The Human Truth Foundation

Congo, (Brazzaville) (Republic of the Congo)

By Vexen Crabtree 2013


Comments:
FB, LJ

#charity #economics #happiness #homosexuality #intelligence #morals #the_environment

Congo, (Brazzaville)
Republic of the Congo
StatusIndependent State
CapitalBrazzaville
Land Area 341 500km21
LocationAfrica
Population4.2m (2011)2
Life Expectancy62.89yrs (2017)3
GNI$5 503 (2017)4
ISO3166-1 CodesCG, COG, 1785
Internet Domain.cg6
CurrencyFranc (XAF)7
Telephone+2428

1. Overview

#france

Upon independence in 1960, the former French region of Middle Congo became the Republic of the Congo. A quarter century of experimentation with Marxism was abandoned in 1990 and a democratically elected government took office in 1992. A brief civil war in 1997 restored former Marxist President Denis SASSOU-Nguesso, and ushered in a period of ethnic and political unrest. Southern-based rebel groups agreed to a final peace accord in March 2003, but the calm is tenuous and refugees continue to present a humanitarian crisis. The Republic of Congo is one of Africa's largest petroleum producers, but with declining production it will need new offshore oil finds to sustain its oil earnings over the long term.

CIA's The World Factbook (2013)9

Book CoverThe mighty river which gives the Congo its name snakes through a lush land of untouched jungle, wild animals and difficult history. A land of steamy jungles hiding half the world´s lowland gorillas, masses of forest elephants, and hooting, swinging troops of chimpanzees, the Congo (not to be confused with the Democratic Republic of the Congo across the Congo River) most certainly has the potential to become one of the finest ecotourism destinations in Africa. Parc National Nouabalé-Ndoki and Parc National d´Odzala are two of the most pristine forest reserves on the continent and between them they are arguably the highlight of the whole of Central Africa.

Despite its impressive natural wonders and warm-hearted peoples, the Congo remains an unknown quantity to most outsiders and currently receives very few visitors. But for those ready to heed the call of the wild, and who are not afraid of adventure, the Congo awaits.

"The World" by Lonely Planet (2014)10

2. Congo, (Brazzaville) National and Social Development

#human_development

UN HDI (2016)11
Pos.Lower is better
Rank11
1Norway1
2Australia2
3Switzerland2
...
132Bhutan132
133Timor-Leste (E. Timor)133
134Vanuatu134
135Congo, (Brazzaville)135
136Equatorial Guinea135
137Kiribati137
138Laos138
139Zambia139
World Avg94.3
q=188.
Social & Moral
Development Index
12
Pos.Higher is better
Points12
1Denmark84.2
2Sweden83.7
3Finland83.5
...
178Gabon40.0
179Papua New Guinea40.0
180Nigeria39.6
181Congo, (Brazzaville)39.1
182Palestine38.9
183Mauritania38.3
184Mali38.0
185Niger38.0
World Avg54.1
q=198.

The United Nations produces an annual Human Development Report which includes the Human Development Index. The factors taken into account include life expectancy, education and schooling and Gross National Income (GNI) amongst many others..

The Social and Moral Development Index concentrates on moral issues and human rights, violence, public health, equality, tolerance, freedom and effectiveness in climate change mitigation and environmentalism, and on some technological issues. A country scores higher for achieving well in those areas, and for sustaining that achievement in the long term. Those countries towards the top of this index can truly said to be setting good examples and leading humankind onwards into a bright, humane, and free future. See: What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life.

3. Population and Demographics

#Congo #demographics #health #immigration #life_expectancy #overpopulation #population

Old-Age Dependency Ratio (2016)13
Pos.Lower is better
Per 10013
1Uganda04.3
2Mali04.5
3Chad04.7
...
43Sudan06.8
44Mauritania06.8
45Kuwait06.8
46Congo, (Brazzaville)07.0
47Solomon Islands07.0
48Rwanda07.0
49Namibia07.4
50Botswana07.7
World Avg18.3
q=185.
Emigrants (2010)14
Pos.
%14
1Dominica104.8
2Palestine68.4
3Samoa67.3
...
101Laos5.7
102Turkey5.6
103Comoros5.6
104Congo, (Brazzaville)5.6
105Togo5.4
106Ivory Coast5.4
107Switzerland5.4
108Malaysia5.3
World Avg11.5
q=192.
Fertility Rate (2013)15
Pos.2.0 is best15
1Korea, N.2.00
2Brunei1.99
3St Vincent & Grenadines2.01
...
147Palestine4.31
148Cameroon4.33
149Mauritania4.40
150Congo, (Brazzaville)4.46
151Central African Rep.4.46
152Madagascar4.52
153Iraq4.57
154Kenya4.64
World Avg2.81
q=180.

