The Human Truth Foundation

Estonia (Republic of Estonia)

By Vexen Crabtree 2013

#estonia

Estonia
Republic of Estonia
StatusIndependent State
Social and Moral Index27th best
CapitalTallinn
Land Area 42 390km21
LocationEurope, Baltic States, Scandinavia
Population1.3m2
Life Expectancy77.01yrs (2017)3
GNI$26 362 (2017)4
ISO3166-1 CodesEE, EST, 2335
Internet Domain.ee6
CurrencyEuro (EUR)7
Telephone+3728

1. Overview

#denmark #germany #russia #sweden

After centuries of Danish, Swedish, German, and Russian rule, Estonia attained independence in 1918. Forcibly incorporated into the USSR in 1940 - an action never recognized by the US - it regained its freedom in 1991 with the collapse of the Soviet Union. Since the last Russian troops left in 1994, Estonia has been free to promote economic and political ties with the West. It joined both NATO and the EU in the spring of 2004, formally joined the OECD in late 2010, and adopted the euro as its official currency on 1 January 2011.

CIA's The World Factbook (2013)9

Book CoverEmbracing change with gusto, Estonia is a country of understated charms, an irresistible mix of Baltic earthiness and Nordic flavours. Estonia doesn´t have to struggle to find a point of difference in Eastern Europe; it´s completely unique. It shares a similar geography and history with Latvia and Lithuania. Its closest ethnic and linguistic buddy is Finland, yet they were separated by 50 years of Soviet rule. For the past 300 years Estonia has been linked to Russia, but the two states have as much in common as a barn swallow and a bear (their respective national symbols).

In recent decades, and with a new-found confidence, Estonia has crept from under the Soviet blanket and leapt into the arms of Europe. The love affair is mutual: Europe has fallen for the chocolate-box allure of Tallinn, while travellers seeking something different are tapping into Estonia´s captivating blend of Eastern European and Nordic appeal.

National parks provide plenty of elbow room and quaint villages evoke a timeless sense of history. You can experience unspoilt seaside or windswept island solitude, while still enjoying the comforts of a thoroughly modern, e-savvy country that´s hell-bent on catching up with its Nordic neighbours in the quality-of-life stakes.

"The World" by Lonely Planet (2014)10


2. Estonia National and Social Development

#economics #human_development

UN HDI (2016)11
Pos.Lower is better
Rank11
1Norway1
2Australia2
3Switzerland2
...
28Czechia28
29Greece29
30Brunei30
31Estonia30
32Andorra32
33Malta33
34Qatar33
35Cyprus33
World Avg94.3
q=188.
Gross National Income Per-Capita (2011)12
Pos.Higher is better
PPP $12
1Qatar$129 916
2Singapore$78 162
3Kuwait$76 075
...
39Czechia$28 144
40Trinidad & Tobago$28 049
41Slovakia$26 764
42Estonia$26 362
43Portugal$26 104
44Lithuania$26 006
45Greece$24 808
46Malaysia$24 620
World Avg$17 240
q=193.
Social & Moral
Development Index
13,14
Pos.Lower is better
Avg Rank13,14
1Taiwan30.2
2Denmark30.5
3Norway30.9
...
24Hungary48.0
25Czechia49.0
26Portugal50.7
27Estonia51.1
28Poland52.8
29Singapore54.2
30Cyprus55.6
31Costa Rica56.0
World Avg86.4
q=195.

The United Nations produces an annual Human Development Report which includes the Human Development Index. The factors taken into account include life expectancy, education and schooling and Gross National Income (GNI) amongst many others..

The Social and Moral Development Index concentrates on moral issues and human rights, violence, public health, equality, tolerance, freedom and effectiveness in climate change mitigation and environmentalism, and on some technological issues. A country scores higher for achieving well in those areas, and for sustaining that achievement in the long term. Those countries towards the top of this index can truly said to be setting good examples and leading humankind onwards into a bright, humane, and free future. See: Which are the Best Countries in the World? The Social and Moral Development Index.

