The Human Truth Foundation

Cambodia (Kingdom of Cambodia)

By Vexen Crabtree 2013


Comments:
FB, LJ

#cambodia #charity #climate_change #economics #happiness #intelligence #morals #the_environment

Cambodia
Kingdom of Cambodia
StatusIndependent State
CapitalPhnom Penh
Land Area 176 520km21
LocationAsia
Population14.5m (2011)2
Life Expectancy68.81yrs (2017)3
GNI$3 095 (2017)4
ISO3166-1 CodesKH, KHM, 1165
Internet Domain.kh6
CurrencyRiels (KHR)7
Telephone+8558

1. Overview

#france #japan #vietnam

Most Cambodians consider themselves to be Khmers, descendants of the Angkor Empire that extended over much of Southeast Asia and reached its zenith between the 10th and 13th centuries. Attacks by the Thai and Cham (from present-day Vietnam) weakened the empire, ushering in a long period of decline. The king placed the country under French protection in 1863, and it became part of French Indochina in 1887. Following Japanese occupation in World War II, Cambodia gained full independence from France in 1953. In April 1975, after a five-year struggle, Communist Khmer Rouge forces captured Phnom Penh and evacuated all cities and towns. At least 1.5 million Cambodians died from execution, forced hardships, or starvation during the Khmer Rouge regime under POL POT. A December 1978 Vietnamese invasion drove the Khmer Rouge into the countryside, began a 10-year Vietnamese occupation, and touched off almost 13 years of civil war. The 1991 Paris Peace Accords mandated democratic elections and a ceasefire, which was not fully respected by the Khmer Rouge. UN-sponsored elections in 1993 helped restore some semblance of normalcy under a coalition government. Factional fighting in 1997 ended the first coalition government, but a second round of national elections in 1998 led to the formation of another coalition government and renewed political stability. The remaining elements of the Khmer Rouge surrendered in early 1999. Some of the surviving Khmer Rouge leaders have been tried or are awaiting trial for crimes against humanity by a hybrid UN-Cambodian tribunal supported by international assistance. Elections in July 2003 were relatively peaceful, but it took one year of negotiations between contending political parties before a coalition government was formed. In October 2004, King Norodom SIHANOUK abdicated the throne and his son, Prince Norodom SIHAMONI, was selected to succeed him. Local elections were held in Cambodia in April 2007, with little of the pre-election violence that preceded prior elections. National elections in July 2008 were relatively peaceful, as were commune council elections in June 2012.

CIA's The World Factbook (2013)9

Book CoverWith a history both inspiring and depressing, Cambodia delivers an intoxicating present for adventurous visitors, from the glory of Angkor to the simplicity of village life. Ascend to the realm of the gods at Angkor Wat, a spectacular fusion of spirituality, symbolism and symmetry. Descend into the darkness of Tuol Sleng to witness the crimes of the Khmer Rouge. ... Fringed by beautiful beaches and tropical islands, sustained by the mother waters of the Mekong River and cloaked in some of the region´s few remaining emerald wildernesses, Cambodia is an adventure as much as a holiday. This is the warm heart of Southeast Asia, with everything the region has to offer packed into one bite-sized chunk.Despite the headline attractions, Cambodia´s greatest treasure is its people. The Khmers have been to hell and back, but thanks to an unbreakable spirit and infectious optimism they have prevailed with their smiles and spirits largely intact.

"The World" by Lonely Planet (2014)10

2. Cambodia National and Social Development

#human_development

UN HDI (2016)11
Pos.Lower is better
Rank11
1Norway1
2Australia2
3Switzerland2
...
140Bangladesh139
141Ghana139
142Sao Tome & Principe142
143Cambodia143
144Nepal144
145Myanmar (Burma)145
146Kenya146
147Pakistan147
World Avg94.3
q=188.
Social & Moral
Development Index
12
Pos.Higher is better
Points12
1Denmark83.6
2Finland83.1
3Sweden82.6
...
154Venezuela47.3
155Rwanda47.0
156Liberia46.9
157Cambodia46.8
158Egypt46.7
159Guinea-Bissau46.3
160Iran46.1
161Ethiopia46.0
World Avg55.4
q=198.

The United Nations produces an annual Human Development Report which includes the Human Development Index. The factors taken into account include life expectancy, education and schooling and Gross National Income (GNI) amongst many others..

