The Human Truth Foundation

Estonia (Republic of Estonia)

By Vexen Crabtree 2013


Comments:
FB, LJ

#charity #economics #estonia #happiness #intelligence #morals #research #science #the_environment

Estonia
Republic of Estonia
StatusIndependent State
CapitalTallinn
Land Area 42 390km21
LocationEurope, Baltic States, Scandinavia
Population1.3m (2011)2
Life Expectancy77.01yrs (2017)3
GNI$26 362 (2017)4
ISO3166-1 CodesEE, EST, 2335
Internet Domain.ee6
CurrencyEuro (EUR)7
Telephone+3728

1. Overview

#denmark #germany #russia #sweden

After centuries of Danish, Swedish, German, and Russian rule, Estonia attained independence in 1918. Forcibly incorporated into the USSR in 1940 - an action never recognized by the US - it regained its freedom in 1991 with the collapse of the Soviet Union. Since the last Russian troops left in 1994, Estonia has been free to promote economic and political ties with the West. It joined both NATO and the EU in the spring of 2004, formally joined the OECD in late 2010, and adopted the euro as its official currency on 1 January 2011.

CIA's The World Factbook (2013)9

Book CoverEmbracing change with gusto, Estonia is a country of understated charms, an irresistible mix of Baltic earthiness and Nordic flavours. Estonia doesn´t have to struggle to find a point of difference in Eastern Europe; it´s completely unique. It shares a similar geography and history with Latvia and Lithuania. Its closest ethnic and linguistic buddy is Finland, yet they were separated by 50 years of Soviet rule. For the past 300 years Estonia has been linked to Russia, but the two states have as much in common as a barn swallow and a bear (their respective national symbols).

In recent decades, and with a new-found confidence, Estonia has crept from under the Soviet blanket and leapt into the arms of Europe. The love affair is mutual: Europe has fallen for the chocolate-box allure of Tallinn, while travellers seeking something different are tapping into Estonia´s captivating blend of Eastern European and Nordic appeal.

National parks provide plenty of elbow room and quaint villages evoke a timeless sense of history. You can experience unspoilt seaside or windswept island solitude, while still enjoying the comforts of a thoroughly modern, e-savvy country that´s hell-bent on catching up with its Nordic neighbours in the quality-of-life stakes.

"The World" by Lonely Planet (2014)10


2. Estonia National and Social Development

#human_development

UN HDI (2016)11
Pos.Lower is better
Rank11
1Norway1
2Australia2
3Switzerland2
...
28Czechia28
29Greece29
30Brunei30
31Estonia30
32Andorra32
33Malta33
34Qatar33
35Cyprus33
World Avg94.3
q=188.
Social & Moral
Development Index
12
Pos.Higher is better
Points12
1Denmark84.0
2Sweden83.9
3Finland83.5
...
19France76.9
20Japan75.0
21Spain73.4
22Estonia72.7
23USA71.9
24Italy71.1
25Czechia71.0
26Singapore71.0
World Avg53.8
q=198.

The United Nations produces an annual Human Development Report which includes the Human Development Index. The factors taken into account include life expectancy, education and schooling and Gross National Income (GNI) amongst many others..

The Social and Moral Development Index concentrates on moral issues and human rights, violence, public health, equality, tolerance, freedom and effectiveness in climate change mitigation and environmentalism, and on some technological issues. A country scores higher for achieving well in those areas, and for sustaining that achievement in the long term. Those countries towards the top of this index can truly said to be setting good examples and leading humankind onwards into a bright, humane, and free future. See: What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life.

3. Population and Demographics

#demographics #Estonia #health #immigration #life_expectancy #overpopulation #population

Old-Age Dependency Ratio (2016)13
Pos.Lower is better
Per 10013
1Uganda04.3
2Mali04.5
3Chad04.7
...
165Denmark37.1
166Bosnia & Herzegovina37.3
167S. Korea37.6
168Estonia37.9
169Belgium38.1
170Switzerland38.3
171Canada38.5
172Croatia39.7
World Avg18.3
q=185.
Emigrants (2010)14
Pos.
%14
1Dominica104.8
2Palestine68.4
3Samoa67.3
...
50Romania13.1
51Iceland13.0
52Bahamas12.8
53Estonia12.6
54Nicaragua12.5
55Latvia12.3
56Luxembourg11.8
57Jordan11.3
World Avg11.5
q=192.
Fertility Rate (2013)15
Pos.2.0 is best15
1N. Korea2.00
2Brunei1.99
3St Vincent & Grenadines2.01
...
45Suriname2.28
46Uzbekistan2.29
47Cape Verde2.29
48Estonia1.71
49UAE1.70
50Canada1.69
51Colombia2.31
52Maldives1.67
World Avg2.81
q=180.

Immigrants (2010)14
Pos.
%14
1Qatar86.5
2Monaco71.6
3UAE70.0
...
34Latvia15.0
35Sweden14.1
36Belgium13.7
37Estonia13.6
38USA13.5
39Germany13.1
40Djibouti13.0
41Seychelles12.8
World Avg9.2
q=192.
Life Expectancy (2015)16
Pos.Higher is better
Years16
1Hong Kong84.16
2Japan83.68
3Italy83.34
...
44Croatia77.50
45Uruguay77.35
46UAE77.12
47Estonia77.01
48Mexico76.97
49Oman76.97
50Maldives76.96
51Bahrain76.72
World Avg71.27
q=190.
Population (2012)17
Pos.The Overpopulation of the Earth17
1China1.4b
2India1.3b
3USA315.8m
...
149Gabon1.6m
150Bahrain1.4m
151Trinidad & Tobago1.4m
152Estonia1.3m
153Mauritius1.3m
154Swaziland1.2m
155Timor-Leste (E. Timor)1.2m
156Cyprus1.1m
World Avg36.0m
q=195.

Estonia's population is predicted to fall to 1 296 000 by 2030. Developed countries with falling populations face a pension's crises, whereby an incresingly ageing population must be cared for by fewer and fewer workers. Economic stability can be maintained by increasing foreign workers from younger countries. This country has a fertility rate of 1.71. The fertility rate is, in simple terms, the average amount of children that each woman has. The higher the figure, the quicker the population is growing, although, to calculate the rate you also need to take into account morbidity, i.e., the rate at which people die. If people live healthy and long lives and morbidity is low, then, 2.0 approximates to the replacement rate, which would keep the population stable. If all countries had such a fertility rate, population growth would end. The actual replacement rate in most developed countries is around 2.1.

4. Human Rights, Equality and Freedom

#equality #Estonia #freedom #human_rights #politics #tolerance

Estonia performs very well in ensuring human rights and freedom compared to most other countries. Estonia comes in the top 20 in commentary from Human Rights Watch18 and in supporting press freedom19. It does better than average in supporting personal, civil & economic freedoms20, fighting corruption21, opposing gender inequality22, fighting anti-semitic opinions23, LGBT equality24, its Global Peace Index rating25, eliminating modern slavery26 and in its nominal commitment to Human Rights27.

For tables, charts and commentary, see:

5. Religion and Beliefs

#belief #buddhism #christianity #god #hinduism #islam #judaism #religion

Religiosity (2009)28
Pos.Lower is better
%28
1Estonia16
2Sweden17
3Denmark19
4Japan24
5Hong Kong24
6UK27
7France30
8Vietnam30
9Russia34
10Belarus34
11Latvia39
12Luxembourg39
World Avg75.1
q=114.
Disbelief In God (2007)29
Pos.Higher is better29
1Vietnam81
2Japan65
3Sweden64
4Czechia61
5Estonia49
6Denmark48
7France44
8Belgium43
9Netherlands42
10Germany42
11UK42
12Cuba40
World Avg9.9
q=137.

Data from the Pew Forum, a professional polling outfit, states that in 2010 the religious makeup of this country was as follows in the table below30:

Christian39.9%
Muslim0.2%
Hindu0.1%
Buddhist0.1%
Folk Religion0.1%
Jew0.1%
Unaffiliated59.6%

It appears that when asked "What religion are you" many give pollsters the 'correct' answer despite how they actually feel, and despite what they actually believe. Although 40.5% of the populace say they belong to a religion, only 16% say that they are religious when the question is phrased as "Is religion an important part of your daily life?".