Immigrants (2010)14
Pos.
%14
1Qatar86.5
2Monaco71.6
3UAE70.0
...
87Georgia4.0
88Lithuania4.0
89Guinea3.8
90Congo, (Brazzaville)3.8
91Malta3.8
92Hungary3.7
93S. Africa3.7
94Argentina3.6
World Avg9.2
q=192.
Life Expectancy (2015)16
Pos.Higher is better
Years16
1Hong Kong84.16
2Japan83.68
3Italy83.34
...
154Comoros63.57
155Mauritania63.24
156Haiti63.12
157Congo, (Brazzaville)62.89
158Papua New Guinea62.77
159Djibouti62.30
160Kenya62.16
161Niger61.94
World Avg71.27
q=190.
Population (2012)17
Pos.The Overpopulation of the Earth17
1China1.4b
2India1.3b
3USA315.8m
...
124Lebanon4.3m
125Palestine4.3m
126Liberia4.2m
127Congo, (Brazzaville)4.2m
128Bosnia & Herzegovina3.7m
129Panama3.6m
130Mauritania3.6m
131Moldova3.5m
World Avg36.0m
q=195.

Congo, (Brazzaville)'s population is predicted to rise to 6.169 million by 2030. This country has a fertility rate of 4.46. The fertility rate is, in simple terms, the average amount of children that each woman has. The higher the figure, the quicker the population is growing, although, to calculate the rate you also need to take into account morbidity, i.e., the rate at which people die. If people live healthy and long lives and morbidity is low, then, 2.0 approximates to the replacement rate, which would keep the population stable. If all countries had such a fertility rate, population growth would end. The actual replacement rate in most developed countries is around 2.1.

4. Politics and Freedom

#burundi #Congo #corruption #eritrea #france #freedom #human_development #human_rights #indonesia #mass_media #peace #politics #slavery

Corruption (2012-2016)18
Pos.Higher is better
Avg Score18
1Denmark90.8
2New Zealand90.6
3Finland89.4
...
151Guinea25.0
152Central African Rep.23.8
153Tajikistan23.6
154Congo, (Brazzaville)22.8
155Congo, DR21.6
156Myanmar (Burma)21.4
157Zimbabwe21.0
158Cambodia21.0
World Avg43.05
q=176.
Global Peace Index (2012)19
Pos.Lower is better19
1Iceland1.11
2New Zealand1.24
3Denmark1.24
...
100Liberia2.13
101Mali2.13
102Sri Lanka2.15
103Congo, (Brazzaville)2.15
104Kazakhstan2.15
105Saudi Arabia2.18
106Haiti2.18
107Cambodia2.21
World Avg2.02
q=157.
Nominal Commitment to HR (2009)20
Pos.Higher is better
Treaties20
1Argentina24
2Chile23
3Costa Rica23
...
126Sri Lanka13
127Malawi13
128Zambia13
129Congo, (Brazzaville)13
130Ivory Coast13
131Afghanistan13
132Gambia13
133Equatorial Guinea13
World Avg15.1
q=194.

Personal, Civil & Economic Freedom (2014)21
Pos.Lower is better
Rank21
1Hong Kong1
2Switzerland2
3New Zealand3
...
136Togo136
137Bangladesh137
138Belize138
139Congo, (Brazzaville)139
140Nigeria140
141China141
142Ethiopia142
143Mauritania143
World Avg79.7
q=159.
Press Freedom (2013)22
Pos.Lower is better22
1Finland638
2Netherlands648
3Norway652
...
72Mozambique2801
73Armenia2804
74Malawi2818
75Congo, (Brazzaville)2820
76Kuwait2828
77Nicaragua2831
78Benin2833
79Dominican Rep.2834
World Avg3249
q=178.
Slavery (2018)23
Pos.Lower is better
% Victims23
1Japan0.03
2Canada0.05
3Taiwan0.05
...
139Nigeria0.77
140Guinea0.78
141Greece0.79
142Congo, (Brazzaville)0.80
143Macedonia0.87
144Swaziland0.88
145Thailand0.89
146Laos0.94
World Avg0.65
q=167.

