanda118
119Guatemala119
120Niger120
121El Salvador121
122Dominican Rep.122
World Avg82.0
q=163.
Religiosity (2009)35
Pos.Lower is better
%35
1Estonia16
2Sweden17
3Denmark19
...
90Mali95
91Chad95
92Algeria95
93Rwanda95
94Cambodia96
95Senegal96
96Philippines96
97Nigeria96
World Avg75.1
q=114.
IQ (2006)36
Pos.Higher is better36
1Hong Kong108
2Singapore108
3S. Korea106
...
112Namibia70
113Togo70
114Botswana70
115Rwanda70
116Benin70
117Ivory Coast69
118Malawi69
119Niger69
World Avg85.6
q=138.

Technology and Information:

Internet Users (2016)37
Pos.Higher is better37
1Iceland100%
2Faroe Islands99%
3Norway98%
...
167Bangladesh13%
168Iraq13%
169Kiribati13%
170Rwanda12%
171Mali12%
172Haiti12%
173Papua New Guinea12%
174Djibouti12%
World Avg48.1%
q=201.
Freedom On The Internet (2012)38
Pos.Lower is better38
1Estonia10
2USA12
3Germany15
...
26Tunisia46
27Venezuela48
28Azerbaijan50
29Rwanda51
30Russia52
31Zimbabwe54
32Sri Lanka55
33Kazakhstan58
World Avg46.7
q=47.
IT Security (2013)39
Pos.Lower is better39
1Ireland0.11
2Luxembourg0.11
3Belize0.11
...
66Afghanistan1.45
67Germany1.46
68Netherlands1.47
69Rwanda1.50
70Tanzania1.50
71Maldives1.57
72China1.59
73Angola1.61
World Avg0.98
q=81.

7. National Culture

#charity #corruption #happiness #morals #politics

Personal Charitability
(World Position, 2013-2016)
40
Pos.Lower is better40
1Myanmar (Burma)1.25
2USA1.5
3New Zealand3.5
...
142Tunisia121
143Montenegro121.75
144Bulgaria122
145Rwanda122.75
146Serbia125
147Russia126
148Lithuania126.25
149Armenia126.25
World Avg68.1185897435897
q=156.
Corruption (2012-2016)41
Pos.Higher is better
Avg Score41
1Denmark90.8
2New Zealand90.6
3Finland89.4
...
47S. Korea54.6
48Latvia54.0
49Mauritius54.0
50Rwanda52.6
51Hungary52.4
52Georgia52.4
53Czechia51.8
54Malaysia50.0
World Avg43.05
q=176.
Happiness (2018)42
Pos.Higher is better42
1Finland7.6
2Norway7.6
3Denmark7.6
...
148Haiti3.6
149Liberia3.5
150Syria3.5
151Rwanda3.4
152Yemen3.4
153Tanzania3.3
154S. Sudan3.3
155Central African Rep.3.1
World Avg5.38
q=156.
Creativity and Culture (2017)30
Pos.Lower is better
Rank30
1Belgium1
2Netherlands2
3Estonia3
...
156Iraq156
157Iran157
158Gabon158
159Central African Rep.159
160Burundi160
161Rwanda161
162Congo, DR162
163Libya163
World Avg82.0
q=163.
Open Trading, Aid and Development (2017)30
Pos.Lower is better
Rank30
1Ireland1
2Denmark2
3Sweden3
...
51Niger51
52Sri Lanka52
53Haiti53
54Rwanda54
55Swaziland55
56Luxembourg56
57Mali57
58El Salvador58
World Avg82.0
q=163.

8. Peace Versus Instability

#extremism #human_development #peace #politics #religious_violence #terrorism

Global Peace Index (2012)43
Pos.Lower is better43
1Iceland1.11
2New Zealand1.24
3Denmark1.24
...
115Niger2.24
116Turkmenistan2.24
117Bahrain2.25
118Rwanda2.25
119Kenya2.25
120Algeria2.26
121Eritrea2.26
122Venezuela2.28
World Avg2.02
q=157.
Peacekeeping and Security (2017)30
Pos.Lower is better
Rank30
1Samoa1
2S. Africa2
3Tunisia3
...
26Sri Lanka26
27Netherlands27
28Mongolia28
29Rwanda29
30Paraguay30
31Jordan31
32India32
33New Zealand33
World Avg82.0
q=163.
Refugees and UN Treaties (2017)30
Pos.Lower is better
Rank30
1Austria1
2Germany2
3Netherlands3
...
141Mongolia141
142Syria142
143Mauritania143
144Rwanda144
145Chad145
146Central African Rep.146
147El Salvador147
148Bahamas148
World Avg82.0
q=163.
Impact of Terrorism (2019)44
Pos.Lower is better
Score44
1Togo0.00
2Mongolia0.00
3Swaziland0.00
...
82Ireland2.69
83Zimbabwe2.83
84Peru2.84
85Rwanda2.95
86Nicaragua2.95
87Jordan3.09
88Italy3.11
89Paraguay3.12
World Avg2.78
q=150.