The Social and Moral Development Index concentrates on moral issues and human rights, violence, public health, equality, tolerance, freedom and effectiveness in climate change mitigation and environmentalism, and on some technological issues. A country scores higher for achieving well in those areas, and for sustaining that achievement in the long term. Those countries towards the top of this index can truly said to be setting good examples and leading humankind onwards into a bright, humane, and free future. See: What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life.

3. Population and Demographics

#birth_control #Cambodia #demographics #health #immigration #life_expectancy #longevity #overpopulation #population

Old-Age Dependency Ratio (2016)13
Pos.Lower is better
Per 10013
1Uganda04.3
2Mali04.5
3Chad04.7
...
68Vanuatu09.9
69Cape Verde10.0
70Philippines10.3
71Cambodia10.4
72Egypt10.5
73Libya10.5
74S. Africa10.5
75Bangladesh10.6
World Avg18.3
q=185.
Emigrants (2010)14
Pos.
%14
1Dominica104.8%
2Palestine68.4%
3Samoa67.3%
...
148Vietnam2.5%
149Niger2.4%
150Argentina2.4%
151Cambodia2.3%
152Uganda2.2%
153Sudan2.2%
154Chad2.1%
155Australia2.1%
World Avg11.5%
q=192.

Fertility Rate (2013)15
Pos.2.0 is best15
1N. Korea2.00
2Brunei1.99
3St Vincent & Grenadines2.01
...
65China1.57
66Serbia1.56
67Libya2.44
68Cambodia2.45
69Bulgaria1.54
70Bahrain2.46
71Thailand1.54
72Greece1.54
World Avg2.81
q=180.

The fertility rate is, in simple terms, the average amount of children that each woman has. The higher the figure, the quicker the population is growing, although, to calculate the rate you also need to take into account morbidity, i.e., the rate at which people die. If people live healthy and long lives and morbidity is low, then, 2.0 approximates to the replacement rate, which would keep the population stable. If all countries had such a fertility rate, population growth would end. The actual replacement rate in most developed countries is around 2.1.

Immigrants (2010)14
Pos.
%14
1Qatar86.5%
2Monaco71.6%
3UAE70.0%
...
116Cape Verde2.4%
117Liberia2.3%
118Pakistan2.3%
119Cambodia2.2%
120Poland2.2%
121Fiji2.2%
122Yemen2.1%
123Kenya2.0%
World Avg9.2%
q=192.
Life Expectancy (2015)16
Pos.Higher is better
Years16
1Hong Kong84.16
2Japan83.68
3Italy83.34
...
126Uzbekistan69.40
127Micronesia69.27
128Indonesia69.05
129Cambodia68.81
130Bolivia68.74
131Timor-Leste (E. Timor)68.51
132Philippines68.34
133India68.32
World Avg71.27
q=190.
Population (2012)17
Pos.
Population17
1China1.4b
2India1.3b
3USA315.8m
...
65Malawi15.9m
66Guatemala15.1m
67Ecuador14.9m
68Cambodia14.5m
69Zambia13.9m
70Senegal13.1m
71Zimbabwe13.0m
72Chad11.8m
World Avg36.0m
q=195.

Cambodia's population is predicted to rise to 17.36 million by 2030. These millions of extra people will all need space to live, food to eat, energy to consume, and will increase the burden on the planet's resources. This country has a fertility rate of 2.45. The fertility rate is, in simple terms, the average amount of children that each woman has. The higher the figure, the quicker the population is growing, although, to calculate the rate you also need to take into account morbidity, i.e., the rate at which people die. If people live healthy and long lives and morbidity is low, then, 2.0 approximates to the replacement rate, which would keep the population stable. If all countries had such a fertility rate, population growth would end. The actual replacement rate in most developed countries is around 2.1.

4. Human Rights, Equality and Freedom

#cambodia #equality #freedom #human_rights #politics #tolerance

Cambodia is very poor at ensuring human rights and freedom compared to the rest of the world, and it has cultural issues when it comes to tolerance and equality. Cambodia does better than average in supporting personal, civil & economic freedoms18, its nominal commitment to Human Rights19 and in LGBT equality20. When it comes to most other metrics, Cambodia does not do well. It does worse than average in commentary in Human Rights Watch reports21, the year from which women could participate in democracy22, its Global Peace Index rating23, opposing gender inequality24 and in supporting press freedom25. And finally, it sits amongst the bottom 20 in fighting corruption26 and in eliminating modern slavery27 (amongst the highest in Asia). Civil and political rights in Cambodia deteriorated in 2017 as the government persecuted political opposition and human rights activists28 and forced several independent media outlets to close28.