3. Estonia's Demographics

#birth_control #demographics #health #immigration #life_expectancy #longevity #migration #overpopulation #population

Population:

Estonia's population is predicted to fall to 1 296 000 by 2030. Developed countries with falling populations face a pension's crises, whereby an incresingly ageing population must be cared for by fewer and fewer workers. Economic stability can be maintained by increasing foreign workers from younger countries. This country has a fertility rate of 1.71. The fertility rate is, in simple terms, the average amount of children that each woman has. The higher the figure, the quicker the population is growing, although, to calculate the rate you also need to take into account morbidity, i.e., the rate at which people die. If people live healthy and long lives and morbidity is low, then, 2.0 approximates to the replacement rate, which would keep the population stable. If all countries had such a fertility rate, population growth would end. The actual replacement rate in most developed countries is around 2.1.

Population (2018)2
Pos.
Population2
1China1.4b
2India1.4b
3USA327.1m
...
149Guinea-Bissau1.9m
150Bahrain1.6m
151Trinidad & Tobago1.4m
152Estonia1.3m
153Equatorial Guinea1.3m
154Timor-Leste (E. Timor)1.3m
155Mauritius1.3m
156Cyprus1.2m
World Avg39.0m
q=195.
Life Expectancy (2015)12
Pos.Higher is better
Years12
1Hong Kong84.16
2Japan83.68
3Italy83.34
...
44Croatia77.50
45Uruguay77.35
46UAE77.12
47Estonia77.01
48Mexico76.97
49Oman76.97
50Maldives76.96
51Bahrain76.72
World Avg71.27
q=190.
Fertility Rate (2013)15
Pos.2.0 is best15
1N. Korea2.00
2Brunei1.99
3St Vincent & Grenadines2.01
...
45Suriname2.28
46Uzbekistan2.29
47Cape Verde2.29
48Estonia1.71
49UAE1.70
50Canada1.69
51Colombia2.31
52Maldives1.67
World Avg2.81
q=180.
Old-Age Dependency Ratio (2016)16
Pos.Lower is better
Per 10016
1Uganda04.3
2Mali04.5
3Chad04.7
...
165Denmark37.1
166Bosnia & Herzegovina37.3
167S. Korea37.6
168Estonia37.9
169Belgium38.1
170Switzerland38.3
171Canada38.5
172Croatia39.7
World Avg18.3
q=185.

Migration:

Immigrants (2017)17
Pos.
%17
1UAE88.4%
2Kuwait75.5%
3Qatar65.2%
...
34USA15.3%
35Norway15.1%
36Germany14.8%
37Estonia14.7%
38Gabon13.8%
39St Kitts & Nevis13.7%
40Seychelles13.6%
41Croatia13.4%
World Avg9.4%
q=195.
Emigrants (2010)18
Pos.
%18
1Dominica104.8%
2Palestine68.4%
3Samoa67.3%
...
50Romania13.1%
51Iceland13.0%
52Bahamas12.8%
53Estonia12.6%
54Nicaragua12.5%
55Latvia12.3%
56Luxembourg11.8%
57Jordan11.3%
World Avg11.5%
q=192.

4. Human Rights, Equality & Tolerance

#equality #Estonia #freedom #human_rights #politics #tolerance

Estonia performs very well in ensuring human rights and freedom compared to most other countries. Estonia comes in the best 20 for commentary in Human Rights Watch reports19 and in supporting press freedom20. It does better than average in supporting personal, civil & economic freedoms21, opposing gender inequality22, its success in fighting anti-semitic prejudice23, LGBT equality24 and in its nominal commitment to Human Rights25 (but bad for Europe). Estonia does not succeed in everything, however. It does worse than average in terms of speed of uptake of HR treaties26.

For tables, charts and commentary, see:

5. Estonia's Health

#alcohol #birth_control #demographics #Estonia #health #life_expectancy #longevity #mental_health #obesity #overpopulation #parenting #population #smoking #suicide #vaccines

Health (2020)27,28
Pos.Lower is better
Avg Rank27,28
1Hong Kong18.0
2Singapore41.5
3Maldives43.3
...
65Solomon Islands84.7
66Turkmenistan85.1
67Australia85.3
68Estonia85.3
69Turkey85.6
70Tajikistan86.4
71Guyana86.5
72Nicaragua86.8
73Barbados87.1
World Avg92.3
q=187.

The countries with the best overall approach to public health, in terms of both public policy and individual lifestyle choices, are Hong Kong, Singapore and The Maldives27. These countries are worth emulating. And, although often through no fault of the average citizen, the worst countries are S. Sudan, Nigeria and Equatorial Guinea27.

The data sets used to calculate points for each country are its average life expectancy, its alcohol consumption rate, its fertility rate, its smoking rate, its suicide rate, its food aid and health contributions and WHO compliance, the prevalence of overweight adults, its adolescent birth rate and its immunizations take-up. The regions with the best average results per country are Scandinavia, Asia and Europe27, whereas the worst are Africa, Micronesia and Polynesia27.

Health:

Estonia does relatively well in encouraging good health, compared to many other countries. Estonia does better than average when it comes to its food aid and health contributions and WHO compliance29, its adolescent birth rate22, its fertility rate15 (but bad for Europe), its average life expectancy12 (but low for Europe) and in its immunizations take-up30. Estonia does not succeed in everything, however. It falls into the worst 20 when it comes to its suicide rate31, its smoking rate32 and in its alcohol consumption rate33. The prevalence of overweight adults has increased by 14% over the last 40 years.
Life Expectancy (2015)12
Pos.Higher is better
Years12
1Hong Kong84.16
2Japan83.68
3Italy83.34
...
44Croatia77.50
45Uruguay77.35
46UAE77.12
47Estonia77.01
48Mexico76.97
49Oman76.97
50Maldives76.96
51Bahrain76.72
World Avg71.27
q=190.
Alcohol Consumption (2016)33
Pos.Lower is better
Per Capita33
1Bangladesh0.0
2Kuwait0.0
3Libya0.0
...
169Slovakia11.5
170Switzerland11.5
171Austria11.6
172Estonia11.6
173Poland11.6
174Russia11.7
175Seychelles12.0
176Belgium12.1
World Avg6.2
q=189.
Fertility Rate (2013)15
Pos.2.0 is best15
1N. Korea2.00
2Brunei1.99
3St Vincent & Grenadines2.01
...
45Suriname2.28
46Uzbekistan2.29
47Cape Verde2.29
48Estonia1.71
49UAE1.70
50Canada1.69
51Colombia2.31
52Maldives1.67
World Avg2.81
q=180.
Smoking Rates (2014)32
Pos.Higher is worse32
182Montenegro4 125
181Belarus3 831
180Lebanon3 023
...
167Austria1 988
166Jordan1 855
165Ukraine1 854
164Estonia1 775
163Hungary1 759
162Japan1 713
161Croatia1 709
160Cyprus1 688
World Avg 819
q=182.
Suicide Rate (2013)31
Pos.
Per 100k31
1Haiti0
2Grenada0
3Egypt0.1
...
74Moldova35.7
75Switzerland36.2
76Croatia36.4
77Estonia37.9
78Serbia38.1
79Finland39
80Belgium39.1
81Slovenia44
World Avg20.93
q=91.
Food Aid, Health Contributions & WHO Compliance (2017)29
Pos.Lower is better
Rank29
1Sweden1
2Ireland2
3Denmark3
...
24Italy24
25Qatar25
26Oman26
27Estonia27
28Austria28
29Greece29
30Nicaragua30
31Armenia31
World Avg82.0
q=163.
Overweight Adults (2016)34
Pos.Lower is better
%34
1Vietnam18.3
2India19.7
3Bangladesh20.0
...
99Jamaica55.5
100Mongolia55.6
101Honduras55.8
102Estonia55.8
103Guatemala55.9
104Ecuador56.0
105Bolivia56.1
106Slovenia56.1
World Avg49.0
q=191.

Children's Health:

Adolescent Birth Rate (2015)22
Pos.Lower is better
Per 100022
1N. Korea0.5
2S. Korea1.6
3Switzerland2.9
...
39Lithuania11.0
40Montenegro12.2
41Lebanon12.4
42Estonia13.1
43Poland13.4
44Bahrain13.5
45Malaysia13.6
46Latvia13.6
World Avg47.9
q=185.
Infant Immunizations 2011-2015 (2015)30
Pos.Higher is better
Avg %30
1Hungary99.0
2China99.0
3Uzbekistan98.9
...
81Tanzania94.0
82Germany94.0
83Lithuania93.9
84Estonia93.9
85N. Korea93.8
86Italy93.8
87Austria93.8
88Argentina93.7
World Avg88.3
q=194.