9. The Natural Environment

#biodiversity #climate_change #over-exploitation #the_environment

Forest Area Change 1990-2015 (2015)45
Pos.Higher is better
%45
1Iceland205.6
2Bahrain144.4
3Uruguay131.3
...
9Tunisia61.9
10Cuba56.9
11Cape Verde55.7
12Rwanda50.9
13Bhutan34.7
14Azerbaijan34.6
15Spain33.2
16China32.6
World Avg02.8
q=184.
Environmental Performance (2018)46
Pos.Higher is better46
1Switzerland87.4
2France84.0
3Denmark81.6
...
145Uganda44.3
146Comoros44.2
147Mali43.7
148Rwanda43.7
149Zimbabwe43.4
150Cambodia43.2
151Solomon Islands43.2
152Iraq43.2
World Avg56.4
q=180.
Convention on Biological Diversity
Pos.Earlier is better
Signed
1China1993 Dec 29
2Guinea1993 Dec 29
3Cook Islands1993 Dec 29
...
146Eritrea1996 Jun 19
147Ireland1996 Jun 20
148Bulgaria1996 Jul 16
149Rwanda1996 Aug 27
150St Vincent & Grenadines1996 Sep 01
151Slovenia1996 Oct 07
152Cyprus1996 Oct 08
153Trinidad & Tobago1996 Oct 30
World Avg1899 Dec 30
q=197.
Rational Beliefs on the Environment (2011)47
Pos.Higher is better
%47
1Argentina78.3%
2Greece77.6%
3Brazil77.1%
...
78Namibia36.6%
79Germany36.1%
80Montenegro35.9%
81Rwanda35.8%
82Romania33.4%
83Luxembourg33.3%
84Togo33.3%
85Benin32.6%
World Avg39.9%
q=145.

10. Economic Inequality and Poverty

#capitalism #economics #health #inequality #life_expectancy #poverty #social_development

Inequality in Life Expectancy (2019)48
Pos.Higher is worse48
184Chad40.90
183Central African Rep.40.10
182Sierra Leone39.00
...
133Senegal21.20
132Madagascar21.10
131India19.70
130Rwanda19.50
129Botswana19.40
128S. Africa19.20
127Guyana19.00
126Cambodia18.10
World Avg14.59
q=184.
Income Inequality (Gini Coefficient) (2017)49
Pos.Lower is better
%49
1Ukraine25.0
2Belarus25.4
3Slovenia25.4
...
119Peru43.3
120Mexico43.4
121Ghana43.5
122Rwanda43.7
123Bolivia44.0
124Ecuador44.7
125Malawi44.7
126Comoros45.3
World Avg38.1
q=152.
Multidimensional Poverty (2018)50
Pos.Lower is better
Severity50
1Armenia.001
2Ukraine.001
3Serbia.001
...
72Cameroon.243
73Malawi.243
74Togo.249
75Rwanda.259
76Mauritania.261
77Zambia.261
78Uganda.269
79Afghanistan.272
World Avg.154
q=101.

11. Religion and Beliefs

#belief #buddhism #christianity #god #hinduism #islam #judaism #religion

Religiosity (2009)35
Pos.Lower is better
%35
1Estonia16
2Sweden17
3Denmark19
...
90Mali95
91Chad95
92Algeria95
93Rwanda95
94Cambodia96
95Senegal96
96Philippines96
97Nigeria96
World Avg75.1
q=114.
Disbelief In God (2007)51
Pos.Higher is better
%51
1Vietnam81
2Japan65
3Sweden64
...
121Pakistan0
122Niger0
123Saudi Arabia0
124Rwanda0
125Cameroon0
126Philippines0
127Kuwait0
128Madagascar0
World Avg9.9
q=137.

Data from the Pew Forum, a professional polling outfit, states that in 2010 the religious makeup of this country was as follows in the table below52:

Christian93.4%
Muslim1.8%
Hindu0.1%
Buddhist0.1%
Folk Religion1%
Jew0.1%
Unaffiliated3.6%

The CIA World Factbook has slightly different data, and states: Roman Catholic 56.5%, Protestant 26%, Adventist 11.1%, Muslim 4.6%, indigenous beliefs 0.1%, none 1.7% (2001)53.

Links: