The Human Truth Foundation

The United States of America

By Vexen Crabtree 2013


Comments:
FB, LJ

#atheism #charity #economics #egypt #happiness #intelligence #morals #research #science #the_environment #USA

USA
United States of America
StatusIndependent State
CapitalWashington
Land Area9 147 420km21
LocationNorth America, The Americas
Population315.8m (2011)2
Life Expectancy79.22yrs (2017)3
GNI$53 245 (2017)4
ISO3166-1 CodesUS, USA, 8405
Internet Domain.us6
CurrencyDollar (USD)7
Telephone+18

1. Introduction

Book CoverThe great American experience is about so many things: bluegrass and beaches, snow-covered peaks and redwood forests, restaurant-loving cities and big open skies. America is the birthplace of LA, Las Vegas, Chicago, Miami, Boston and New York City -each a brimming metropolis whose name alone conjures a million different notions of culture, cuisine and entertainment. Look more closely, and the American quilt unfurls in all its surprising variety: the eclectic music scene of Austin, the easygoing charms of antebellum Savannah, the ecoconsciousness of free-spirited Portland, the magnificent waterfront of San Francisco, and the captivating old quarters of New Orleans, still rising up from its waterlogged ashes.

This is a country of road trips and great open skies, where four million miles of highways lead past red-rock deserts, below towering mountain peaks, and across fertile wheat fields that roll off toward the horizon. The sun-bleached hillsides of the Great Plains, the lush rainforests of the Pacific Northwest and the scenic country lanes of New England are a few fine starting points for the great American road trip.

"The World" by Lonely Planet (2014)9

2. Pages on the USA and Updates

3. USA National and Social Development

#human_development

UN HDI (2016)10
Pos.Lower is better
Rank10
1Norway1
2Australia2
3Switzerland2
...
8Ireland8
9Iceland9
10Canada10
11USA10
12Hong Kong12
13New Zealand13
14Sweden14
15Liechtenstein15
World Avg94.3
q=188.
Social & Moral
Development Index
11
Pos.Higher is better
Points11
1Denmark84.0
2Sweden83.9
3Finland83.5
...
20Japan75.0
21Spain73.4
22Estonia72.7
23USA71.9
24Italy71.1
25Czechia71.0
26Singapore71.0
27Portugal70.3
World Avg53.8
q=198.

The United Nations produces an annual Human Development Report which includes the Human Development Index. The factors taken into account include life expectancy, education and schooling and Gross National Income (GNI) amongst many others..

The Social and Moral Development Index concentrates on moral issues and human rights, violence, public health, equality, tolerance, freedom and effectiveness in climate change mitigation and environmentalism, and on some technological issues. A country scores higher for achieving well in those areas, and for sustaining that achievement in the long term. Those countries towards the top of this index can truly said to be setting good examples and leading humankind onwards into a bright, humane, and free future. See: What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life.

4. Population and Demographics

#demographics #health #immigration #life_expectancy #overpopulation #population #USA

Old-Age Dependency Ratio (2016)12
Pos.Lower is better
Per 10012
1Uganda04.3
2Mali04.5
3Chad04.7
...
150Serbia32.7
151Hungary32.9
152Romania33.6
153USA33.8
154New Zealand34.9
155UK35.0
156Barbados35.6
157Lithuania36.0
World Avg18.3
q=185.
Emigrants (2010)13
Pos.
%13
1Dominica104.8
2Palestine68.4
3Samoa67.3
...
176Solomon Islands1.0
177India0.9
178Papua New Guinea0.9
179USA0.8
180Namibia0.7
181Ethiopia0.7
182Tanzania0.7
183Brazil0.7
World Avg11.5
q=192.
Fertility Rate (2013)14
Pos.2.0 is best14
1N. Korea2.00
2Brunei1.99
3St Vincent & Grenadines2.01
...
11Sweden1.93
12Tunisia1.93
13St Lucia1.93
14USA2.08
15Ireland2.10
16Iceland2.10
17Denmark1.88
18Bahamas1.88
World Avg2.81
q=180.