6. Estonia's Modernity and Learning

#education #english #intelligence #maths #modernity #politics #religion #research #science #technology #the_internet

Modernity and Learning (2020)35
Pos.Lower is better
Avg Rank35
1Finland8.0
2Belgium9.1
3Denmark10.0
4Sweden13.3
5Australia14.8
6Switzerland14.9
7Estonia14.9
8Czechia15.5
9New Zealand15.6
10UK15.8
11Ireland16.4
12Norway16.6
13Germany17.1
World Avg69.0
q=180.

Modernity and Education:

Research and Development (2016)
Pos.Higher is better
% RDP PPP
1S. Korea4.2936
2Israel4.1136
3Japan3.5836
...
21UK1.7036
22Canada1.6136
23Ireland1.5236
24Estonia1.4336
25Hungary1.3736
26Italy1.2936
27Portugal1.2836
28Luxembourg1.2636
World Avg0.84
q=126.
Secondary Education (2018)37
Pos.Higher is better37
1Luxembourg100.0%
2Estonia100.0%
3Austria100.0%
4Canada100.0%
5Finland100.0%
6Iceland100.0%
7Uzbekistan99.9%
8Czechia99.8%
9Slovakia99.3%
10Latvia99.2%
11Kazakhstan98.6%
12Kyrgyzstan98.4%
World Avg63.0%
q=169.
Length of Schooling (2018)38
Pos.Higher is better
Years38
1Australia22.1
2Belgium19.7
3Finland19.3
...
31Italy16.2
32Switzerland16.2
33Canada16.1
34Estonia16.1
35Israel16.0
36Latvia16.0
37Malta15.9
38Palau15.6
World Avg13.2
q=193.
Intellectual Endeavours (2017)29
Pos.Lower is better
Rank29
1Ukraine1
2Czechia2
3Hungary3
...
33Croatia33
34Israel34
35Barbados35
36Estonia36
37Luxembourg37
38USA38
39Portugal39
40Spain40
World Avg82.0
q=163.
Maths, Science & Reading (2015)39
Pos.Higher is better
Score39
1Singapore1655
2Hong Kong1598
3Japan1586
4Macau1582
5Estonia1573
6Taiwan1571
7Canada1571
8Finland1568
9S. Korea1557
10China154340
11Ireland1528
12Slovenia1528
World Avg1389
q=70.
Religiosity (2009)41
Pos.Lower is better
%41
1Estonia16
2Sweden17
3Denmark19
4Japan24
5Hong Kong24
6UK27
7France30
8Vietnam30
9Russia34
10Belarus34
11Latvia39
12Luxembourg39
World Avg75.1
q=114.
IQ (2006)42
Pos.Higher is better42
1Hong Kong108
2Singapore108
3S. Korea106
...
16Poland99
17Germany99
18Finland99
19Estonia99
20Sweden99
21Belgium99
22Canada99
23Andorra98
World Avg85.6
q=138.

Technology and Information:

Internet Users (2016)43
Pos.Higher is better43
1Iceland100%
2Faroe Islands99%
3Norway98%
...
14Qatar92%
15UAE92%
16Bahrain92%
17Estonia91%
18Japan91%
19New Zealand89%
20USA89%
21Canada89%
World Avg48.1%
q=201.
Freedom On The Internet (2012)44
Pos.Lower is better44
1Estonia10
2USA12
3Germany15
4Australia18
5Hungary19
6Philippines23
7Italy23
8UK25
9S. Africa26
10Argentina26
11Ukraine27
12Brazil27
World Avg46.7
q=47.
IPv6 Uptake (2017)45
Pos.Higher is better
Ratio45
1Belgium55.4
2Germany41.8
3Switzerland35.1
...
13Canada18.3
14Peru18.3
15Ecuador18.2
16Estonia17.6
17Malaysia16.5
18Norway14.7
19Australia14.6
20Trinidad & Tobago14.5
World Avg3.82
q=176.