The taking of slaves has been an unwholesome feature of Human cultures since prehistory24. Private households and national endeavours have frequently been augmented with the use of slaves. The Egyptian and Roman empires both thrived on them for both purposes. Aside from labourers they are often abused sexually by their owners and their owners' friends25. The era of colonialism and the beginnings of globalisation changed nothing: the imprisonment and forced movements of labour continued to destroy many lives except that new justifications were invented based on Christian doctrine and the effort to convert non-Christians. By 1786 over 12 million slaves had been extracted from Africa and sent to colonial labour camps, with a truly atrocious condition of life26. But they were not the only ones to blame; in Africa internal nations such as the Asantes sold and bought tens of thousands of slaves27.

The abolition of the slave trade was a long and slow process. Until a relatively modern time, even philosophers, religious leaders and those concerned with ethics justified, or ignored, the problem of slavery28. The first abolitionists were always the slaves themselves. Their protests and rebellions caused the industry to become too expensive to continue. After that, it was the economic costs of maintain slave colonies that led the British to reject and then oppose the slave trade globally. Finally, the enlightenment-era thinkers of France encouraged moral and ethical thinking including the declaration of the inherent value of human life and human dignity29. A long-overdue wave of compassionate and conscientious movements swept across the West, eliminating public support for slavery, until the industries and churches that supported it had no choice but to back down.

'Modern slavery' includes forced labour (often of the under-age), debt bondage (especially generational), sexual slavery, chattel slavery and other forms of abuse, some of which can be surprisingly difficult to detect, but often target those fleeing from warzones and the vulnerable.30. Some industries (diamond, clothing, coal) from some countries (Burundi23, Eritrea23, Indonesia31) are a particular concern. The Walk Free Foundation, say that in 2016, 40.3 million people were living in modern slavery32.

5. Gender Equality

#Congo #gender #misogyny #politics #women

Gender Inequality (2015)33
Pos.Lower is better33
1Switzerland0.04
2Denmark0.04
3Netherlands0.04
...
138Cameroon0.57
139Mozambique0.57
140Sudan0.57
141Congo, (Brazzaville)0.59
142Haiti0.59
143Papua New Guinea0.59
144Benin0.61
145Malawi0.61
World Avg0.36
q=159.
Year Women Can Vote34
Pos.Lower is better
Year34
1New Zealand1893
2Australia1902
3Finland1906
...
153Ecuador1967
154Swaziland1968
155Nauru1968
156Congo, (Brazzaville)1970
157Congo, DR1970
158Yemen1970
159Switzerland1971
160Bangladesh1972
World Avg1930
q=189.

Gender inequality is not a necessary part of early human development. Although a separation of roles is almost universal due to different strengths between the genders, this does not have to mean that women are subdued, and, such patriarchialism is not universal in ancient history. Those cultures and peoples who shed, or never developed, the idea that mankind ought to dominate womankind, are better cultures and peoples than those who, even today, cling violently to those mores.

Congo, (Brazzaville) is an unequal country, with male rights dominating those of women.

See:

6. Religion and Beliefs

#belief #buddhism #christianity #god #hinduism #islam #judaism #religion

Disbelief In God (2007)35
Pos.Higher is better35
1Vietnam81
2Japan65
3Sweden64
...
60Georgia4
61Uzbekistan4
62Lebanon3
63Congo, (Brazzaville)3
64Poland3
65Jamaica3
66India3
67Angola2
World Avg9.9
q=137.

Data from the Pew Forum, a professional polling outfit, states that in 2010 the religious makeup of this country was as follows in the table below36:

Christian85.9%
Muslim1.2%
Hindu0.1%
Buddhist0.1%
Folk Religion2.8%
Jew0.1%
Unaffiliated9%

The CIA World Factbook has slightly different data, and states simply: Christian 50%, animist 48%, Muslim 2%37.

Links:

7. The Internet

#Congo #internet #the_internet

Internet Users (2016)38
Pos.Higher is better38
1Iceland100%
2Faroe Islands99%
3Norway98%
...
177Burkina Faso10%
178Solomon Islands10%
179Liberia9%
180Congo, (Brazzaville)8%
181Togo7%
182Comoros7%
183Afghanistan7%
184Malawi7%
World Avg48.1%
q=201.
IPv6 Uptake (2017)39
Pos.Higher is better
Ratio39
1Belgium55.4
2Germany41.8
3Switzerland35.1
...
136Syria0.0
137Nicaragua0.0
138Solomon Islands0.0
139Congo, (Brazzaville)0.0
140Sao Tome & Principe0.0
141Kiribati0.0
142Ivory Coast0.0
143Mauritania0.0
World Avg3.82
q=176.

