The Human Truth Foundation

Cambodia (Kingdom of Cambodia)

By Vexen Crabtree 2013


Comments:
FB, LJ

#cambodia

Cambodia
Kingdom of Cambodia
StatusIndependent State
Social and Moral Index148th best
CapitalPhnom Penh
Land Area 176 520km21
LocationAsia
Population14.5m (2011)2
Life Expectancy68.81yrs (2017)3
GNI$3 095 (2017)4
ISO3166-1 CodesKH, KHM, 1165
Internet Domain.kh6
CurrencyRiels (KHR)7
Telephone+8558

1. Overview

#france #japan #vietnam

Most Cambodians consider themselves to be Khmers, descendants of the Angkor Empire that extended over much of Southeast Asia and reached its zenith between the 10th and 13th centuries. Attacks by the Thai and Cham (from present-day Vietnam) weakened the empire, ushering in a long period of decline. The king placed the country under French protection in 1863, and it became part of French Indochina in 1887. Following Japanese occupation in World War II, Cambodia gained full independence from France in 1953. In April 1975, after a five-year struggle, Communist Khmer Rouge forces captured Phnom Penh and evacuated all cities and towns. At least 1.5 million Cambodians died from execution, forced hardships, or starvation during the Khmer Rouge regime under POL POT. A December 1978 Vietnamese invasion drove the Khmer Rouge into the countryside, began a 10-year Vietnamese occupation, and touched off almost 13 years of civil war. The 1991 Paris Peace Accords mandated democratic elections and a ceasefire, which was not fully respected by the Khmer Rouge. UN-sponsored elections in 1993 helped restore some semblance of normalcy under a coalition government. Factional fighting in 1997 ended the first coalition government, but a second round of national elections in 1998 led to the formation of another coalition government and renewed political stability. The remaining elements of the Khmer Rouge surrendered in early 1999. Some of the surviving Khmer Rouge leaders have been tried or are awaiting trial for crimes against humanity by a hybrid UN-Cambodian tribunal supported by international assistance. Elections in July 2003 were relatively peaceful, but it took one year of negotiations between contending political parties before a coalition government was formed. In October 2004, King Norodom SIHANOUK abdicated the throne and his son, Prince Norodom SIHAMONI, was selected to succeed him. Local elections were held in Cambodia in April 2007, with little of the pre-election violence that preceded prior elections. National elections in July 2008 were relatively peaceful, as were commune council elections in June 2012.

CIA's The World Factbook (2013)9

Book CoverWith a history both inspiring and depressing, Cambodia delivers an intoxicating present for adventurous visitors, from the glory of Angkor to the simplicity of village life. Ascend to the realm of the gods at Angkor Wat, a spectacular fusion of spirituality, symbolism and symmetry. Descend into the darkness of Tuol Sleng to witness the crimes of the Khmer Rouge. ... Fringed by beautiful beaches and tropical islands, sustained by the mother waters of the Mekong River and cloaked in some of the region´s few remaining emerald wildernesses, Cambodia is an adventure as much as a holiday. This is the warm heart of Southeast Asia, with everything the region has to offer packed into one bite-sized chunk.Despite the headline attractions, Cambodia´s greatest treasure is its people. The Khmers have been to hell and back, but thanks to an unbreakable spirit and infectious optimism they have prevailed with their smiles and spirits largely intact.