7. National Culture

#charity #corruption #happiness #morals #politics

Personal Charitability
(World Position, 2013-2016)
46
Pos.Lower is better46
1Myanmar (Burma)1.25
2USA1.5
3New Zealand3.5
...
119Japan102
120Hungary102
121Azerbaijan102.25
122Estonia103.25
123Moldova103.5
124Congo, (Brazzaville)104.75
125Bosnia & Herzegovina107
126Algeria109
World Avg68.1185897435897
q=156.
Corruption (2012-2016)47
Pos.Higher is better
Avg Score47
1Denmark90.8
2New Zealand90.6
3Finland89.4
...
25Bahamas69.8
26UAE68.6
27St Lucia68.3
28Estonia68.2
29Qatar67.4
30Bhutan64.2
31Botswana63.0
32Portugal62.8
World Avg43.05
q=176.
Happiness (2018)48
Pos.Higher is better48
1Finland7.6
2Norway7.6
3Denmark7.6
...
60Kazakhstan5.8
61Cyprus5.8
62Bolivia5.8
63Estonia5.7
64Paraguay5.7
65Peru5.7
66Kosovo5.7
67Moldova5.6
World Avg5.38
q=156.
Creativity and Culture (2017)29
Pos.Lower is better
Rank29
1Belgium1
2Netherlands2
3Estonia3
4Switzerland4
5Sweden5
6Denmark6
7Austria7
8Ireland8
9Czechia9
10Luxembourg10
11UK11
12Portugal12
World Avg82.0
q=163.
Open Trading, Aid and Development (2017)29
Pos.Lower is better
Rank29
1Ireland1
2Denmark2
3Sweden3
...
34Spain34
35UK35
36Italy36
37Estonia37
38Cyprus38
39Bulgaria39
40Turkey40
41Marshall Islands41
World Avg82.0
q=163.

8. Peace Versus Instability

#extremism #human_development #peace #politics #religious_violence #terrorism

Global Peace Index (2012)49
Pos.Lower is better49
1Iceland1.11
2New Zealand1.24
3Denmark1.24
...
38Italy1.69
39Bulgaria1.70
40France1.71
41Estonia1.72
42S. Korea1.73
43Lithuania1.74
44Argentina1.76
45Latvia1.77
World Avg2.02
q=157.
Peacekeeping and Security (2017)29
Pos.Lower is better
Rank29
1Samoa1
2S. Africa2
3Tunisia3
...
90Uganda90
91Congo, DR91
92Pakistan92
93Estonia93
94Bahamas94
95Mauritania95
96Nicaragua96
97Peru97
World Avg82.0
q=163.
Refugees and UN Treaties (2017)29
Pos.Lower is better
Rank29
1Austria1
2Germany2
3Netherlands3
...
69Malawi69
70Latvia70
71Guatemala71
72Estonia72
73Guinea-Bissau73
74Albania74
75Botswana75
76Lebanon76
World Avg82.0
q=163.
Impact of Terrorism (2019)50
Pos.Lower is better
Score50
1Togo0.00
2Mongolia0.00
3Swaziland0.00
...
25Liberia0.11
26Moldova0.12
27Serbia0.12
28Estonia0.12
29New Zealand0.14
30Uruguay0.17
31Dominican Rep.0.18
32Hungary0.18
World Avg2.78
q=150.

9. The Natural Environment

#biodiversity #climate_change #over-exploitation #the_environment

Forest Area Change 1990-2015 (2015)51
Pos.Higher is better
%51
1Iceland205.6
2Bahrain144.4
3Uruguay131.3
...
69Ivory Coast01.8
70Czechia01.5
71Germany01.2
72Estonia01.2
73Seychelles01.1
74Palestine01.0
75Tajikistan01.0
76Slovakia01.0
World Avg02.8
q=184.
Environmental Performance (2018)52
Pos.Higher is better52
1Switzerland87.4
2France84.0
3Denmark81.6
...
45Romania64.8
46Dominican Rep.64.7
47Uruguay64.7
48Estonia64.3
49Singapore64.2
50Poland64.1
51Venezuela63.9
52Russia63.8
World Avg56.4
q=180.
Energy to GDP Efficiency (2014)53
Pos.Higher is better53
1Hong Kong26.32
2Sri Lanka20.00
3Panama17.86
...
89Finland06.33
90Oman06.29
91S. Korea06.29
92Estonia06.13
93Mongolia06.06
94Belarus05.81
95Niger05.81
96Zambia05.71
World Avg09.29
q=119.
Convention on Biological Diversity
Pos.Earlier is better
Signed
1China1993 Dec 29
2Guinea1993 Dec 29
3Cook Islands1993 Dec 29
...
69Pakistan1994 Oct 24
70Kenya1994 Oct 24
71Finland1994 Oct 25
72Estonia1994 Oct 25
73Greece1994 Nov 02
74Grenada1994 Nov 09
75Kiribati1994 Nov 14
76Romania1994 Nov 15
World Avg1899 Dec 30
q=197.
Rational Beliefs on the Environment (2011)54
Pos.Higher is better
%54
1Argentina78.3%
2Greece77.6%
3Brazil77.1%
...
133Latvia19.5%
134Tunisia19.3%
135Czechia16.0%
136Estonia15.9%
137China15.1%
138Denmark14.9%
139Libya14.6%
140Iceland13.1%
World Avg39.9%
q=145.