For tables, charts and commentary, see:

5. Peace Versus Instability

#Cambodia #extremism #human_development #peace #politics #religious_violence #terrorism

Peacekeeping and Security (2017)29
Pos.Lower is better
Rank29
1Samoa1
2S. Africa2
3Tunisia3
...
83Iran83
84Serbia84
85Mexico85
86Cambodia86
87Bangladesh87
88Honduras88
89Namibia89
90Uganda90
World Avg82.0
q=163.
Refugees and UN Treaties (2017)29
Pos.Lower is better
Rank29
1Austria1
2Germany2
3Netherlands3
...
135Afghanistan135
136Trinidad & Tobago136
137Nigeria137
138Cambodia138
139Mali139
140Haiti140
141Mongolia141
142Syria142
World Avg82.0
q=163.

Global Peace Index (2012)23
Pos.Lower is better23
1Iceland1.11
2New Zealand1.24
3Denmark1.24
...
104Kazakhstan2.15
105Saudi Arabia2.18
106Haiti2.18
107Cambodia2.21
108Belarus2.21
109Uzbekistan2.22
110El Salvador2.22
111Egypt2.22
World Avg2.02
q=157.

"The 2012 Global Peace Index is the sixth edition of the world's leading study on global levels of peacefulness. The GPI ranks 158 nations using 23 qualitative and quantitative indicators from highly respected sources, which gauge three broad themes: the level of safety and security in society; the extent of domestic or international conflict; and the degree of militarisation. By generating new information on the state of peace at the national and global level, the Institute for Economics and Peace hopes to make a valuable contribution to better understanding how civil society, researchers, policymakers, and government can create a more peaceful society"23. The most peaceable countries in the world are Iceland, New Zealand and Denmark23 and the worst are Somalia, Afghanistan and Sudan23.

Impact of Terrorism (2019)30
Pos.Lower is better
Score30
1Togo0.00
2Mongolia0.00
3Swaziland0.00
4Equatorial Guinea0.00
5Cambodia0.00
6Portugal0.00
7Croatia0.00
8Benin0.00
9Mauritania0.00
10Slovenia0.00
11Costa Rica0.00
12Romania0.00
World Avg2.78
q=150.

6. Religion and Beliefs

#belief #buddhism #christianity #god #hinduism #islam #judaism #religion

Religiosity (2009)31
Pos.Lower is better
%31
1Estonia16
2Sweden17
3Denmark19
...
91Chad95
92Algeria95
93Rwanda95
94Cambodia96
95Senegal96
96Philippines96
97Nigeria96
98Cameroon96
World Avg75.1
q=114.
Disbelief In God (2007)32
Pos.Higher is better
%32
1Vietnam81
2Japan65
3Sweden64
...
44Dominican Rep.7
45Croatia7
46Kyrgyzstan7
47Cambodia7
48Moldova6
49Italy6
50Laos5
51Ireland5
World Avg9.9
q=137.

Data from the Pew Forum, a professional polling outfit, states that in 2010 the religious makeup of this country was as follows in the table below33:

Christian0.4%
Muslim2%
Hindu0.1%
Buddhist96.9%
Folk Religion0.6%
Jew0.1%
Unaffiliated0.2%

The CIA World Factbook has slightly different data, and states: Buddhist (official) 96.4%, Muslim 2.1%, other 1.3%, unspecified 0.2% (1998 census)34.

Links:

7. The Internet

#Cambodia #internet #the_internet

Internet Users (2016)35
Pos.Higher is better35
1Iceland100%
2Faroe Islands99%
3Norway98%
...
172Haiti12%
173Papua New Guinea12%
174Djibouti12%
175Cambodia11%
176Gabon10%
177Burkina Faso10%
178Solomon Islands10%
179Liberia9%
World Avg48.1%
q=201.
IPv6 Uptake (2017)36
Pos.Higher is better
Ratio36
1Belgium55.4
2Germany41.8
3Switzerland35.1
...
91Kenya0.0
92Cameroon0.0
93Kyrgyzstan0.0
94Cambodia0.0
95Belarus0.0
96Azerbaijan0.0
97Angola0.0
98Armenia0.0
World Avg3.82
q=176.