For more on this phenomenon, see:

The CIA World Factbook has slightly different data, and states: Evangelical Lutheran 13.6%, Orthodox 12.8%, other Christian (including Methodist, Seventh-Day Adventist, Roman Catholic, Pentecostal) 1.4%, unaffiliated 34.1%, other and unspecified 32%, none 6.1% (2000 census)31.

Links:

6. The Internet

#Estonia #internet #politics #the_internet

Freedom On The Internet (2012)32
Pos.Lower is better32
1Estonia10
2USA12
3Germany15
4Australia18
5Hungary19
6Philippines23
7Italy23
8UK25
9S. Africa26
10Argentina26
11Ukraine27
12Brazil27
World Avg46.7
q=47.
Internet Users (2016)33
Pos.Higher is better33
1Iceland100%
2Faroe Islands99%
3Norway98%
...
14Qatar92%
15UAE92%
16Bahrain92%
17Estonia91%
18Japan91%
19New Zealand89%
20USA89%
21Canada89%
World Avg48.1%
q=201.
IPv6 Uptake (2017)34
Pos.Higher is better
Ratio34
1Belgium55.4
2Germany41.8
3Switzerland35.1
...
13Canada18.3
14Peru18.3
15Ecuador18.2
16Estonia17.6
17Malaysia16.5
18Norway14.7
19Australia14.6
20Trinidad & Tobago14.5
World Avg3.82
q=176.

Internet access has become an essential research tool. It facilitates an endless list of life improvements, from the ability to network and socialize without constraint, to access to a seemingly infinite repository of technical and procedural information on pretty much any task. The universal availability of data has sped up industrial development and personal learning at the national and personal level. Individuals can read any topic they wish regardless of the locality of expert teachers, and, entire nations can develop their technology and understanding of the world simply because they are now exposed to advanced societies and moral discourses online. Like every communications medium, the Internet has issues and causes a small range of problems, but these are insignificant compared to the advantages of having an online populace.

7. Public Health Issues

#alcohol #Estonia #health #mental_health #parenting #population #smoking #suicide #vaccines

Adolescent Birth Rate (2015)22
Pos.Lower is better
Per 100022
1N. Korea0.5
2S. Korea1.6
3Switzerland2.9
...
39Lithuania11.0
40Montenegro12.2
41Lebanon12.4
42Estonia13.1
43Poland13.4
44Bahrain13.5
45Malaysia13.6
46Latvia13.6
World Avg47.9
q=185.
Alcohol Consumption (2010)35
Pos.Lower is better
Per Capita35
1Libya0.1
2Pakistan0.1
3Kuwait0.1
...
150Netherlands9.9
151Nigeria10.1
152Canada10.2
153Estonia10.3
154Kazakhstan10.3
155Austria10.3
156Greece10.3
157St Lucia10.4
World Avg6.2
q=191.
Food Aid, Health Contributions & WHO Compliance (2017)36
Pos.Lower is better
Rank36
1Sweden1
2Ireland2
3Denmark3
...
24Italy24
25Qatar25
26Oman26
27Estonia27
28Austria28
29Greece29
30Nicaragua30
31Armenia31
World Avg82.0
q=163.

Infant Immunizations 2011-2015 (2015)37
Pos.Higher is better
Avg %37
1Hungary99.0
2China99.0
3Uzbekistan98.9
...
81Tanzania94.0
82Germany94.0
83Lithuania93.9
84Estonia93.9
85N. Korea93.8
86Italy93.8
87Austria93.8
88Argentina93.7
World Avg88.3
q=194.
Smoking Rates (2014)38
Pos.Lower is better38
1Guinea 15
2Solomon Islands 26
3Kiribati 28
...
161Croatia1 709
162Japan1 713
163Hungary1 759
164Estonia1 775
165Ukraine1 854
166Jordan1 855
167Austria1 988
168S. Korea2 073
World Avg 819
q=182.
Suicide Rate (2013)39
Pos.Lower is better
Per 100k39
1Haiti0
2Grenada0
3Egypt0.1
...
74Moldova35.7
75Switzerland36.2
76Croatia36.4
77Estonia37.9
78Serbia38.1
79Finland39
80Belgium39.1
81Slovenia44
World Avg20.93
q=91.