Internet access has become an essential research tool. It facilitates an endless list of life improvements, from the ability to network and socialize without constraint, to access to a seemingly infinite repository of technical and procedural information on pretty much any task. The universal availability of data has sped up industrial development and personal learning at the national and personal level. Individuals can read any topic they wish regardless of the locality of expert teachers, and, entire nations can develop their technology and understanding of the world simply because they are now exposed to advanced societies and moral discourses online. Like every communications medium, the Internet has issues and causes a small range of problems, but these are insignificant compared to the advantages of having an online populace.

8. Public Health Issues

#alcohol #Congo #health #parenting #population #smoking #vaccines

Adolescent Birth Rate (2015)33
Pos.Lower is better
Per 100033
1Korea, N.0.5
2Korea, S.1.6
3Switzerland2.9
...
171Uganda111.9
172Gambia113.0
173Madagascar116.2
174Congo, (Brazzaville)117.7
175Sierra Leone118.2
176Tanzania118.6
177Congo, DR122.6
178Chad133.5
World Avg47.9
q=185.
Alcohol Consumption (2010)40
Pos.Lower is better
Per Capita40
1Libya0.1
2Pakistan0.1
3Kuwait0.1
...
63Korea, N.3.7
64Guatemala3.8
65Central African Rep.3.8
66Congo, (Brazzaville)3.9
67Honduras4.0
68Zambia4.0
69Guinea-Bissau4.0
70Ethiopia4.2
World Avg6.2
q=191.
Food Aid, Health Contributions & WHO Compliance (2017)41
Pos.Lower is better
Rank41
1Sweden1
2Ireland2
3Denmark3
...
134Montenegro134
135Iraq135
136Madagascar136
137Congo, (Brazzaville)137
138Albania138
139Ghana139
140Chad140
141Rwanda141
World Avg82.0
q=163.

Infant Immunizations 2011-2015 (2015)42
Pos.Higher is better
Avg %42
1Hungary99.0
2China99.0
3Uzbekistan98.9
...
143Guatemala85.2
144Togo84.3
145Zambia84.2
146Congo, (Brazzaville)83.6
147Cameroon83.3
148Laos83.3
149Djibouti82.6
150Uganda82.5
World Avg88.3
q=194.
Smoking Rates (2014)43
Pos.Lower is better43
1Guinea 15
2Solomon Islands 26
3Kiribati 28
...
55Mauritius 261
56El Salvador 280
57Comoros 289
58Congo, (Brazzaville) 294
59Bolivia 299
60Bahamas 301
61Sierra Leone 310
62Sri Lanka 322
World Avg 819
q=182.