Internet access has become an essential research tool. It facilitates an endless list of life improvements, from the ability to network and socialize without constraint, to access to a seemingly infinite repository of technical and procedural information on pretty much any task. The universal availability of data has sped up industrial development and personal learning at the national and personal level. Individuals can read any topic they wish regardless of the locality of expert teachers, and, entire nations can develop their technology and understanding of the world simply because they are now exposed to advanced societies and moral discourses online. Like every communications medium, the Internet has issues and causes a small range of problems, but these are insignificant compared to the advantages of having an online populace.

8. Public Health Issues

#alcohol #Cambodia #genetics #health #obesity #public_health #smoking #sociology #UK

Cambodia does relatively well in encouraging good health, compared to many other countries. Cambodia comes in the best 20 in the prevalence of overweight adults37. It does better than average when it comes to its food aid and health contributions and WHO compliance29. However Cambodia performs less well in most areas. It does worse than average in terms of its smoking rate38 (still good for Asia), its alcohol consumption rate39, its adolescent birth rate24 and in its immunizations take-up40. The prevalence of overweight adults has increased by 14% over the past 40 years.

Alcohol Consumption (2016)39
Pos.Lower is better
Per Capita39
1Bangladesh0.0
2Kuwait0.0
3Libya0.0
...
98Angola6.4
99Mexico6.5
100Philippines6.6
101Cambodia6.7
102Belize6.8
103Sao Tome & Principe6.8
104Dominican Rep.6.9
105Antigua & Barbuda7.0
World Avg6.2
q=189.

There is nothing wrong with drinking modest and sensible amounts of alcohol but fitness, physical health, mental health and long-term health all suffer as a result of medium- or heavy- drinking41 and the health risks to the baby when pregnant mothers drink42 are well-known. Aside from the effects on the individual, alcohol misuse impacts on entire economies43 via increased health service costs, policing costs and lost days' work. Worldwide, alcohol misuse is "among the top five risk factors for disease, disability and death" and is a "cause of more than 200 disease and injury conditions in individuals, most notably alcohol dependence, liver cirrhosis, cancers and injuries"44. "In 2012... 5.9% of all global deaths, were attributable to alcohol consumption"45. Deaths from chronic alcohol misuse have been rising for decades, and so has violence, abuse, vandalism and crime all associated with alcohol over-use. The aggression and crime associated with alcohol in some Western countries infringes on the human rights of those who want nothing to do with such behaviour. Many of the social effects of alcohol are psychological and cultural; i.e., people don't have to behave criminally or destructively whilst drunk - it is a culturally learned behaviour. Experiments have shown that behaviour can be controlled: Those who do not wish to behave badly whilst drunk, will not do so.

Food Aid, Health Contributions & WHO Compliance (2017)29
Pos.Lower is better
Rank29
1Sweden1
2Ireland2
3Denmark3
...
62Honduras62
63Lebanon63
64Lithuania64
65Cambodia65
66Georgia66
67Belarus67
68Brunei68
69Paraguay69
World Avg82.0
q=163.

Overweight Adults (2016)37
Pos.Lower is better
%37
1Vietnam18.3
2India19.7
3Bangladesh20.0
4Ethiopia20.9
5Nepal21.0
6Timor-Leste (E. Timor)21.6
7Cambodia21.7
8Niger22.0
9Eritrea22.0
10Burundi22.2
11Uganda22.4
12Afghanistan23.0
World Avg49.0
q=191.

About one third of the global population is overweight or obese46. Most Western countries are facing an obesity epidemic. Our cultures are having to change to compensate for widespread ill-health. It is costing our health systems a massive amount of money, and is having negative effects on national economies. The situation has persisted for a suitable length of time for our very perceptions to change; opinions on "normal weights" for people and "average sizes" for clothes has shot up47. Over 2 in 3 adults in the UK are overweight47 and this costs the NHS £5.1 billion per year48 and "costs Britain's economy £47bn a year; more than war, terrorism or armed violence"49. We are forgetting how to be healthy.

The causes are not genetic. Most people who say obesity "runs in their family" are wrong. The rate of increase in obesity is many, many times too fast to be accounted for by a change in inherited genes50. Our culture and lifestyle choices are to blame. The causes of the modern obesity epidemic are processed foods, low levels of physical exercise, over-indulgence, poor choices in food products, poor knowledge of nutrition. Most of this is made much worse by well-funded advertising campaigns by food manufacturers selling cheaper mass-produced food. Even some so-called "health foods" contain well over recommended limits of fat, salt and sugar51.