8. More Charts and Comparisons to Other Countries

Personal Charitability
(World Position, 2013-2016)
40
Pos.Lower is better40
1Myanmar (Burma)1.25
2USA1.5
3New Zealand3.5
...
119Japan102
120Hungary102
121Azerbaijan102.25
122Estonia103.25
123Moldova103.5
124Congo, (Brazzaville)104.75
125Bosnia & Herzegovina107
q=156.
Intellectual Endeavours (2017)36
Pos.Lower is better
Rank36
1Ukraine1
2Czechia2
3Hungary3
...
33Croatia33
34Israel34
35Barbados35
36Estonia36
37Luxembourg37
38USA38
39Portugal39
q=163.
Creativity and Culture (2017)36
Pos.Lower is better
Rank36
1Belgium1
2Netherlands2
3Estonia3
4Switzerland4
5Sweden5
6Denmark6
7Austria7
8Ireland8
9Czechia9
10Luxembourg10
11UK11
q=163.
Peacekeeping and Security (2017)36
Pos.Lower is better
Rank36
1Samoa1
2S. Africa2
3Tunisia3
...
90Uganda90
91Congo, DR91
92Pakistan92
93Estonia93
94Bahamas94
95Mauritania95
96Nicaragua96
q=163.
Refugees and UN Treaties (2017)36
Pos.Lower is better
Rank36
1Austria1
2Germany2
3Netherlands3
...
69Malawi69
70Latvia70
71Guatemala71
72Estonia72
73Guinea-Bissau73
74Albania74
75Botswana75
q=163.
Open Trading, Aid and Development (2017)36
Pos.Lower is better
Rank36
1Ireland1
2Denmark2
3Sweden3
...
34Spain34
35UK35
36Italy36
37Estonia37
38Cyprus38
39Bulgaria39
40Turkey40
q=163.
Research and Development (2016)
Pos.Higher is better
% RDP PPP
1S. Korea4.29
2Israel4.11
3Japan3.58
...
21UK1.70
22Canada1.61
23Ireland1.52
24Estonia1.43
25Hungary1.37
26Italy1.29
27Portugal1.28
28Luxembourg1.26
q=126.
Life Satisfaction (2011)41
Pos.Higher is better41
1Denmark7.8
2Norway7.6
3Netherlands7.6
...
64Montenegro5.5
65Hong Kong5.5
66Kazakhstan5.5
67Estonia5.5
68Mauritius5.5
69Russia5.4
70Greece5.4
71Lithuania5.4
q=150.
Gross National Income Per-Capita (2011)16
Pos.Higher is better
PPP $16
1Qatar$129 916
2Singapore$78 162
3Kuwait$76 075
...
39Czechia$28 144
40Trinidad & Tobago$28 049
41Slovakia$26 764
42Estonia$26 362
43Portugal$26 104
44Lithuania$26 006
45Greece$24 808
46Malaysia$24 620
q=193.
Environmental Performance (2018)42
Pos.Higher is better42
1Switzerland87.4
2France84.0
3Denmark81.6
...
45Romania64.8
46Dominican Rep.64.7
47Uruguay64.7
48Estonia64.3
49Singapore64.2
50Poland64.1
51Venezuela63.9
52Russia63.8
q=180.
IQ (2006)43
Pos.Higher is better43
1Hong Kong108
2Singapore108
3S. Korea106
...
16Poland99
17Germany99
18Finland99
19Estonia99
20Sweden99
21Belgium99
22Canada99
23Andorra98
q=138.

9. Scandinavian?

#baltic_states #estonia #finland #latvia #lithuania #scandinavia #sweden

Estonia is traditionally considered one of the Baltic nations (alongside Latvia and Lithuania). But as the colonial history of Sweden provides a 100-year window where Estonia was 'scandinavian' due to being ruled by Sweden, it borders the Gulf of Finland, and as it shares many cultural, some linguistic, and economic factors with Scandinavia, some have called for Estonia to be considered Scandinavian44. The Prime Minister of Sweden) from 1991-1994, Mr Bildt, did describe Estonia as part of Scandinavia45 in 2006, but, this claim remains largely ignored. The historical connection to Sweden is tenuous. The public will require time and much convincing if Estonia is to be considered Scandinavian rather than Baltic.