Immigrants (2010)13
Pos.
%13
1Qatar86.5
2Monaco71.6
3UAE70.0
...
35Sweden14.1
36Belgium13.7
37Estonia13.6
38USA13.5
39Germany13.1
40Djibouti13.0
41Seychelles12.8
42Grenada12.1
World Avg9.2
q=192.
Life Expectancy (2015)15
Pos.Higher is better
Years15
1Hong Kong84.16
2Japan83.68
3Italy83.34
...
33Costa Rica79.61
34Cuba79.57
35Lebanon79.54
36USA79.22
37Brunei79.02
38Czechia78.78
39Qatar78.32
40Albania77.97
World Avg71.27
q=190.
Population (2012)16
Pos.The Overpopulation of the Earth16
1China1.4b
2India1.3b
3USA315.8m
4Indonesia244.8m
5Brazil198.4m
6Pakistan180.0m
7Nigeria166.6m
8Bangladesh152.4m
9Russia142.7m
10Japan126.4m
11Mexico116.1m
12Philippines96.5m
World Avg36.0m
q=195.

The USA's population is predicted to rise to 361.68 million by 2030. These millions of extra people will all need space to live, food to eat, energy to consume, and will increase the burden on the planet's resources. This country has a fertility rate of 2.08. The fertility rate is, in simple terms, the average amount of children that each woman has. The higher the figure, the quicker the population is growing, although, to calculate the rate you also need to take into account morbidity, i.e., the rate at which people die. If people live healthy and long lives and morbidity is low, then, 2.0 approximates to the replacement rate, which would keep the population stable. If all countries had such a fertility rate, population growth would end. The actual replacement rate in most developed countries is around 2.1.

5. Human Rights, Equality and Freedom

#equality #freedom #human_rights #politics #tolerance #usa

The USA performs very well in ensuring human rights and freedom compared to most other countries. The USA comes in the top 20 in fighting anti-semitic opinions17, eliminating modern slavery18 and in fighting corruption19. It does better than average in supporting personal, civil & economic freedoms20, commentary from Human Rights Watch21, supporting press freedom22, LGBT equality23 and in opposing gender inequality24. The USA has aggressively supported human rights in many parts of the world25 and hosts (and encourages) a large number of international human rights organisations. This persisted in not only the Clinton and Obama administrations (where it was a central concern) but even in the Bush eras26. The USA does not succeed in everything, however. It does worse than average in its Global Peace Index rating27 and in its nominal commitment to Human Rights28. Trump-era politics has driven back human rights concerns, and is ushering in an era of intolerance and inequality, especially for LGBT folk, the poor, women and other minorities29 and has been vocally supportive of authoritarian strong-man regimes that also have poor human rights records. Despite Trump, on some occasions, the USA still manages to encourage human rights, most notably in cutting $100 million and holding back another $195 million of its aid to Egypt, citing human rights violations30 and 'threatening targeted sanctions against the Burmese military officials behind the ethnic cleansing of the Rohingya minority'29.

For tables, charts and commentary, see:

6. Religion and Beliefs

#afterlife #belief #buddhism #christianity #god #heaven #hell #hinduism #islam #judaism #religion #universalism #usa

Religiosity (2009)31
Pos.Lower is better
%31
1Estonia16
2Sweden17
3Denmark19
...
27Uzbekistan51
28Serbia54
29Ireland54
30USA65
31Argentina66
32Chile70
33Croatia70
34Singapore70
World Avg75.1
q=114.
Disbelief In God (2007)32
Pos.Higher is better32
1Vietnam81
2Japan65
3Sweden64
...
38Kazakhstan12
39China12
40Uruguay12
41USA10
42Trinidad & Tobago9
43Albania8
44Dominican Rep.7
45Croatia7
World Avg9.9
q=137.

Data from the Pew Forum, a professional polling outfit, states that in 2010 the religious makeup of this country was as follows in the table below33:

Christian78.3%
Muslim0.9%
Hindu0.6%
Buddhist1.2%
Folk Religion0.2%
Jew1.8%
Unaffiliated16.4%

It appears that when asked "What religion are you" many give pollsters the 'correct' answer despite how they actually feel, and despite what they actually believe. Although 83% of the populace say they belong to a religion, only 65% say that they are religious when the question is phrased as "Is religion an important part of your daily life?".

For more on this phenomenon, see:

The CIA World Factbook has slightly different data, and states: Protestant 51.3%, Roman Catholic 23.9%, Mormon 1.7%, other Christian 1.6%, Jewish 1.7%, Buddhist 0.7%, Muslim 0.6%, other or unspecified 2.5%, unaffiliated 12.1%, none 4% (2007 est.)34.

The Afterlife: Ipsos-NA in 2011 gathered some statistics on USA35. Despite the large numbers of Christians, not many have traditional beliefs in the afterlife - just 41%. Some people don't know what to believe (20%). Some believe that upon death, you simply cease to exist (11%). Also, 4% specifically believe in heaven but not in hell (which is nice - making them possible "universalists"). 4% believe in reincarnation.

Of the 5% of Americans who said they do not believe in God in 2007, only a quarter labelled themselves as atheist. 3 in 20 of American who tell pollsters that they don't believe in God also still call themselves Christian, another 1 in 20 still call themselves Jewish36.

Freedom of Religion and Belief: As far as developed countries go, the USA has particular problems with religious tolerance. Although the legal system is fair in many ways and you should expect tolerance, "the actions of local governments and private businesses suggest otherwise"37 and the amount of discrimination is "massive" (according to a congressional report in 1999)38.

Links:

7. The Internet

#internet #it_security #politics #the_internet #USA

Freedom On The Internet (2012)39
Pos.Lower is better39
1Estonia10
2USA12
3Germany15
4Australia18
5Hungary19
6Philippines23
7Italy23
8UK25
9S. Africa26
10Argentina26
11Ukraine27
12Brazil27
World Avg46.7
q=47.
Internet Users (2016)40
Pos.Higher is better40
1Iceland100%
2Faroe Islands99%
3Norway98%
...
17Estonia91%
18Japan91%
19New Zealand89%
20USA89%
21Canada89%
22Belgium89%
23Czechia88%
24Germany88%
World Avg48.1%
q=201.
IPv6 Uptake (2017)41
Pos.Higher is better
Ratio41
1Belgium55.4
2Germany41.8
3Switzerland35.1
4USA35.0
5Greece33.5
6Luxembourg32.4
7India26.8
8Portugal26.6
9Ireland26.1
10UK24.7
11Japan22.1
12France18.8
World Avg3.82
q=176.

IT Security (2013)42
Pos.Lower is better42
1Ireland0.11
2Luxembourg0.11
3Belize0.11
...
74Sri Lanka1.67
75Oman1.72
76Iraq1.84
77Bangladesh1.87
78Sudan1.98
79India2.10
80Russia2.42
81USA3.68
World Avg0.98
q=81.

Internet access has become an essential research tool. It facilitates an endless list of life improvements, from the ability to network and socialize without constraint, to access to a seemingly infinite repository of technical and procedural information on pretty much any task. The universal availability of data has sped up industrial development and personal learning at the national and personal level. Individuals can read any topic they wish regardless of the locality of expert teachers, and, entire nations can develop their technology and understanding of the world simply because they are now exposed to advanced societies and moral discourses online. Like every communications medium, the Internet has issues and causes a small range of problems, but these are insignificant compared to the advantages of having an online populace.

8. Public Health Issues

#alcohol #health #mental_health #parenting #population #smoking #suicide #USA #vaccines

Adolescent Birth Rate (2015)24
Pos.Lower is better
Per 100024
1N. Korea0.5
2S. Korea1.6
3Switzerland2.9
...
65Djibouti21.5
66Albania21.7
67Moldova22.6
68USA22.6
69Armenia23.0
70Jordan23.2
71Russia23.4
72New Zealand23.6
World Avg47.9
q=185.
Alcohol Consumption (2010)43
Pos.Lower is better
Per Capita43
1Libya0.1
2Pakistan0.1
3Kuwait0.1
...
139Sierra Leone8.7
140Paraguay8.8
141Venezuela8.9
142USA9.2
143Sweden9.2
144Cyprus9.2
145Burundi9.3
146Argentina9.3
World Avg6.2
q=191.
Food Aid, Health Contributions & WHO Compliance (2017)44
Pos.Lower is better
Rank44
1Sweden1
2Ireland2
3Denmark3
...
7Germany7
8Canada8
9Netherlands9
10USA10
11Luxembourg11
12Finland12
13Australia13
14UAE14
World Avg82.0
q=163.

Infant Immunizations 2011-2015 (2015)45
Pos.Higher is better
Avg %45
1Hungary99.0
2China99.0
3Uzbekistan98.9
...
95Georgia93.1
96New Zealand92.9
97Nauru92.9
98USA92.8
99Latvia92.8
100Romania92.7
101France92.6
102El Salvador92.4
World Avg88.3
q=194.
Smoking Rates (2014)46
Pos.Lower is better46
1Guinea 15
2Solomon Islands 26
3Kiribati 28
...
122Brunei1 023
123Algeria1 024
124Latvia1 041
125USA1 083
126Finland1 083
127Portugal1 113
128Moldova1 114
129Lithuania1 124
World Avg 819
q=182.
Suicide Rate (2013)47
Pos.Lower is better
Per 100k47
1Haiti0
2Grenada0
3Egypt0.1
...
50Singapore20.6
51India20.8
52Trinidad & Tobago21.7
53USA22.2
54Chile22.4
55Canada22.7
56Iceland23.5
57New Zealand23.6
World Avg20.93
q=91.