Smoking Rates (2014)38
Pos.Lower is better38
1Guinea 15
2Solomon Islands 26
3Kiribati 28
...
96Jamaica 593
97N. Korea 610
98Fiji 618
99Cambodia 645
100Equatorial Guinea 649
101Singapore 652
102Bangladesh 665
103Morocco 671
World Avg 819
q=182.

9. Children's Health

#Cambodia #health #parenting #population #vaccines

Adolescent Birth Rate (2015)24
Pos.Lower is better
Per 100024
1N. Korea0.5
2S. Korea1.6
3Switzerland2.9
...
109Indonesia49.6
110Colombia50.2
111St Vincent & Grenadines51.0
112Cambodia51.6
113Egypt51.9
114St Lucia53.9
115Eritrea54.3
116Papua New Guinea54.8
World Avg47.9
q=185.
Infant Immunizations 2011-2015 (2015)40
Pos.Higher is better
Avg %40
1Hungary99.0
2China99.0
3Uzbekistan98.9
...
134Sierra Leone87.7
135Suriname87.2
136Ecuador86.8
137Cambodia86.5
138Namibia86.5
139Dominican Rep.86.3
140Panama86.1
141Belarus85.3
World Avg88.3
q=194.

10. More Charts and Comparisons to Other Countries

Personal Charitability
(World Position, 2013-2016)
52
Pos.Lower is better52
1Myanmar (Burma)1.25
2USA1.5
3New Zealand3.5
...
109Poland96.5
110Macedonia98.75
111Romania99.75
112Cambodia99.75
113Ukraine100
114Albania101.25
115Latvia101.25
q=156.
Intellectual Endeavours (2017)29
Pos.Lower is better
Rank29
1Ukraine1
2Czechia2
3Hungary3
...
150Libya150
151Gabon151
152Sierra Leone152
153Cambodia153
154Zambia154
155Paraguay155
156Tanzania156
q=163.
Creativity and Culture (2017)29
Pos.Lower is better
Rank29
1Belgium1
2Netherlands2
3Estonia3
...
86Jamaica86
87Senegal87
88Indonesia88
89Cambodia89
90Peru90
91Jordan91
92Haiti92
q=163.
Peacekeeping and Security (2017)29
Pos.Lower is better
Rank29
1Samoa1
2S. Africa2
3Tunisia3
...
83Iran83
84Serbia84
85Mexico85
86Cambodia86
87Bangladesh87
88Honduras88
89Namibia89
q=163.
Refugees and UN Treaties (2017)29
Pos.Lower is better
Rank29
1Austria1
2Germany2
3Netherlands3
...
135Afghanistan135
136Trinidad & Tobago136
137Nigeria137
138Cambodia138
139Mali139
140Haiti140
141Mongolia141
q=163.
Open Trading, Aid and Development (2017)29
Pos.Lower is better
Rank29
1Ireland1
2Denmark2
3Sweden3
...
135Uruguay135
136Namibia136
137Yemen137
138Cambodia138
139Antigua & Barbuda139
140Afghanistan140
141Belize141
q=163.
Life Satisfaction (2011)53
Pos.Higher is better53
1Denmark7.8
2Norway7.6
3Netherlands7.6
...
121Uganda4.2
122Macedonia4.2
123Ivory Coast4.2
124Cambodia4.2
125Angola4.2
126Sri Lanka4.2
127Liberia4.2
128Niger4.1
q=150.
Gross National Income Per-Capita (2011)16
Pos.Higher is better
PPP $16
1Qatar$129 916
2Singapore$78 162
3Kuwait$76 075
...
150Djibouti$3 216
151Ivory Coast$3 163
152Kyrgyzstan$3 097
153Cambodia$3 095
154Sao Tome & Principe$3 070
155Cameroon$2 894
156Kenya$2 881
157Vanuatu$2 805
q=193.
Environmental Performance (2018)54
Pos.Higher is better54
1Switzerland87.4
2France84.0
3Denmark81.6
...
147Mali43.7
148Rwanda43.7
149Zimbabwe43.4
150Cambodia43.2
151Solomon Islands43.2
152Iraq43.2
153Laos42.9
154Burkina Faso42.8
q=180.
IQ (2006)55
Pos.Higher is better55
1Hong Kong108
2Singapore108
3S. Korea106
...
51Brunei91
52Thailand91
53Lithuania91
54Cambodia91
55Albania90
56Croatia90
57Kyrgyzstan90
58Chile90
q=138.