"Scandinavia, the Crown of Civilisation:Sweden, Denmark, Norway, Finland and Iceland: 10. High Taxes (As of 2006)" by Vexen Crabtree (2006)

Current edition: 2013 May 01
Last Modified: 2019 Jan 13
http://www.humantruth.info/estonia.html
Parent page: Compare International Statistics by Region and Continent

All #tags used on this page - click for more:

#alcohol #baltic_states #belief #buddhism #charity #christianity #demographics #denmark #economics #equality #estonia #finland #freedom #germany #god #happiness #health #hinduism #human_development #human_rights #immigration #intelligence #internet #islam #judaism #latvia #life_expectancy #lithuania #mental_health #morals #overpopulation #parenting #politics #population #religion #research #russia #scandinavia #science #smoking #suicide #sweden #the_environment #the_internet #tolerance #vaccines

Social Media

References: (What's this?)

The Good Country Index. Published by The Good Country Inc., New York, USA. Website: goodcountry.org. The Good Country Index gauges how well countries are doing in helping international development. Edition 1.2 (2017) has 35 criteria.

The Economist. Published by The Economist Group, Ltd. A weekly newspaper in magazine format, famed for its accuracy, wide scope and intelligent content. See vexen.co.uk/references.html#Economist for some commentary on this source. A newspaper.

Anti-Defamation League. (ADL)
(2014) ADL Global 100, Executive Summary. Accessed on global100.adl.org on 2017 Jan 02. The numbers given are of those who state that racist stereotyped statements about Jews are true; they have to agree to 6 or more of the 11 statements to be counted. An example statements is "Jews are hated because of the way they behave". The data was collected from 53,100 interviews across 101 countries plus the West Bank and Gaza. The global average is 26%.

Charities Aid Foundation
World Giving Index. On www.cafonline.org.

CIA
(2013) World Factbook. The USA Government's Central Intelligence Agency (USA CIA) publishes The World Factbook, and the online version is frequently updated.

Crabtree, Vexen
(2019) "What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life" (2019). Accessed 2019 Jan 13.

The Fraser Institute
(2016) The Human Freedom Index. Published by The Cato Institute, The Fraser Institute and the Friedrich Naumann Foundation for Freedom. Covers data up to 2014. On www.fraserinstitute.org/.../human-freedom-index-2016.

Gallup
(2009) Religiosity. gallup.com/poll/142727/.... The survey question was "Is religion an important part of your daily life?" and results are charted for those who said "yes". 1000 adults were polled in each of 114 countries.

Human Rights Watch
(2018) World Report 2018. Covering the events of 2017.

Lonely Planet
(2014) The World. Subtitled: "A Traveller's Guide to the Planet". Published by Lonely Planet, London, UK. Each chapter is devoted to a specific country and includes a list of the most interesting places to visit and a few other cultural notes.

Lynn, Harvey & Nyborg
(2009) Average intelligence predicts atheism rates across 137 nations. Richard Lynn, John Harvey and Helmuth Nyborg. Published in Intelligence (2009 Jan/Feb) vol. 37 issue 1 pages 11-15. Online at www.sciencedirect.com, accessed 2009 Sep 15.

United Nations
(2011) Human Development Report. Published by the UN Development Programme. This edition had the theme of Sustainability and Equity: A Better Future for All. Available on hdr.undp.org/... UN Development Program: About the Human Development Index.
(2013) Human Development Report. Published by the UN Development Programme. This edition had the theme of The Rise of the South: Human Progress in a Diverse World. Available on hdr.undp.org/... UN Development Program: About the Human Development Index.
(2017) Human Development Report. Published by the UN Development Programme. Data for 2015. Available on hdr.undp.org/.

Walk Free Foundation
(2018) Global Slavery Index. Published on www.walkfreefoundation.org/.

World Health Organisation. (WHO)
(2014) Global Status Report on Alcohol and Health. A copy can be found on the WHO website. Accessed 2015 Jan 04. It "presents a comprehensive perspective on the global, regional and country consumption of alcohol, patterns of drinking, health consequences and policy responses in Member States" and was published in Geneva on 2014 May 12.