9. More Charts and Comparisons to Other Countries

Personal Charitability
(World Position, 2013-2016)
48
Pos.Lower is better48
1Myanmar (Burma)1.25
2USA1.5
3New Zealand3.5
4Canada3.75
5Australia5.25
6UK6.75
7Ireland6.75
8Sri Lanka8
9Qatar9
10Trinidad & Tobago10
11Netherlands10
q=156.
Intellectual Endeavours (2017)44
Pos.Lower is better
Rank44
1Ukraine1
2Czechia2
3Hungary3
...
35Barbados35
36Estonia36
37Luxembourg37
38USA38
39Portugal39
40Spain40
41Italy41
q=163.
Creativity and Culture (2017)44
Pos.Lower is better
Rank44
1Belgium1
2Netherlands2
3Estonia3
...
64Mexico64
65S. Africa65
66Lebanon66
67USA67
68Guyana68
69Bosnia & Herzegovina69
70Tonga70
q=163.
Peacekeeping and Security (2017)44
Pos.Lower is better
Rank44
1Samoa1
2S. Africa2
3Tunisia3
...
69Bulgaria69
70Zimbabwe70
71Spain71
72USA72
73Cyprus73
74Jamaica74
75Guyana75
q=163.
Refugees and UN Treaties (2017)44
Pos.Lower is better
Rank44
1Austria1
2Germany2
3Netherlands3
...
26Chile26
27Panama27
28Portugal28
29USA29
30Singapore30
31Greece31
32Bulgaria32
q=163.
Open Trading, Aid and Development (2017)44
Pos.Lower is better
Rank44
1Ireland1
2Denmark2
3Sweden3
...
59Senegal59
60Kyrgyzstan60
61Qatar61
62USA62
63Congo, DR63
64Honduras64
65S. Korea65
q=163.
Research and Development (2016)
Pos.Higher is better
% RDP PPP
1S. Korea4.29
2Israel4.11
3Japan3.58
...
8Austria3.00
9Switzerland2.96
10Germany2.84
11USA2.74
12Belgium2.46
13Slovenia2.39
14France2.26
15Australia2.25
q=126.
Life Satisfaction (2011)49
Pos.Higher is better49
1Denmark7.8
2Norway7.6
3Netherlands7.6
...
14UAE7.2
15New Zealand7.2
16Luxembourg7.1
17USA7.1
18France7.0
19Ireland7.0
20Belgium6.9
21UK6.9
q=150.
Gross National Income Per-Capita (2011)15
Pos.Higher is better
PPP $15
1Qatar$129 916
2Singapore$78 162
3Kuwait$76 075
...
8Luxembourg$62 471
9Switzerland$56 364
10Hong Kong$54 265
11USA$53 245
12Saudi Arabia$51 320
13San Marino$50 063
14Andorra$47 979
15Netherlands$46 326
q=193.
Environmental Performance (2018)50
Pos.Higher is better50
1Switzerland87.4
2France84.0
3Denmark81.6
...
24Cyprus72.6
25Canada72.2
26Portugal71.9
27USA71.2
28Slovakia70.6
29Lithuania69.3
30Bulgaria67.9
31Costa Rica67.9
q=180.
IQ (2006)51
Pos.Higher is better51
1Hong Kong108
2Singapore108
3S. Korea106
...
26France98
27Australia98
28Denmark98
29USA98
30Latvia98
31Hungary98
32Ukraine97
33Russia97
q=138.

Current edition: 2013
Last Modified: 2019 Jan 01
http://www.humantruth.info/usa.html
Parent page: Compare International Statistics by Region and Continent

All #tags used on this page - click for more:

#afterlife #alcohol #atheism #belief #buddhism #charity #christianity #demographics #economics #egypt #equality #freedom #god #happiness #health #heaven #hell #hinduism #human_development #human_rights #immigration #intelligence #internet #islam #it_security #judaism #life_expectancy #mental_health #morals #overpopulation #parenting #politics #population #religion #research #science #smoking #suicide #the_environment #the_internet #tolerance #universalism #USA #vaccines

Social Media

References: (What's this?)