9. More Charts and Comparisons to Other Countries

Personal Charitability
(World Position, 2013-2016)
44
Pos.Lower is better44
1Myanmar (Burma)1.25
2USA1.5
3New Zealand3.5
...
121Azerbaijan102.25
122Estonia103.25
123Moldova103.5
124Congo, (Brazzaville)104.75
125Bosnia & Herzegovina107
126Algeria109
127Slovakia110.5
q=156.
Intellectual Endeavours (2017)41
Pos.Lower is better
Rank41
1Ukraine1
2Czechia2
3Hungary3
...
141Mauritania141
142Nigeria142
143Mali143
144Congo, (Brazzaville)144
145Qatar145
146Philippines146
147Mozambique147
q=163.
Creativity and Culture (2017)41
Pos.Lower is better
Rank41
1Belgium1
2Netherlands2
3Estonia3
...
134Mali134
135Chad135
136Saudi Arabia136
137Congo, (Brazzaville)137
138Algeria138
139Azerbaijan139
140Paraguay140
q=163.
Peacekeeping and Security (2017)41
Pos.Lower is better
Rank41
1Samoa1
2S. Africa2
3Tunisia3
...
65Austria65
66Ghana66
67Sweden67
68Congo, (Brazzaville)68
69Bulgaria69
70Zimbabwe70
71Spain71
q=163.
Refugees and UN Treaties (2017)41
Pos.Lower is better
Rank41
1Austria1
2Germany2
3Netherlands3
...
121Colombia121
122Honduras122
123Guinea123
124Congo, (Brazzaville)124
125Swaziland125
126Madagascar126
127Benin127
q=163.
Open Trading, Aid and Development (2017)41
Pos.Lower is better
Rank41
1Ireland1
2Denmark2
3Sweden3
...
117Angola117
118Guyana118
119Colombia119
120Congo, (Brazzaville)120
121Zambia121
122Nigeria122
123Pakistan123
q=163.
Life Satisfaction (2011)45
Pos.Higher is better45
1Denmark7.8
2Norway7.6
3Netherlands7.6
...
107S. Africa4.7
108India4.6
109Serbia4.5
110Congo, (Brazzaville)4.5
111Bahrain4.5
112Sudan4.4
113Cameroon4.4
114Ethiopia4.4
q=150.
Gross National Income Per-Capita (2011)16
Pos.Higher is better
PPP $16
1Qatar$129 916
2Singapore$78 162
3Kuwait$76 075
...
125Cape Verde$6 049
126Uzbekistan$5 748
127India$5 663
128Congo, (Brazzaville)$5 503
129Nigeria$5 443
130Tuvalu$5 395
131Samoa$5 372
132Timor-Leste (E. Timor)$5 371
q=193.
Environmental Performance (2018)46
Pos.Higher is better46
1Switzerland87.4
2France84.0
3Denmark81.6
...
154Burkina Faso42.8
155Sierra Leone42.5
156Gambia42.4
157Congo, (Brazzaville)42.4
158Bosnia & Herzegovina41.8
159Togo41.8
160Liberia41.6
161Cameroon40.8
q=180.
LGBT Equality (2017)47
Pos.Higher is better
Score47
1Netherlands103
2Belgium90
3Sweden86
...
112Kazakhstan8
113Korea, N.8
114Rwanda7
115Congo, (Brazzaville)5
116Madagascar5
117Chad5
118Indonesia1
119Ivory Coast1
q=196.
IQ (2006)48
Pos.Higher is better48
1Hong Kong108
2Singapore108
3Korea, S.106
...
131Zimbabwe66
132Senegal66
133Sierra Leone64
134Mozambique64
135Ethiopia64
136Central African Rep.64
137Congo, (Brazzaville)64
138Cameroon64
q=138.

Current edition: 2013 May 01
Last Modified: 2017 Jun 18
http://www.humantruth.info/congo_(brazzaville).html
Parent page: Compare International Statistics by Region and Continent

All #tags used on this page - click for more:

#alcohol #belief #buddhism #burundi #charity #christianity #Congo #corruption #demographics #economics #eritrea #france #freedom #gender #god #happiness #health #hinduism #homosexuality #human_development #human_rights #immigration #indonesia #intelligence #internet #islam #judaism #life_expectancy #mass_media #misogyny #morals #overpopulation #parenting #peace #politics #population #religion #slavery #smoking #the_environment #the_internet #vaccines #women

Social Media

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Casely-Hayford, Gus
(2012) The Lost Kingdoms of Africa. Published by Bantram Press. A hardback book.

Charities Aid Foundation
World Giving Index. On www.cafonline.org.

CIA
(2013) World Factbook. The USA Government's Central Intelligence Agency (USA CIA) publishes The World Factbook, and the online version is frequently updated.

Crabtree, Vexen
(2018) "What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life" (2018). Accessed 2018 Aug 22.

The Fraser Institute
(2016) The Human Freedom Index. Published by The Cato Institute, The Fraser Institute and the Friedrich Naumann Foundation for Freedom. Covers data up to 2014. On www.fraserinstitute.org/.../human-freedom-index-2016.

Klein, Naomi
(2004) No Logo. Originally published 2000, HarperCollins, London, UK. A paperback book.

Lonely Planet
(2014) The World. Subtitled: "A Traveller's Guide to the Planet". Published by Lonely Planet, London, UK. Each chapter is devoted to a specific country and includes a list of the most interesting places to visit and a few other cultural notes.

Lynn, Harvey & Nyborg
(2009) Average intelligence predicts atheism rates across 137 nations. Richard Lynn, John Harvey and Helmuth Nyborg. Published in Intelligence (2009 Jan/Feb) vol. 37 issue 1 pages 11-15. Online at www.sciencedirect.com, accessed 2009 Sep 15.

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(1993) A History of Sin. Published by Canongate Press. A hardback book.

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(2011) Human Development Report. Published by the UN Development Programme. This edition had the theme of Sustainability and Equity: A Better Future for All. Available on hdr.undp.org/... UN Development Program: About the Human Development Index.
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(2018) Global Slavery Index. Published on www.walkfreefoundation.org/.