Footnotes

  1. World Bank data on data.worldbank.org accessed 2013 Nov 04.^
  2. UN (2011) .^
  3. UN (2017). Table 1.^
  4. UN (2017). Gross National Income, per person. Table 1.^
  5. International Standards Organisation (ISO) standard ISO3166-1, on www.iso.org, accessed 2013 May 01.^
  6. Top level domains (TLDs) are managed by the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) on www.iana.org.^
  7. According to ISO4217.^
  8. According to ITU-T.^
  9. CIA (2013). Https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/en.html accessed 2014 Apr 27.^
  10. Lonely Planet (2014). Chapter "Estonia".^
  11. UN (2017). Table 1. Lower is better.^
  12. "What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life" by Vexen Crabtree (2019)^
  13. UN (2017). Dashboard 2. Higher is worse. Old-age is counted as 65+, and ratio is of these to people ages 15-64. Projections are for 2030 based on medium-fertility variant of growth.^
  14. UN (2013). Table 11.^
  15. UN (2013). Table 14. Births per woman (2012), expressed as deviance (positive or negative) from the value of 2.0.^
  16. UN (2017). Table 1. Higher is better.^^
  17. UN (2013). Table 14.^
  18. Human Rights Watch (2018). Negative and positive comments have been added to create a score for each country covered in the report.^
  19. Reporters Without Borders Report "2013 World Press Freedom Index: Dashed hopes after spring" at fr.rsf.org/.../classement_2013_gb-bd.pdf accessed 2013 Feb.^
  20. Fraser Institute, the (2016). Covers data for 2014.^
  21. Transparency International Corruption Perceptions Index (2017). Accessed 2017 Dec 30. The scores given are the TI average for the years 2012-2016.^
  22. UN (2017). Table 5. Lower is better.^^
  23. ADL (2014). Lower is better.^
  24. Sources:^
  25. ^
  26. Walk Free Foundation (2018) .^
  27. Max possible=24. Total amount of treaties ratified. Nominal Commitment to Human Rights report published by UCL School of Public Policy, London, UK, at ucl.ac.uk/spp/research/research-projects/nchr accessed 2011 Apr 30.^
  28. Gallup (2009) .^
  29. Zuckerman, P. (2007). Atheism: contemporary numbers and patterns. In M.Martin (Ed.), The Cambridge Companion to Atheism. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. In "Average intelligence predicts atheism rates across 137 nations" by Lynn et al. (2009)43.^
  30. Pew Forum (2012) publication "The Global Religious Landscape: A Report on the Size and Distribution of the World´s Major Religious Groups as of 2010" (2012 Dec 18) accessed 2013 May 01.^
  31. CIA (2013). Https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/ar.html accessed 2014 Apr 27.^
  32. Freedom House publication "Freedom on the Net 2012" at www.freedomhouse.org/.../FOTN%202012%20-%20Tables%20and%20Charts%20FINAL.pdf accessed 2013 Feb 05.^
  33. internetlivestats.com/internet-users-by-country accessed 2017 Mar 10.^
  34. % of internet access via native IPv6 compared to IPv4. As of 2017 Jun 20, from http://www.cidr-report.org. Accessed 2017 Jun 20.^
  35. WHO (2014). Appendix 1. Alcohol Per Capita Consumption in liters of pure alcohol, 15+ years age population, consumed in 2010. Lower is better.^
  36. The Good Country Index (2017) .^^
  37. World Health Organisation data for 2011-2015 from 7 data series accessed 2017 May 21. Details in "Immunizations: International Statistics on Vaccines and the Autism Scare: 3. World Health Organisation Statistics" by Vexen Crabtree (2017).^
  38. Annual Cigarette Consumption Per Adult (age 15 and above) - compustible cigarettes. Euromonitor International (2014), via tobaccoatlas.org/topic/cigarette-use-globally/ . Accessed 2017 Jun 20.^
  39. UN (2013). World Health Organisation statistics. Suicide Rates Per 100k.^
  40. Charities Aid Foundation. Average ranking across years 2013-2016. Lower is better.^
  41. UN (2013). Table 9. Higher is better. Table 9. The UN's data is the latest available from a range of data from 2007-2011.^
  42. Yale University Center for Environmental Law & Policy 2018 EPI.^
  43. Lynn, Harvey & Nyborg (2009) .^^
  44. According to the netizens of soc.culture.nordic newsgroup on the 2006 Oct 07 thread "Which countries are part of 'Scandinavia' or are 'Nordic' countries?".^
  45. The Economist (2006 Sep 09). Article "The Swedish Model" p29.^

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