The Good Country Index. Published by The Good Country Inc., New York, USA. Website: goodcountry.org. The Good Country Index gauges how well countries are doing in helping international development. Edition 1.2 (2017) has 35 criteria.

Anti-Defamation League. (ADL)
(2014) ADL Global 100, Executive Summary. Accessed on global100.adl.org on 2017 Jan 02. The numbers given are of those who state that racist stereotyped statements about Jews are true; they have to agree to 6 or more of the 11 statements to be counted. An example statements is "Jews are hated because of the way they behave". The data was collected from 53,100 interviews across 101 countries plus the West Bank and Gaza. The global average is 26%.

Charities Aid Foundation
World Giving Index. On www.cafonline.org.

CIA
(2013) World Factbook. The USA Government's Central Intelligence Agency (USA CIA) publishes The World Factbook, and the online version is frequently updated.

Crabtree, Vexen
(2019) "What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life" (2019). Accessed 2019 Jan 13.

Donnelly, Jack
(2013) Universal Human Rights in Theory and Practice. 3rd edition. Published by Cornell University Press.

The Fraser Institute
(2016) The Human Freedom Index. Published by The Cato Institute, The Fraser Institute and the Friedrich Naumann Foundation for Freedom. Covers data up to 2014. On www.fraserinstitute.org/.../human-freedom-index-2016.

Gallup
(2009) Religiosity. gallup.com/poll/142727/.... The survey question was "Is religion an important part of your daily life?" and results are charted for those who said "yes". 1000 adults were polled in each of 114 countries.

Grim & Finke. Dr Grim is senior researcher in religion and world affairs at the Pew Research Center, Washington, D.C, USA. Finke is Professor of Sociology and Religious Studies at the Pennsylvania State University.
(2011) The Price of Freedom Denied. Subtitled: "Religious Persecution and Conflict in the Twenty-First Century". Amazon Kindle digital edition. Published by Cambridge University Press, UK. An e-book.

Human Rights Watch
(2018) World Report 2018. Covering the events of 2017.

Ipsos-NA. Ipsos-North America.
(2011) Supreme Being(s), the Afterlife and Evolution. Ipsos press release page, link to raw data. Accessed 2017 May 29. The poll was conducted in 23 developed and mostly rich countries - it would be unwise to use their irresponsibly extrapolated data on "global beliefs", but their data on individual countries is still good.

Lonely Planet
(2014) The World. Subtitled: "A Traveller's Guide to the Planet". Published by Lonely Planet, London, UK. Each chapter is devoted to a specific country and includes a list of the most interesting places to visit and a few other cultural notes.

Lynn, Harvey & Nyborg
(2009) Average intelligence predicts atheism rates across 137 nations. Richard Lynn, John Harvey and Helmuth Nyborg. Published in Intelligence (2009 Jan/Feb) vol. 37 issue 1 pages 11-15. Online at www.sciencedirect.com, accessed 2009 Sep 15.

United Nations
(2011) Human Development Report. Published by the UN Development Programme. This edition had the theme of Sustainability and Equity: A Better Future for All. Available on hdr.undp.org/... UN Development Program: About the Human Development Index.
(2013) Human Development Report. Published by the UN Development Programme. This edition had the theme of The Rise of the South: Human Progress in a Diverse World. Available on hdr.undp.org/... UN Development Program: About the Human Development Index.
(2017) Human Development Report. Published by the UN Development Programme. Data for 2015. Available on hdr.undp.org/.

Walk Free Foundation
(2018) Global Slavery Index. Published on www.walkfreefoundation.org/.

World Health Organisation. (WHO)
(2014) Global Status Report on Alcohol and Health. A copy can be found on the WHO website. Accessed 2015 Jan 04. It "presents a comprehensive perspective on the global, regional and country consumption of alcohol, patterns of drinking, health consequences and policy responses in Member States" and was published in Geneva on 2014 May 12.