"The World" by Lonely Planet (2014)10

2. Cambodia National and Social Development

#economics #human_development

UN HDI (2016)11
Pos.Lower is better
Rank11
1Norway1
2Australia2
3Switzerland2
...
140Bangladesh139
141Ghana139
142Sao Tome & Principe142
143Cambodia143
144Nepal144
145Myanmar (Burma)145
146Kenya146
147Pakistan147
World Avg94.3
q=188.
Gross National Income Per-Capita (2011)12
Pos.Higher is better
PPP $12
1Qatar$129 916
2Singapore$78 162
3Kuwait$76 075
...
150Djibouti$3 216
151Ivory Coast$3 163
152Kyrgyzstan$3 097
153Cambodia$3 095
154Sao Tome & Principe$3 070
155Cameroon$2 894
156Kenya$2 881
157Vanuatu$2 805
World Avg$17 240
q=193.
Social & Moral
Development Index
13,14
Pos.Lower is better
Avg Rank13,14
1Denmark28.3
2Norway29.1
3Finland29.7
...
143Libya110.4
144Timor-Leste (E. Timor)110.4
145Djibouti110.9
146Cambodia111.3
147Kiribati111.4
148Togo111.5
149Laos111.6
150Benin111.6
World Avg86.9
q=195.

The United Nations produces an annual Human Development Report which includes the Human Development Index. The factors taken into account include life expectancy, education and schooling and Gross National Income (GNI) amongst many others..

The Social and Moral Development Index concentrates on moral issues and human rights, violence, public health, equality, tolerance, freedom and effectiveness in climate change mitigation and environmentalism, and on some technological issues. A country scores higher for achieving well in those areas, and for sustaining that achievement in the long term. Those countries towards the top of this index can truly said to be setting good examples and leading humankind onwards into a bright, humane, and free future. See: Which are the Best Countries in the World? The Social and Moral Development Index.

3. Cambodia's Demographics

#birth_control #demographics #health #immigration #life_expectancy #longevity #overpopulation #population

Population:

Cambodia's population is predicted to rise to 17.36 million by 2030. These millions of extra people will all need space to live, food to eat, energy to consume, and will increase the burden on the planet's resources. This country has a fertility rate of 2.45. The fertility rate is, in simple terms, the average amount of children that each woman has. The higher the figure, the quicker the population is growing, although, to calculate the rate you also need to take into account morbidity, i.e., the rate at which people die. If people live healthy and long lives and morbidity is low, then, 2.0 approximates to the replacement rate, which would keep the population stable. If all countries had such a fertility rate, population growth would end. The actual replacement rate in most developed countries is around 2.1.

Population (2012)15
Pos.
Population15
1China1.4b
2India1.3b
3USA315.8m
...
65Malawi15.9m
66Guatemala15.1m
67Ecuador14.9m
68Cambodia14.5m
69Zambia13.9m
70Senegal13.1m
71Zimbabwe13.0m
72Chad11.8m
World Avg36.0m
q=195.
Life Expectancy (2015)12
Pos.Higher is better
Years12
1Hong Kong84.16
2Japan83.68
3Italy83.34
...
126Uzbekistan69.40
127Micronesia69.27
128Indonesia69.05
129Cambodia68.81
130Bolivia68.74
131Timor-Leste (E. Timor)68.51
132Philippines68.34
133India68.32
World Avg71.27
q=190.
Fertility Rate (2013)16
Pos.2.0 is best16
1N. Korea2.00
2Brunei1.99
3St Vincent & Grenadines2.01
...
65China1.57
66Serbia1.56
67Libya2.44
68Cambodia2.45
69Bulgaria1.54
70Bahrain2.46
71Thailand1.54
72Greece1.54
World Avg2.81
q=180.
Old-Age Dependency Ratio (2016)17
Pos.Lower is better
Per 10017
1Uganda04.3
2Mali04.5
3Chad04.7
...
68Vanuatu09.9
69Cape Verde10.0
70Philippines10.3
71Cambodia10.4
72Egypt10.5
73Libya10.5
74S. Africa10.5
75Bangladesh10.6
World Avg18.3
q=185.

Migration:

Immigrants (2010)18
Pos.
%18
1Qatar86.5%
2Monaco71.6%
3UAE70.0%
...
116Cape Verde2.4%
117Liberia2.3%
118Pakistan2.3%
119Cambodia2.2%
120Poland2.2%
121Fiji2.2%
122Yemen2.1%
123Kenya2.0%
World Avg9.2%
q=192.
Emigrants (2010)18
Pos.
%18
1Dominica104.8%
2Palestine68.4%
3Samoa67.3%
...
148Vietnam2.5%
149Niger2.4%
150Argentina2.4%
151Cambodia2.3%
152Uganda2.2%
153Sudan2.2%
154Chad2.1%
155Australia2.1%
World Avg11.5%
q=192.