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Footnotes

  1. World Bank data on data.worldbank.org accessed 2013 Nov 04.^
  2. UN (2011) .^
  3. UN (2017). Table 1.^
  4. UN (2017). Gross National Income, per person. Table 1.^
  5. International Standards Organisation (ISO) standard ISO3166-1, on www.iso.org, accessed 2013 May 01.^
  6. Top level domains (TLDs) are managed by the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) on www.iana.org.^
  7. According to ISO4217.^
  8. According to ITU-T.^
  9. CIA (2013). Https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/cf.html accessed 2014 Apr 27.^
  10. Lonely Planet (2014). Chapter "Congo, Republic of the".^
  11. UN (2017). Table 1. Lower is better.^
  12. "What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life" by Vexen Crabtree (2018)^
  13. UN (2017). Dashboard 2. Higher is worse. Old-age is counted as 65+, and ratio is of these to people ages 15-64. Projections are for 2030 based on medium-fertility variant of growth.^
  14. UN (2013). Table 11.^
  15. UN (2013). Table 14. Births per woman (2012), expressed as deviance (positive or negative) from the value of 2.0.^
  16. UN (2017). Table 1. Higher is better.^^
  17. UN (2013). Table 14.^
  18. Transparency International Corruption Perceptions Index (2017). Accessed 2017 Dec 30. The scores given are the TI average for the years 2012-2016.^
  19. ^
  20. Max possible=24. Total amount of treaties ratified. Nominal Commitment to Human Rights report published by UCL School of Public Policy, London, UK, at ucl.ac.uk/spp/research/research-projects/nchr accessed 2011 Apr 30.^
  21. Fraser Institute, the (2016). Covers data for 2014.^
  22. Reporters Without Borders Report "2013 World Press Freedom Index: Dashed hopes after spring" at fr.rsf.org/.../classement_2013_gb-bd.pdf accessed 2013 Feb.^
  23. Walk Free Foundation (2018) .^
  24. Thomson (1993). P28.^
  25. McCall (1979). P180.^
  26. Thomson (1993). P166.^
  27. Casely-Hayford (2012). P253.^
  28. Thomson (1993). P31.^
  29. Thomson (1993). P199.^
  30. Thomson (1993). P28-29.^
  31. Klein (2004) .^
  32. Walk Free Foundation (2018). P2.^
  33. UN (2017). Table 5. Lower is better.^^
  34. "What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life: 2.6. Women Stand for Election & Vote" by Vexen Crabtree (2018)^
  35. Zuckerman, P. (2007). Atheism: contemporary numbers and patterns. In M.Martin (Ed.), The Cambridge Companion to Atheism. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. In "Average intelligence predicts atheism rates across 137 nations" by Lynn et al. (2009)48.^
  36. Pew Forum (2012) publication "The Global Religious Landscape: A Report on the Size and Distribution of the World´s Major Religious Groups as of 2010" (2012 Dec 18) accessed 2013 May 01.^
  37. CIA (2013). Https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/ar.html accessed 2014 Apr 27.^
  38. internetlivestats.com/internet-users-by-country accessed 2017 Mar 10.^
  39. % of internet access via native IPv6 compared to IPv4. As of 2017 Jun 20, from http://www.cidr-report.org. Accessed 2017 Jun 20.^
  40. WHO (2014). Appendix 1. Alcohol Per Capita Consumption in liters of pure alcohol, 15+ years age population, consumed in 2010. Lower is better.^
  41. The Good Country Index (2017) .^^
  42. World Health Organisation data for 2011-2015 from 7 data series accessed 2017 May 21. Details in "Immunizations: International Statistics on Vaccines and the Autism Scare: 3. World Health Organisation Statistics" by Vexen Crabtree (2017).^
  43. Annual Cigarette Consumption Per Adult (age 15 and above) - compustible cigarettes. Euromonitor International (2014), via tobaccoatlas.org/topic/cigarette-use-globally/ . Accessed 2017 Jun 20.^
  44. Charities Aid Foundation. Average ranking across years 2013-2016. Lower is better.^
  45. UN (2013). Table 9. Higher is better. Table 9. The UN's data is the latest available from a range of data from 2007-2011.^
  46. Yale University Center for Environmental Law & Policy 2018 EPI.^
  47. Sources:^
  48. Lynn, Harvey & Nyborg (2009) .^

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