Footnotes

  1. World Bank data on data.worldbank.org accessed 2013 Nov 04.^
  2. UN (2011) .^
  3. UN (2017). Table 1.^
  4. UN (2017). Gross National Income, per person. Table 1.^
  5. International Standards Organisation (ISO) standard ISO3166-1, on www.iso.org, accessed 2013 May 01.^
  6. Top level domains (TLDs) are managed by the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) on www.iana.org.^
  7. According to ISO4217.^
  8. According to ITU-T.^
  9. Lonely Planet (2014). Chapter "USA".^
  10. UN (2017). Table 1. Lower is better.^
  11. "What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life" by Vexen Crabtree (2019)^
  12. UN (2017). Dashboard 2. Higher is worse. Old-age is counted as 65+, and ratio is of these to people ages 15-64. Projections are for 2030 based on medium-fertility variant of growth.^
  13. UN (2013). Table 11.^
  14. UN (2013). Table 14. Births per woman (2012), expressed as deviance (positive or negative) from the value of 2.0.^
  15. UN (2017). Table 1. Higher is better.^^
  16. UN (2013). Table 14.^
  17. ADL (2014). Lower is better.^
  18. Walk Free Foundation (2018) .^
  19. Transparency International Corruption Perceptions Index (2017). Accessed 2017 Dec 30. The scores given are the TI average for the years 2012-2016.^
  20. Fraser Institute, the (2016). Covers data for 2014.^
  21. Human Rights Watch (2018). Negative and positive comments have been added to create a score for each country covered in the report.^
  22. Reporters Without Borders Report "2013 World Press Freedom Index: Dashed hopes after spring" at fr.rsf.org/.../classement_2013_gb-bd.pdf accessed 2013 Feb.^
  23. Sources:^
  24. UN (2017). Table 5. Lower is better.^^
  25. Donnelly (2013). Chapter 4 "Equal Concern and Respect" p56.^
  26. Donnelly (2013). p118.^
  27. ^
  28. Max possible=24. Total amount of treaties ratified. Nominal Commitment to Human Rights report published by UCL School of Public Policy, London, UK, at ucl.ac.uk/spp/research/research-projects/nchr accessed 2011 Apr 30.^
  29. Human Rights Watch (2018). p591-608.^
  30. Human Rights Watch (2018). p193.^
  31. Gallup (2009) .^
  32. Zuckerman, P. (2007). Atheism: contemporary numbers and patterns. In M.Martin (Ed.), The Cambridge Companion to Atheism. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. In "Average intelligence predicts atheism rates across 137 nations" by Lynn et al. (2009)51.^
  33. Pew Forum (2012) publication "The Global Religious Landscape: A Report on the Size and Distribution of the World´s Major Religious Groups as of 2010" (2012 Dec 18) accessed 2013 May 01.^
  34. CIA (2013). Https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/ar.html accessed 2014 Apr 27.^
  35. Ipsos (2011) .^
  36. Pew Forum research results "Not All Nonbelievers Call Themselves Atheists" (2008).^
  37. Grim & Finke (2011). Chapter 2 "Religious Freedom Broken Promises" digital location 1395.^
  38. Grim & Finke (2011). Chapter 2 "Religious Freedom Broken Promises" digital location 1400.^
  39. Freedom House publication "Freedom on the Net 2012" at www.freedomhouse.org/.../FOTN%202012%20-%20Tables%20and%20Charts%20FINAL.pdf accessed 2013 Feb 05.^
  40. internetlivestats.com/internet-users-by-country accessed 2017 Mar 10.^
  41. % of internet access via native IPv6 compared to IPv4. As of 2017 Jun 20, from http://www.cidr-report.org. Accessed 2017 Jun 20.^
  42. "What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life: 3.4. Malware and Email Spam" by Vexen Crabtree (2019)^
  43. WHO (2014). Appendix 1. Alcohol Per Capita Consumption in liters of pure alcohol, 15+ years age population, consumed in 2010. Lower is better.^
  44. The Good Country Index (2017) .^^
  45. World Health Organisation data for 2011-2015 from 7 data series accessed 2017 May 21. Details in "Immunizations: International Statistics on Vaccines and the Autism Scare: 3. World Health Organisation Statistics" by Vexen Crabtree (2017).^
  46. Annual Cigarette Consumption Per Adult (age 15 and above) - compustible cigarettes. Euromonitor International (2014), via tobaccoatlas.org/topic/cigarette-use-globally/ . Accessed 2017 Jun 20.^
  47. UN (2013). World Health Organisation statistics. Suicide Rates Per 100k.^
  48. Charities Aid Foundation. Average ranking across years 2013-2016. Lower is better.^
  49. UN (2013). Table 9. Higher is better. Table 9. The UN's data is the latest available from a range of data from 2007-2011.^
  50. Yale University Center for Environmental Law & Policy 2018 EPI.^
  51. Lynn, Harvey & Nyborg (2009) .^

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