4. Human Rights, Equality & Tolerance

#cambodia #equality #freedom #human_rights #politics #tolerance

Cambodia is very poor at ensuring human rights and freedom compared to the rest of the world, and it has cultural issues when it comes to tolerance and equality. Cambodia does better than average for supporting personal, civil & economic freedoms19 and in its nominal commitment to Human Rights20. However Cambodia performs less well in most areas. It does worse than average when it comes to commentary in Human Rights Watch reports21, the year from which women could participate in democracy, opposing gender inequality22 and in supporting press freedom23. And finally, it falls into the worst-performing 20 for eliminating modern slavery24 (amongst the worst in Asia). Civil and political rights in Cambodia deteriorated in 2017 as the government persecuted political opposition and human rights activists25 and forced several independent media outlets to close25.

For tables, charts and commentary, see:

5. Cambodia's Health

#alcohol #birth_control #Cambodia #demographics #health #life_expectancy #longevity #obesity #overpopulation #parenting #population #smoking #vaccines

Health (2020)26,27
Pos.Lower is better
Avg Rank26,27
1Hong Kong18.0
2Singapore41.5
3Maldives43.3
...
100Mexico93.8
101St Vincent & Grenadines93.9
102Sao Tome & Principe94.0
103Cambodia94.0
104Russia94.5
105Peru94.6
106Andorra94.8
107Lithuania94.8
108Djibouti94.9
World Avg92.3
q=187.

The countries with the best overall approach to public health, in terms of both public policy and individual lifestyle choices, are Hong Kong, Singapore and The Maldives26. These countries are worth emulating. And, although often through no fault of the average citizen, the worst countries are S. Sudan, Nigeria and Equatorial Guinea26.

The data sets used to calculate points for each country are its average life expectancy, its alcohol consumption rate, its fertility rate, its smoking rate, its suicide rate, its food aid and health contributions and WHO compliance, the prevalence of overweight adults, its adolescent birth rate and its immunizations take-up. The regions with the best average results per country are Scandinavia, Asia and Europe, whereas the worst are Africa, Micronesia and Polynesia.

Health:

Cambodia has some poor policies and cultural issues which cause some public health problems. Cambodia does better than average when it comes to its food aid and health contributions and WHO compliance28. However Cambodia performs less well in most areas. It does worse than average for its smoking rate29 (still low for Asia), its fertility rate16, its alcohol consumption rate30, its adolescent birth rate22, its average life expectancy12 and in its immunizations take-up31. The prevalence of overweight adults has increased by 14% between 1976 and 2016.
Life Expectancy (2015)12
Pos.Higher is better
Years12
1Hong Kong84.16
2Japan83.68
3Italy83.34
...
126Uzbekistan69.40
127Micronesia69.27
128Indonesia69.05
129Cambodia68.81
130Bolivia68.74
131Timor-Leste (E. Timor)68.51
132Philippines68.34
133India68.32
World Avg71.27
q=190.
Alcohol Consumption (2016)30
Pos.Lower is better
Per Capita30
1Bangladesh0.0
2Kuwait0.0
3Libya0.0
...
98Angola6.4
99Mexico6.5
100Philippines6.6
101Cambodia6.7
102Belize6.8
103Sao Tome & Principe6.8
104Dominican Rep.6.9
105Antigua & Barbuda7.0
World Avg6.2
q=189.
Fertility Rate (2013)16
Pos.2.0 is best16
1N. Korea2.00
2Brunei1.99
3St Vincent & Grenadines2.01
...
65China1.57
66Serbia1.56
67Libya2.44
68Cambodia2.45
69Bulgaria1.54
70Bahrain2.46
71Thailand1.54
72Greece1.54
World Avg2.81
q=180.
Smoking Rates (2014)29
Pos.Higher is worse29
182Montenegro4 125
181Belarus3 831
180Lebanon3 023
...
102Bangladesh 665
101Singapore 652
100Equatorial Guinea 649
99Cambodia 645
98Fiji 618
97N. Korea 610
96Jamaica 593
95Seychelles 590
World Avg 819
q=182.
Food Aid, Health Contributions & WHO Compliance (2017)28
Pos.Lower is better
Rank28
1Sweden1
2Ireland2
3Denmark3
...
62Honduras62
63Lebanon63
64Lithuania64
65Cambodia65
66Georgia66
67Belarus67
68Brunei68
69Paraguay69
World Avg82.0
q=163.
Overweight Adults (2016)32
Pos.Lower is better
%32
1Vietnam18.3
2India19.7
3Bangladesh20.0
4Ethiopia20.9
5Nepal21.0
6Timor-Leste (E. Timor)21.6
7Cambodia21.7
8Niger22.0
9Eritrea22.0
10Burundi22.2
11Uganda22.4
12Afghanistan23.0
World Avg49.0
q=191.