10. Economic Inequality and Poverty

#capitalism #economics #health #inequality #life_expectancy #social_development

Inequality in Life Expectancy (2019)55
Pos.Higher is worse55
184Chad40.90
183Central African Rep.40.10
182Sierra Leone39.00
...
24Denmark3.60
23Cyprus3.60
22Montenegro3.60
21Estonia3.60
20Belgium3.60
19Switzerland3.50
18Greece3.50
17Portugal3.50
World Avg14.59
q=184.
Income Inequality (Gini Coefficient) (2017)56
Pos.Lower is better
%56
1Ukraine25.0
2Belarus25.4
3Slovenia25.4
...
36Bangladesh32.4
37Mauritania32.6
38France32.7
39Estonia32.7
40Nepal32.8
41Tunisia32.8
42Mali33.0
43Bosnia & Herzegovina33.0
World Avg38.1
q=152.

11. Religion and Beliefs

#belief #buddhism #christianity #god #hinduism #islam #judaism #religion

Religiosity (2009)41
Pos.Lower is better
%41
1Estonia16
2Sweden17
3Denmark19
4Japan24
5Hong Kong24
6UK27
7France30
8Vietnam30
9Russia34
10Belarus34
11Latvia39
12Luxembourg39
World Avg75.1
q=114.
Disbelief In God (2007)57
Pos.Higher is better
%57
1Vietnam81
2Japan65
3Sweden64
4Czechia61
5Estonia49
6Denmark48
7France44
8Belgium43
9Netherlands42
10Germany42
11UK42
12Cuba40
World Avg9.9
q=137.

Data from the Pew Forum, a professional polling outfit, states that in 2010 the religious makeup of this country was as follows in the table below58:

Christian39.9%
Muslim0.2%
Hindu0.1%
Buddhist0.1%
Folk Religion0.1%
Jew0.1%
Unaffiliated59.6%

It appears that when asked "What religion are you" many give pollsters the 'correct' answer despite how they actually feel, and despite what they actually believe. Although 40.5% of the populace say they belong to a religion, only 16% say that they are religious when the question is phrased as "Is religion an important part of your daily life?".

For more on this phenomenon, see:

The CIA World Factbook has slightly different data, and states: Evangelical Lutheran 13.6%, Orthodox 12.8%, other Christian (including Methodist, Seventh-Day Adventist, Roman Catholic, Pentecostal) 1.4%, unaffiliated 34.1%, other and unspecified 32%, none 6.1% (2000 census)59.

Links:

12. Scandinavian?

#baltic_states #estonia #finland #latvia #lithuania #scandinavia #sweden

Estonia is traditionally considered one of the Baltic nations (alongside Latvia and Lithuania). But as the colonial history of Sweden provides a 100-year window where Estonia was 'scandinavian' due to being ruled by Sweden, it borders the Gulf of Finland, and as it shares many cultural, some linguistic, and economic factors with Scandinavia, some have called for Estonia to be considered Scandinavian60. The Prime Minister of Sweden) from 1991-1994, Mr Bildt, did describe Estonia as part of Scandinavia61 in 2006, but, this claim remains largely ignored. The historical connection to Sweden is tenuous. The public will require time and much convincing if Estonia is to be considered Scandinavian rather than Baltic.

"Scandinavia, the Crown of Civilisation:Sweden, Denmark, Norway, Finland and Iceland: 18. High Taxes (As of 2006)" by Vexen Crabtree (2006)