Children's Health:

Adolescent Birth Rate (2015)22
Pos.Lower is better
Per 100022
1N. Korea0.5
2S. Korea1.6
3Switzerland2.9
...
109Indonesia49.6
110Colombia50.2
111St Vincent & Grenadines51.0
112Cambodia51.6
113Egypt51.9
114St Lucia53.9
115Eritrea54.3
116Papua New Guinea54.8
World Avg47.9
q=185.
Infant Immunizations 2011-2015 (2015)31
Pos.Higher is better
Avg %31
1Hungary99.0
2China99.0
3Uzbekistan98.9
...
134Sierra Leone87.7
135Suriname87.2
136Ecuador86.8
137Cambodia86.5
138Namibia86.5
139Dominican Rep.86.3
140Panama86.1
141Belarus85.3
World Avg88.3
q=194.

6. Cambodia's Modernity and Learning

#education #intelligence #modernity #religion #technology #the_internet

Modernity and Learning (2020)33
Pos.Lower is better
Avg Rank33
1Finland8.0
2Belgium9.1
3Denmark10.0
...
161Central African Rep.108.5
162Mauritania108.7
163Guinea-Bissau109.3
164Cambodia110.0
165Gambia110.3
166Afghanistan112.5
167Mozambique113.8
168Congo, (Brazzaville)115.8
169Congo, DR116.0
World Avg69.0
q=180.

Modernity and Education:

Secondary Education (2018)34
Pos.Higher is better34
1Luxembourg100.0%
2Estonia100.0%
3Austria100.0%
...
151Myanmar (Burma)25.8%
152Central African Rep.22.1%
153Malawi21.8%
154Cambodia21.3%
155Mozambique19.3%
156Mauritania18.8%
157Senegal17.6%
158Sudan17.5%
World Avg63.0%
q=169.
Length of Schooling (2018)35
Pos.Higher is better
Years35
1Australia22.1
2Belgium19.7
3Finland19.3
...
141Vanuatu11.4
142Tajikistan11.4
143Swaziland11.4
144Cambodia11.3
145Burundi11.3
146Lebanon11.3
147Nauru11.3
148Uganda11.2
World Avg13.2
q=193.
Intellectual Endeavours (2017)28
Pos.Lower is better
Rank28
1Ukraine1
2Czechia2
3Hungary3
...
150Libya150
151Gabon151
152Sierra Leone152
153Cambodia153
154Zambia154
155Paraguay155
156Tanzania156
157Equatorial Guinea157
World Avg82.0
q=163.
Religiosity (2009)36
Pos.Lower is better
%36
1Estonia16
2Sweden17
3Denmark19
...
91Chad95
92Algeria95
93Rwanda95
94Cambodia96
95Senegal96
96Philippines96
97Nigeria96
98Cameroon96
World Avg75.1
q=114.
IQ (2006)37
Pos.Higher is better37
1Hong Kong108
2Singapore108
3S. Korea106
...
51Brunei91
52Thailand91
53Lithuania91
54Cambodia91
55Albania90
56Croatia90
57Kyrgyzstan90
58Chile90
World Avg85.6
q=138.

Technology and Information:

Internet Users (2016)38
Pos.Higher is better38
1Iceland100%
2Faroe Islands99%
3Norway98%
...
172Haiti12%
173Papua New Guinea12%
174Djibouti12%
175Cambodia11%
176Gabon10%
177Burkina Faso10%
178Solomon Islands10%
179Liberia9%
World Avg48.1%
q=201.
IPv6 Uptake (2017)39
Pos.Higher is better
Ratio39
1Belgium55.4
2Germany41.8
3Switzerland35.1
...
91Kenya0.0
92Cameroon0.0
93Kyrgyzstan0.0
94Cambodia0.0
95Belarus0.0
96Azerbaijan0.0
97Angola0.0
98Armenia0.0
World Avg3.82
q=176.

7. National Culture

#charity #corruption #happiness #morals #politics

Personal Charitability
(World Position, 2013-2016)
40
Pos.Lower is better40
1Myanmar (Burma)1.25
2USA1.5
3New Zealand3.5
...
109Poland96.5
110Macedonia98.75
111Romania99.75
112Cambodia99.75
113Ukraine100
114Albania101.25
115Latvia101.25
116El Salvador101.25
World Avg68.1185897435897
q=156.
Life Satisfaction (2011)41
Pos.Higher is better41
1Denmark7.8
2Norway7.6
3Netherlands7.6
...
121Uganda4.2
122Macedonia4.2
123Ivory Coast4.2
124Cambodia4.2
125Angola4.2
126Sri Lanka4.2
127Liberia4.2
128Niger4.1
World Avg5.4
q=150.
Corruption (2012-2016)42
Pos.Higher is better
Avg Score42
1Denmark90.8
2New Zealand90.6
3Finland89.4
...
155Congo, DR21.6
156Myanmar (Burma)21.4
157Zimbabwe21.0
158Cambodia21.0
159Chad20.4
160Burundi20.2
161Eritrea19.8
162Angola19.4
World Avg43.05
q=176.
Happiness (2018)43
Pos.Higher is better43
1Finland7.6
2Norway7.6
3Denmark7.6
...
117Iraq4.5
118Mali4.4
119Namibia4.4
120Cambodia4.4
121Burkina Faso4.4
122Egypt4.4
123Mozambique4.4
124Kenya4.4
World Avg5.38
q=156.
Creativity and Culture (2017)28
Pos.Lower is better
Rank28
1Belgium1
2Netherlands2
3Estonia3
...
86Jamaica86
87Senegal87
88Indonesia88
89Cambodia89
90Peru90
91Jordan91
92Haiti92
93Tunisia93
World Avg82.0
q=163.
Open Trading, Aid and Development (2017)28
Pos.Lower is better
Rank28
1Ireland1
2Denmark2
3Sweden3
...
135Uruguay135
136Namibia136
137Yemen137
138Cambodia138
139Antigua & Barbuda139
140Afghanistan140
141Belize141
142Slovakia142
World Avg82.0
q=163.

8. Peace Versus Instability

#extremism #human_development #peace #politics #religious_violence #terrorism

Global Peace Index (2012)44
Pos.Lower is better44
1Iceland1.11
2New Zealand1.24
3Denmark1.24
...
104Kazakhstan2.15
105Saudi Arabia2.18
106Haiti2.18
107Cambodia2.21
108Belarus2.21
109Uzbekistan2.22
110El Salvador2.22
111Egypt2.22
World Avg2.02
q=157.
Peacekeeping and Security (2017)28
Pos.Lower is better
Rank28
1Samoa1
2S. Africa2
3Tunisia3
...
83Iran83
84Serbia84
85Mexico85
86Cambodia86
87Bangladesh87
88Honduras88
89Namibia89
90Uganda90
World Avg82.0
q=163.
Refugees and UN Treaties (2017)28
Pos.Lower is better
Rank28
1Austria1
2Germany2
3Netherlands3
...
135Afghanistan135
136Trinidad & Tobago136
137Nigeria137
138Cambodia138
139Mali139
140Haiti140
141Mongolia141
142Syria142
World Avg82.0
q=163.
Impact of Terrorism (2019)45
Pos.Lower is better
Score45
1Togo0.00
2Mongolia0.00
3Swaziland0.00
4Equatorial Guinea0.00
5Cambodia0.00
6Portugal0.00
7Croatia0.00
8Benin0.00
9Mauritania0.00
10Slovenia0.00
11Costa Rica0.00
12Romania0.00
World Avg2.78
q=150.

9. The Natural Environment

#biodiversity #climate_change #over-exploitation #the_environment

Forest Area Change 1990-2015 (2015)46
Pos.Higher is better
%46
1Iceland205.6
2Bahrain144.4
3Uruguay131.3
...
165Benin-25.2
166Guatemala-25.4
167Myanmar (Burma)-25.9
168Cambodia-26.9
169Chad-27.3
170Paraguay-27.6
171Timor-Leste (E. Timor)-29.0
172Mali-29.5
World Avg02.8
q=184.
Environmental Performance (2018)47
Pos.Higher is better47
1Switzerland87.4
2France84.0
3Denmark81.6
...
147Mali43.7
148Rwanda43.7
149Zimbabwe43.4
150Cambodia43.2
151Solomon Islands43.2
152Iraq43.2
153Laos42.9
154Burkina Faso42.8
World Avg56.4
q=180.
Energy to GDP Efficiency (2014)48
Pos.Higher is better48
1Hong Kong26.32
2Sri Lanka20.00
3Panama17.86
...
78Czechia07.46
79Tajikistan07.46
80Thailand07.41
81Cambodia07.35
82Nigeria07.30
83Georgia07.25
84Vietnam07.14
85Saudi Arabia07.04
World Avg09.29
q=119.
Convention on Biological Diversity
Pos.Earlier is better
Signed
1China1993 Dec 29
2Guinea1993 Dec 29
3Cook Islands1993 Dec 29
...
111Panama1995 Apr 17
112Ukraine1995 May 08
113Oman1995 May 09
114Cambodia1995 May 10
115Central African Rep.1995 Jun 13
116Mali1995 Jun 27
117Cape Verde1995 Jun 27
118Russia1995 Jul 04
World Avg1899 Dec 30
q=197.

10. Religion and Beliefs

#belief #buddhism #christianity #god #hinduism #islam #judaism #religion

Religiosity (2009)36
Pos.Lower is better
%36
1Estonia16
2Sweden17
3Denmark19
...
91Chad95
92Algeria95
93Rwanda95
94Cambodia96
95Senegal96
96Philippines96
97Nigeria96
98Cameroon96
World Avg75.1
q=114.
Disbelief In God (2007)49
Pos.Higher is better
%49
1Vietnam81
2Japan65
3Sweden64
...
44Dominican Rep.7
45Croatia7
46Kyrgyzstan7
47Cambodia7
48Moldova6
49Italy6
50Laos5
51Ireland5
World Avg9.9
q=137.

Data from the Pew Forum, a professional polling outfit, states that in 2010 the religious makeup of this country was as follows in the table below50:

Christian0.4%
Muslim2%
Hindu0.1%
Buddhist96.9%
Folk Religion0.6%
Jew0.1%
Unaffiliated0.2%

The CIA World Factbook has slightly different data, and states: Buddhist (official) 96.4%, Muslim 2.1%, other 1.3%, unspecified 0.2% (1998 census)51.

Links: