The Human Truth Foundation

Which are the Best Countries in Africa?

By Vexen Crabtree 2013

#africa #benin #chad #guinea #human_development #madagascar #mali #mozambique #niger #sudan #tanzania #UK

Africa is a huge continent with over 50 independent states, making up 23% of the Earth's land. There are large differences, both economic and social, between its various regions and high birth rates contribute heavily to its problems. Its economy is expected to quadruple over the next 30 years1, but, it is highly susceptible to climate change; the effects are already impacting the continent in serious ways2.

Social & Moral
Development Index
3,4
Pos.Lower is better
Avg Rank3,4
1Mauritius66.5
2Tunisia76.9
3S. Africa79.0
4Seychelles79.5
5Morocco82.9
6Ghana90.1
7Egypt92.6
8Kenya94.5
9Senegal94.7
10Cape Verde97.1
Africa Avg108.7
World Avg86.4
q=54.

There are 61 locations that fall within this category. By adding up all the known populations that fall within these locations, and summing their physical land areas, we can calculate population densities. Some islands and territories can end up being counted twice depending on how they are classified and divided up politically, but, mostly such errors involve only small populations. So, some data on this collection of countries in total:


1. Basic Stats and Demographics

#economics #human_development #population

Pos.Population (2018)
Population5
Social & Moral
Lower is better

Avg Rank3,4
Gross National
Income (2011)
Higher is better
PPP $6
UN HDI (2016)
Lower is better

Rank7
Land Area (2011)
km28
People
Per km2
Lower is better
1Nigeria195.9m111.6$5 443152 910 770 215
2Ethiopia109.2m111.2$1 5231741 000 000 109
3Egypt98.4m92.6$10 064111 995 450 99
4Congo, DR84.1m124.8$0 6801762 267 050 37
5S. Africa57.8m79.0$12 0871191 213 090 48
6Tanzania56.3m104.4$2 467151 885 800 64
7Kenya51.4m94.5$2 881146 569 140 90
8Uganda42.7m99.3$1 670163 199 810 214
9Algeria42.2m97.2$13 533832 381 740 18
10Sudan41.8m118.2$3 8461652 376 000 18
11Morocco36.0m82.9$7 195123 446 300 81
12Angola30.8m128.9$6 2911501 246 700 25
13Ghana29.8m90.1$3 839139 227 540 131
14Mozambique29.5m113.4$1 098181 786 380 38
15Madagascar26.3m110.5$1 320158 581 540 45
16Cameroon25.2m111.3$2 894153 472 710 53
17Ivory Coast25.1m110.8$3 163171 318 000 79
18Niger22.4m117.1$0 8891871 266 700 18
19Burkina Faso19.8m97.9$1 537185 273 600 72
20Mali19.1m110.1$2 2181751 220 190 16
21Malawi18.1m109.0$1 073170 94 280 192
22Zambia17.4m100.3$3 464139 743 390 23
23Senegal15.9m94.7$2 250162 192 530 82
24Chad15.5m127.0$1 9911861 259 200 12
25Somalia15.0m143.7$0 294 627 340 24
26Zimbabwe14.4m117.1$1 588154 386 850 37
27Guinea12.4m110.2$1 058183 245 720 51
28Rwanda12.3m101.5$1 617159 24 670 499
29Tunisia11.6m76.9$10 24997 155 360 74
30Benin11.5m110.9$1 979167 112 760 102
31Burundi11.2m120.9$0 691184 25 680 435
32S. Sudan11.0m133.4$1 882181
33Togo7.9m108.1$1 262166 54 390 145
34Sierra Leone7.7m111.6$1 529179 71 620 107
35Libya6.7m106.5$14 3031021 759 540 4
36Congo, (Brazzaville)5.2m122.2$5 503135 341 500 15
37Liberia4.8m115.9$0 683177 96 320 50
38Central African Rep.4.7m128.3$0 587188 622 980 7
39Mauritania4.4m119.3$3 5271571 030 700 4
40Eritrea3.5m124.4$1 490179 101 000 34
41Namibia2.4m100.8$9 770125 823 290 3
42Gambia2.3m111.4$1 541173 10 120 225
43Botswana2.3m101.4$14 663108 566 730 4
44Gabon2.1m110.9$19 044109 257 670 8
45Lesotho2.1m104.3$3 319160 30 360 69
46Guinea-Bissau1.9m123.7$1 369178 28 120 67
47Equatorial Guinea1.3m128.1$21 517135 28 050 47
48Mauritius1.3m66.5$17 94864 2 030 624
49Swaziland1.1m117.6$7 522148 17 200 66
50Djibouti1.0m111.0$3 216172 23 180 41
51Comoros0.8m119.3$1 335160 1 861 447
52Cape Verde0.5m97.1$6 049122 4 030 135
53Sao Tome & Principe0.2m110.8$3 070142 960 220
54Seychelles97 09679.5$23 88663 460 211
Africa Avg23.6m108.7$5 109150.7 554 309 43
World Avg39.0m86.4$17 24094.3 620 450 63
q=54.

Not showing due to lack of data: Somaliland. This page only shows places where the database has enough data to be able to come to reasonable conclusions about each place. The main focus is on nation states, but, some distinct external territories may be listed if the database has enough information about them. Averages are calculated from as many valid data points as possible, meaning, that some territories and locations that are not listed above may still be used to calculate some of the average values. Some calculations only use Independent State data - hover the cursor over values to see hints.

Links:

2. Emigration and Immigration

#africa #emigration #immigration #migration

Pos.Immigrants (2017)
%9
Emigrants (2010)
%10
1Equatorial Guinea17.5%14.9%
2Gabon13.8%1.7%
3Seychelles13.6%14.6%
4Libya12.4%1.7%
5Djibouti12.1%1.5%
Africa Avg3.6%6.2%
q=54.

In 2015, an estimated 30 million Africans lived outside Africa11; their work abroad allows them to send home money to support their families11. This simple economic gesture is powerful enough to slow migration, reduce poverty and prevent some crime throughout the poorest parts of Africa. Internal migration is much greater: The countries in Africa with the highest percent of immigrants in their populations are Equatorial Guinea (17.5%), Gabon (13.8%) and Seychelles (13.6%), although the average for Africa is 4%. And emigration: Cape Verde (37.6%), Sao Tome & Principe (21.9%) and Lesotho (20.5%), with a continental average of 6% who have crossed a national border to live elsewhere.

For full stats and comparisons, see: Which Country in Africa Has the Most Immigrants Or Emigrants?.

3. Social and Moral Development

#education #equality #health #human_development #human_rights #modernity #morals #politics #prejudice #technology #the_internet #tolerance

Here are each country's overall scores across the categories that make up the Social and Moral Development Index. This is followed by lists of how each country scores in each individual data set.

Pos.Social & Moral
Lower is better

Avg Rank3,4
Human Rights, Equality & Tolerance (2020)
Lower is better

Avg Rank12,13
Health (2020)
Lower is better

Avg Rank14,13
Modernity and Learning (2020)
Lower is better

Avg Rank15
Demographics (2020)16
1Mauritius66.573.464.572.0
2Tunisia76.988.380.062.3
3S. Africa79.060.3114.943.7
4Seychelles79.571.096.369.8
5Morocco82.9101.175.170.0
6Ghana90.187.3102.684.1
7Egypt92.6110.7100.665.4
8Kenya94.5101.1106.464.7
9Senegal94.777.3107.590.0
10Cape Verde97.181.3100.393.5
11Algeria97.2110.689.589.6
12Burkina Faso97.985.1117.095.7
13Uganda99.395.0114.175.3
14Zambia100.3115.1108.889.0
15Namibia100.876.4121.194.2
16Botswana101.4101.9103.493.5
17Rwanda101.5101.192.489.1
18Lesotho104.395.9105.8116.7
19Tanzania104.492.3107.9105.3
20Libya106.5113.491.981.3
21Togo108.1104.8113.399.4
22Malawi109.0125.3103.399.8
23Mali110.187.0120.698.1
24Guinea110.2114.6102.3117.5
25Madagascar110.599.4110.3141.0
26Ivory Coast110.8101.8132.494.3
27Sao Tome & Principe110.8147.894.092.8
28Gabon110.9104.0131.4100.2
29Benin110.9103.8109.997.0
30Djibouti111.0146.294.9129.2
31Ethiopia111.2122.992.983.5
32Cameroon111.3116.1118.083.3
33Gambia111.4123.2101.3110.3
34Sierra Leone111.6109.6112.1128.3
35Nigeria111.6103.0140.895.3
36Mozambique113.4103.9114.0113.8
37Liberia115.9119.1112.3107.8
38Zimbabwe117.1140.2107.683.8
39Niger117.1100.3111.9124.0
40Swaziland117.6141.2120.0100.4
41Sudan118.2144.191.790.9
42Comoros119.3135.4101.3
43Mauritania119.3139.5107.8108.7
44Burundi120.9125.788.5104.2
45Congo, (Brazzaville)122.2128.5123.1115.8
46Guinea-Bissau123.7132.1116.5109.3
47Eritrea124.4135.078.4
48Congo, DR124.8123.1111.5116.0
49Chad127.0128.3118.6118.6
50Equatorial Guinea128.1128.1136.4150.0
51Central African Rep.128.3129.8114.9108.5
52Angola128.9135.0135.0101.3
53S. Sudan133.4103.2143.3
54Somalia143.7157.9111.7
Africa Avg108.7111.1107.897.4
World Avg86.489.892.369.0
q=54.

The Social and Moral Development Index concentrates on moral issues and human rights, violence, public health, equality, tolerance, freedom and effectiveness in climate change mitigation and environmentalism, and on some technological issues. A country scores higher for achieving well in those areas, and for sustaining that achievement in the long term. Those countries towards the top of this index can truly said to be setting good examples and leading humankind onwards into a bright, humane, and free future. See: Which are the Best Countries in the World? The Social and Moral Development Index.

4. Human Rights, Equality & Tolerance

#Africa #human_rights #ICC

Human Rights struggle in much of Africa. The best countries in Africa at protecting human rights, engendering tolerance and supporting equality, are S. Africa, Seychelles and Mauritius and the continent as a whole does better than the global average. The worst countries are Somalia, Sao Tome & Principe and Djibouti. Things are getting better. There is a rising expectation amongst Africans that governance must be fairer and less corrupt although this will cause more conflict for at least a generation17. In the last decade, a series of murderous dictators have been brought to justice18, and the developing courts of Africa have found themselves empowered to seek out human rights abusers at the highest levels. Although many countries are steeped in conflict, a message is being sent that war crimes and abusers cannot operate with immunity. When multiple rulers threatened to cease support for the International Criminal Court, an "an outpouring of popular support... helped to persuade most African governments to continue to stand behind the court19". In sub-Saharan Africa, a decrease in violence and increase in the rule of law and protections of human rights have led to a steady increase in peaceability since 200720.

For full commentary and data, See:

5. Health

#alcohol #birth_control #demographics #health #life_expectancy #longevity #mental_health #obesity #overpopulation #parenting #population #smoking #suicide #vaccines

The countries with the best overall approach to public health, in terms of both public policy and individual lifestyle choices, are Hong Kong, Singapore and The Maldives14. These countries are worth emulating. And, although often through no fault of the average citizen, the worst countries are S. Sudan, Nigeria and Equatorial Guinea14.

The data sets used to calculate points for each country are its average life expectancy, its alcohol consumption rate, its fertility rate, its smoking rate, its suicide rate, its food aid and health contributions and WHO compliance, the prevalence of overweight adults, its adolescent birth rate and its immunizations take-up. The regions with the best average results per country are Scandinavia, Asia and Europe14, whereas the worst are Africa, Micronesia and Polynesia14.

Health:

Pos.Life
Expectancy (2015)

Years6
Alcohol Consumption (2016)
Lower is better

Per Capita21
Fertility Rate (2013)
2.0 is best
22
Smoking Rates (2014)
Lower is better
23
Suicide Rate (2013)
Per 100k24
Food Aid, Health Contributions & WHO Compliance (2017)
Lower is better

Rank25
Overweight Adults (2016)
Lower is better
%26
1Algeria75.030.92.171 02415962.0
2Angola52.706.45.19 48916327.5
3Benin59.763.05.12 12210929.5
4Botswana64.518.42.64 44914543.4
5Burkina Faso59.018.25.77 21312523.2
6Burundi57.127.54.10 987422.2
7Cameroon55.968.94.33 1847433.6
8Cape Verde73.545.72.29 51515434.8
9Central African Rep.51.463.34.46 17810826.2
10Chad51.901.65.79 15614023.1
11Comoros63.570.94.78 28927.1
12Congo, DR59.062.65.54 7412725.3
13Congo, (Brazzaville)62.897.84.46 29413730.9
14Ivory Coast51.898.44.27 47712931.6
15Djibouti62.300.53.61 47638.6
16Egypt71.330.42.651 1880.17363.5
17Equatorial Guinea57.9111.35.02 64910226.7
18Eritrea64.191.34.28 11422.0
19Ethiopia64.602.93.91 7620.9
20Gabon64.9411.53.20 55912840.2
21Gambia60.463.84.73 16631.9
22Ghana61.532.74.03 12113932.0
23Guinea59.221.35.08 156026.6
24Guinea-Bissau55.494.84.92 17512129.9
25Kenya62.163.44.64 25711425.5
26Lesotho50.085.03.08 8810038.7
27Liberia61.195.85.08 1047130.9
28Libya71.760.02.441 3332715666.8
29Madagascar65.521.94.52 20613623.9
30Malawi63.883.75.98 8011623.4
31Mali58.471.36.16 23614228.1
32Mauritania63.240.04.40 13516134.4
33Mauritius74.603.61.59 26113.712632.3
34Morocco74.310.62.20 6715860.4
35Mozambique55.482.44.75 8215326.4
36Namibia65.069.83.08 7409640.6
37Niger61.940.56.96 10514322.0
38Nigeria53.0613.45.45 17315028.9
39Rwanda64.759.05.30 5314125.1
40Sao Tome & Principe66.586.83.52 11135.4
41Senegal66.930.74.65 50416028.4
42Seychelles73.3012.0 5908.912036.8
43Sierra Leone51.325.74.78 3106127.7
44Somalia55.710.06.30 11728.4
45S. Africa57.669.32.39 5371.85653.8
46Sudan63.730.5 42828.9
47Swaziland48.949.93.21 42711738.4
48Tanzania65.519.45.51 10110127.7
49Togo60.183.13.90 25014828.1
50Tunisia74.981.91.931 6289261.6
51Uganda59.219.55.95 419022.4
52Zambia60.824.86.30 1658227.8
53Zimbabwe59.204.83.15 13410738.2
54S. Sudan56.13 398
Africa Avg61.594.84.31 3406.13117.033.3
World Avg71.276.22.81 81920.9382.049.0
q=54. No data: 728

Children's Health:

Pos.Adolescent Birth Rate (2015)
Per 100029
Infant Immunizations 2011-2015 (2015)
Higher is better

Avg %30
1Algeria10.695.0
2Angola164.371.9
3Benin83.280.1
4Botswana32.395.4
5Burkina Faso108.590.6
6Burundi28.393.3
7Cameroon104.683.3
8Cape Verde73.493.4
9Central African Rep.91.949.4
10Chad133.552.5
11Comoros68.381.8
12Congo, DR122.676.5
13Congo, (Brazzaville)117.783.6
14Ivory Coast135.576.9
15Djibouti21.582.6
16Egypt51.993.4
17Equatorial Guinea108.736.8
18Eritrea54.394.7
19Ethiopia58.473.9
20Gabon99.978.7
21Gambia113.095.4
22Ghana66.891.7
23Guinea140.663.3
24Guinea-Bissau89.580.1
25Kenya90.988.5
26Lesotho92.791.7
27Liberia108.872.6
28Libya6.296.4
29Madagascar116.271.9
30Malawi136.291.7
31Mali174.676.0
32Mauritania78.679.9
33Mauritius28.597.6
34Morocco31.797.5
35Mozambique139.781.4
36Namibia76.886.5
37Niger202.469.7
38Nigeria110.650.0
39Rwanda26.396.1
40Sao Tome & Principe84.396.0
41Senegal78.689.5
42Seychelles57.498.6
43Sierra Leone118.287.7
44Somalia103.946.0
45S. Africa45.572.5
46Sudan74.089.2
47Swaziland70.492.4
48Tanzania118.694.0
49Togo92.084.3
50Tunisia6.895.7
51Uganda111.982.5
52Zambia90.484.2
53Zimbabwe109.789.7
54S. Sudan65.945.7
Africa Avg87.581.7
World Avg47.988.3
q=54. No data: 728

6. Modernity and Learning

#education #english #intelligence #it_security #maths #politics #religion #research #science #the_internet

Modernity and Education:

Pos.Research and Development (2016)
% RDP PPP
Secondary Education (2018)
Higher is better
31
Length of Schooling (2018)
Higher is better

Years32
Intellectual Endeavours (2017)
Lower is better

Rank25
Maths, Science & Reading (2015)
Higher is better

Score33
Religiosity (2009)
Lower is better

%34
IQ (2006)
Higher is better35
1Algeria0.073638.9%14.711310869583
2Angola30.2%11.816368
3Benin26.5%12.68770
4Botswana0.253790.0%12.713370
5Burkina Faso0.20388.8%8.99268
6Burundi0.12399.3%11.3719869
7Cameroon37.2%12.71019664
8Cape Verde0.073929.9%11.9103
9Central African Rep.22.1%7.65864
10Chad6.0%7.51249568
11Comoros11.297
12Congo, DR0.083850.7%9.713894
13Congo, (Brazzaville)48.8%11.614464
14Ivory Coast26.1%9.61268869
15Djibouti6.598
16Egypt0.684065.3%13.1609781
17Equatorial Guinea9.2157
18Eritrea5.0
19Ethiopia0.614017.1%8.764
20Gabon0.583857.6%12.9151
21Gambia0.133936.8%9.566
22Ghana0.384163.1%11.5639571
23Guinea11.7%9.09667
24Guinea-Bissau10.557
25Kenya0.794135.2%11.1599472
26Lesotho0.013930.0%10.7148
27Liberia29.0%9.67967
28Libya57.4%12.815083
29Madagascar0.113910.410682
30Malawi21.8%11.0949969
31Mali0.664113.1%7.61439569
32Mauritania18.8%8.51419876
33Mauritius0.183766.9%15.083
34Morocco0.734132.2%13.1459784
35Mozambique0.424119.3%9.714764
36Namibia0.144141.1%12.66670
37Niger6.6%6.512099.569
38Nigeria0.22429.71429669
39Rwanda16.3%11.21189570
40Sao Tome & Principe40.8%12.7
41Senegal0.544117.6%9.0699666
42Seychelles15.589
43Sierra Leone26.3%10.215264
44Somalia68
45S. Africa0.733776.5%13.7258572
46Sudan0.233617.5%7.793
47Swaziland32.6%11.4104
48Tanzania0.384114.3%8.01568972
49Togo0.223740.5%12.611170
50Tunisia0.683751.8%15.17211149383
51Uganda0.484132.1%11.2829373
52Zambia0.284344.3%12.11549571
53Zimbabwe58.7%10.5988866
54Somaliland98
55S. Sudan33.2%5.0
Africa Avg0.3634.4%10.6106.4110094.770.6
World Avg0.8463.0%13.282.0138975.185.6
q=55. No data: 644

Technology and Information:

Pos.Internet Users (2016)45Internet Freedom (2012)
Lower is better
46
IT Security (2013)
Lower is better
47
IPv6 Uptake (2017)
Higher is better

Ratio48
1Algeria20%0.0
2Angola23%1.610.0
3Benin6%
4Botswana21%0.0
5Burkina Faso10%0.79
6Burundi2%
7Cameroon18%0.770.0
8Cape Verde43%0.0
9Central African Rep.5%
10Chad3%
11Comoros7%
12Congo, DR4%
13Congo, (Brazzaville)8%0.0
14Ivory Coast22%0.820.0
15Djibouti12%1.290.0
16Egypt33%590.4
17Equatorial Guinea21%0.0
18Eritrea1%
19Ethiopia4%750.84
20Gabon10%0.0
21Gambia17%
22Ghana28%0.0
23Guinea2%
24Guinea-Bissau4%0.67
25Kenya45%290.770.0
26Lesotho21%0.0
27Liberia9%
28Libya21%430.630.0
29Madagascar4%
30Malawi7%1.23
31Mali12%1.12
32Mauritania17%1.190.0
33Mauritius43%0.0
34Morocco58%0.0
35Mozambique6%
36Namibia16%0.0
37Niger2%
38Nigeria46%331.180.0
39Rwanda12%511.50
40Sao Tome & Principe26%0.0
41Senegal23%
42Seychelles58%0.2
43Sierra Leone2%
44Somalia2%
45S. Africa52%260.220.1
46Sudan26%1.980.1
47Swaziland28%0.0
48Tanzania5%1.50
49Togo7%
50Tunisia48%460.0
51Uganda19%341.44
52Zambia19%0.760.1
53Zimbabwe21%54
54S. Sudan17%
Africa Avg18.4%45.01.070.04
World Avg48.1%46.70.983.82
q=54. No data: 728

7. National Culture

#charity #corruption #happiness #morals #politics

Pos.Personal Charitability
(World Position, 2013-2016)
49
Corruption (2012-2016)
Higher is better

Avg Score50
Happiness (2018)
Higher is better
51
Creativity and Culture (2017)
Lower is better

Rank25
Open Trading, Aid and Development (2017)
Lower is better

Rank25
1Algeria10935.25.3138160
2Angola11519.43.8148117
3Benin114.2536.84.114366
4Botswana63.7563.03.67290
5Burkina Faso93.7538.84.412430
6Burundi14520.22.916092
7Cameroon6626.25.0144150
8Cape Verde57.884115
9Central African Rep.23.83.115989
10Chad113.7520.44.3135126
11Comoros8426.4
12Congo, DR126.521.64.216263
13Congo, (Brazzaville)104.7522.84.6137120
14Ivory Coast93.3330.84.711695
15Djibouti34.0
16Egypt112.2534.24.4123134
17Equatorial Guinea147163
18Eritrea19.8
19Ethiopia90.533.24.4
20Gabon86.7535.04.8158152
21Gambia29.0
22Ghana63.7545.84.7104107
23Guinea65.7525.04.013294
24Guinea-Bissau19.215191
25Kenya17.7526.04.482130
26Lesotho45.23.810867
27Liberia40.6738.03.5153128
28Libya2916.85.616397
29Madagascar11428.43.897103
30Malawi45.2533.83.6142111
31Mali115.2532.24.413457
32Mauritania101.2529.84.456158
33Mauritius6954.05.92725
34Morocco11937.25.38543
35Mozambique30.04.412793
36Namibia6150.04.442136
37Niger11534.24.212851
38Nigeria3526.65.2146122
39Rwanda122.7552.63.416154
40Sao Tome & Principe42.8
41Senegal7941.84.68759
42Seychelles49101
43Sierra Leone51.6730.24.6129129
44Somalia08.45.0
45S. Africa53.2543.64.765114
46Sudan6412.24.1
47Swaziland11255
48Tanzania6932.23.3121143
49Togo11830.44.07716
50Tunisia12140.24.69370
51Uganda41.2526.24.210787
52Zambia51.537.84.4149121
53Zimbabwe92.7521.03.712226
54Somaliland42
55S. Sudan5813.83.3
Africa Avg82.724285714285732.034.29117.896.7
World Avg68.118589743589743.055.3882.082.0
q=55. No data: 644

8. Peace Versus Instability

#extremism #human_development #peace #politics #religious_violence #terrorism

Even though Africa has some of the most violent countries, "sub-Saharan Africa's levels of peacefulness have increased steadily since 2007" (GPI 2012).

Pos.Global Peace Index (2012)20Peacekeeping and Security (2017)
Lower is better

Rank25
Refugees and UN Treaties (2017)
Lower is better

Rank25
Impact of Terrorism (2019)
Lower is better

Score52
1Algeria2.2622793.41
2Angola2.111191533.78
3Benin2.231171270.00
4Botswana1.6211275
5Burkina Faso1.8846665.42
6Burundi2.521251505.10
7Cameroon2.1113906.62
8Cape Verde138108
9Central African Rep.2.871481466.62
10Chad2.671271454.76
11Congo, DR3.07911557.04
12Congo, (Brazzaville)2.15681242.69
13Ivory Coast2.421201562.60
14Djibouti1.880.32
15Egypt2.2241206.79
16Equatorial Guinea2.041111600.00
17Eritrea2.26
18Ethiopia2.505.35
19Gabon1.9781960.55
20Gambia1.96
21Ghana1.8166931.56
22Guinea2.071221230.97
23Guinea-Bissau16373
24Kenya2.2563445.76
25Lesotho1.861021180.10
26Liberia2.13154380.11
27Libya2.831451126.77
28Madagascar2.12251261.96
29Malawi1.8960690.66
30Mali2.131551396.65
31Mauritania2.30951430.00
32Mauritius1.495634
33Morocco1.87101141.22
34Mozambique1.80106655.54
35Namibia1.8089106
36Niger2.24101885.60
37Nigeria2.8051378.60
38Rwanda2.25291442.95
39Senegal1.99431001.19
40Seychelles15060
41Sierra Leone1.86151830.46
42Somalia3.397.80
43S. Africa2.322254.51
44Sudan3.195.81
45Swaziland2.031561250.00
46Tanzania1.8712853.27
47Togo381330.00
48Tunisia1.9631073.94
49Uganda2.1290633.96
50Zambia1.8357550.31
51Zimbabwe2.54701512.83
52S. Sudan6.32
Africa Avg2.2083.6104.53.41
World Avg2.0282.082.02.78
q=52. No data: 953

9. The Natural Environment

#biodiversity #climate_change #over-exploitation #the_environment

The effect of climate change on Africa's environment and resources is likely to pose a huge challenge out to 2045, impacting on issues such as water and food availability, migration and energy. Effects will vary according to region. [...] Extreme weather events, such as increases in the duration of dry spells, or changes in the intensity of rainfall, has already been observed across the continent. However, out to 2045 many countries will see increasingly intense, severe and frequent droughts and floods, higher maximum temperatures, and increasingly intense storms - all of which are likely to have a major effect on agricultural production. [...] Mozambique, Tanzania and Madagascar have been identified as particularly vulnerable to tropical storms in the future.

"Africa Out to 2045" by DCDC (2016)2

Pos.Forest Area Change 1990-2015 (2015)
%54
Environmental Performance (2018)
Higher is better
55
Energy to GDP Efficiency (2014)
Higher is better56
CBD
Earlier is better

Signed
Rational Beliefs on the Environment (2011)
Higher is better
%57
1Algeria17.357.210.001995 Nov 1223.5%
2Angola-05.137.41998 Jun 3062.4%
3Benin-25.238.204.691994 Sep 2832.6%
4Botswana-21.051.712.351996 Jan 1020.4%
5Burkina Faso-21.942.81993 Dec 2950.5%
6Burundi-04.527.41997 Jul 1442.0%
7Cameroon-22.640.808.331995 Jan 1739.0%
8Cape Verde55.756.91995 Jun 27
9Central African Rep.-01.736.41995 Jun 1351.9%
10Chad-27.345.31994 Sep 0552.8%
11Comoros-24.544.21994 Dec 2828.3%
12Congo, DR-04.930.41995 Mar 0322.8%
13Congo, (Brazzaville)-01.742.41996 Oct 3044.0%
14Ivory Coast01.845.304.851995 Feb 2763.7%
15Djibouti00.040.01994 Nov 3042.8%
16Egypt65.961.211.761994 Aug 3130.1%
17Equatorial Guinea-15.760.41995 Mar 06
18Eritrea-06.839.31996 Jun 19
19Ethiopia-17.844.802.811994 Jul 04
20Gabon04.545.11997 Jun 12
21Gambia10.442.41994 Sep 08
22Ghana08.249.71994 Nov 2740.4%
23Guinea-12.446.61993 Dec 2931.2%
24Guinea-Bissau-11.044.71996 Jan 25
25Kenya-06.647.305.241994 Oct 2452.1%
26Lesotho22.533.81995 Apr 10
27Liberia-15.241.62001 Feb 0623.1%
28Libya00.049.82001 Oct 1014.6%
29Madagascar-08.933.71996 Jun 0262.8%
30Malawi-19.249.21994 May 0322.0%
31Mali-29.543.71995 Jun 2760.7%
32Mauritania-45.939.21996 Nov 1438.0%
33Mauritius-06.156.615.631993 Dec 29
34Morocco13.763.512.661995 Nov 1960.0%
35Mozambique-12.546.402.471995 Nov 2346.5%
36Namibia-21.058.512.351997 Aug 1436.6%
37Niger-41.335.705.811995 Oct 23
38Nigeria-59.454.807.301994 Nov 2725.3%
39Rwanda50.943.71996 Aug 2735.8%
40Sao Tome & Principe-04.354.01999 Dec 28
41Senegal-11.549.508.061995 Jan 1529.6%
42Seychelles01.166.01993 Dec 29
43Sierra Leone-02.442.51995 Mar 1238.6%
44Somalia-23.22009 Dec 10
45S. Africa00.044.704.481996 Jan 3126.2%
46Sudan-37.551.51996 Jan 2846.9%
47Swaziland24.240.31995 Feb 07
48Tanzania-17.650.804.811996 Jun 0644.2%
49Togo-72.641.802.881996 Jan 0233.3%
50Tunisia61.962.411.241993 Dec 2919.3%
51Uganda-56.444.31993 Dec 2938.6%
52Zambia-07.951.005.711993 Dec 2941.9%
53Zimbabwe-36.643.402.311995 Feb 0919.6%
54S. Sudan2014 May 18
Africa Avg-08.046.407.421899 Dec 3038.3%
World Avg02.856.409.291899 Dec 3039.9%
q=54. No data: 728

10. Economic Inequality and Poverty

#capitalism #economics #health #inequality #life_expectancy #poverty #social_development

Pos.Inequality in Life Expectancy (2019)58Income Inequality (Gini Coefficient) (2017)
Lower is better
%59
Multidimensional Poverty (2018)
Lower is better
Severity60
1Algeria14.1027.6.008
2Angola32.0042.7.282
3Benin34.9047.8.368
4Botswana19.4053.3
5Burkina Faso32.0035.3.519
6Burundi28.5038.6.403
7Cameroon33.5046.6.243
8Cape Verde12.2047.2
9Central African Rep.40.1056.2.465
10Chad40.9043.3.533
11Comoros28.9045.3.181
12Congo, DR36.1042.1.389
13Congo, (Brazzaville)22.8048.9.112
14Ivory Coast33.3041.5.236
15Djibouti23.4041.6
16Egypt11.6031.8.019
17Equatorial Guinea34.60
18Eritrea21.40
19Ethiopia24.9039.1.489
20Gabon22.8038.0.066
21Gambia28.5035.9.286
22Ghana24.2043.5.138
23Guinea31.3033.7.336
24Guinea-Bissau32.3050.7.372
25Kenya22.5040.8.178
26Lesotho33.1054.2.146
27Liberia29.8035.3.320
28Libya9.10.007
29Madagascar21.1042.6.453
30Malawi25.1044.7.243
31Mali36.7033.0.457
32Mauritania30.0032.6.261
33Mauritius9.4035.8
34Morocco13.0039.5.085
35Mozambique29.8054.0.411
36Namibia22.1059.1.171
37Niger30.9034.3.590
38Nigeria37.1043.0.291
39Rwanda19.5043.7.259
40Sao Tome & Principe17.0030.8.092
41Senegal21.2040.3.288
42Seychelles9.6046.8
43Sierra Leone39.0034.0.297
44Somalia38.90
45S. Africa19.2063.0.025
46Sudan27.4035.4.279
47Swaziland25.1051.5.081
48Tanzania25.3037.8.273
49Togo30.5043.1.249
50Tunisia9.0032.8.005
51Uganda27.2042.8.269
52Zambia26.5057.1.261
53Zimbabwe24.2043.2.137
54S. Sudan36.2046.3.580
Africa Avg26.1042.6.264
World Avg14.5938.1.154
q=54. No data: 728

11. Demographics

#birth_control #demographics #health #immigration #life_expectancy #longevity #migration #overpopulation #population

Population:

Pos.Population (2018)
Population5
Life
Expectancy (2015)
Higher is better

Years6
Fertility Rate (2013)
2.0 is best
22
Old-Age Dependency Ratio (2016)
Lower is better

Per 10061
1Algeria42.2m75.032.1714.0
2Angola30.8m52.705.1905.0
3Benin11.5m59.765.1205.8
4Botswana2.3m64.512.6407.7
5Burkina Faso19.8m59.015.7704.7
6Burundi11.2m57.124.1005.9
7Cameroon25.2m55.964.3305.8
8Cape Verde0.5m73.542.2910.0
9Central African Rep.4.7m51.464.4606.8
10Chad15.5m51.905.7904.7
11Comoros0.8m63.574.7806.3
12Congo, DR84.1m59.065.5405.8
13Congo, (Brazzaville)5.2m62.894.4607.0
14Ivory Coast25.1m51.894.2705.6
15Djibouti1.0m62.303.6109.1
16Egypt98.4m71.332.6510.5
17Equatorial Guinea1.3m57.915.0209.4
18Eritrea3.5m64.194.2804.9
19Ethiopia109.2m64.603.9106.6
20Gabon2.1m64.943.2008.5
21Gambia2.3m60.464.7304.9
22Ghana29.8m61.534.0306.5
23Guinea12.4m59.225.0806.1
24Guinea-Bissau1.9m55.494.9206.1
25Kenya51.4m62.164.6406.1
26Lesotho2.1m50.083.0806.1
27Liberia4.8m61.195.0805.9
28Libya6.7m71.762.4410.5
29Madagascar26.3m65.524.5206.4
30Malawi18.1m63.885.9805.6
31Mali19.1m58.476.1604.5
32Mauritania4.4m63.244.4006.8
33Mauritius1.3m74.601.5925.9
34Morocco36.0m74.312.2016.1
35Mozambique29.5m55.484.7506.4
36Namibia2.4m65.063.0807.4
37Niger22.4m61.946.9605.8
38Nigeria195.9m53.065.4505.1
39Rwanda12.3m64.755.3007.0
40Sao Tome & Principe0.2m66.583.5206.2
41Senegal15.9m66.934.6505.6
42Seychelles97 09673.3019.8
43Sierra Leone7.7m51.324.7804.8
44Somalia15.0m55.716.3005.4
45S. Africa57.8m57.662.3910.5
46Sudan41.8m63.7306.8
47Swaziland1.1m48.943.2106.6
48Tanzania56.3m65.515.5106.2
49Togo7.9m60.183.9005.4
50Tunisia11.6m74.981.9318.6
51Uganda42.7m59.215.9504.3
52Zambia17.4m60.826.3004.8
53Zimbabwe14.4m59.203.1505.0
54S. Sudan11.0m56.1306.2
Africa Avg23.6m61.594.3107.6
World Avg39.0m71.272.8118.3
q=54. No data: 728

Migration:

Pos.Immigrants (2017)
%9
Emigrants (2010)
%10
1Algeria0.6%3.4%
2Angola2.1%2.8%
3Benin2.3%5.8%
4Botswana7.3%3.2%
5Burkina Faso3.7%9.7%
6Burundi2.8%4.2%
7Cameroon2.2%1.4%
8Cape Verde2.8%37.6%
9Central African Rep.1.9%2.9%
10Chad3.3%2.1%
11Comoros1.5%5.6%
12Congo, DR1.1%1.3%
13Congo, (Brazzaville)7.6%5.6%
14Ivory Coast9.0%5.4%
15Djibouti12.1%1.5%
16Egypt0.5%4.4%
17Equatorial Guinea17.5%14.9%
18Eritrea0.3%18.0%
19Ethiopia1.2%0.7%
20Gabon13.8%1.7%
21Gambia9.8%3.7%
22Ghana1.4%3.4%
23Guinea1.0%5.2%
24Guinea-Bissau1.3%6.8%
25Kenya2.2%1.1%
26Lesotho0.3%20.5%
27Liberia2.1%10.5%
28Libya12.4%1.7%
29Madagascar0.1%0.4%
30Malawi1.3%1.4%
31Mali2.1%7.6%
32Mauritania3.8%3.5%
33Mauritius2.3%10.9%
34Morocco0.3%9.3%
35Mozambique0.8%5.0%
36Namibia3.8%0.7%
37Niger1.4%2.4%
38Nigeria0.6%0.6%
39Rwanda3.6%2.6%
40Sao Tome & Principe1.1%21.9%
41Senegal1.7%5.0%
42Seychelles13.6%14.6%
43Sierra Leone1.3%4.6%
44Somalia0.3%8.7%
45S. Africa7.1%1.7%
46Sudan1.8%2.2%
47Swaziland2.4%13.4%
48Tanzania0.9%0.7%
49Togo3.6%5.4%
50Tunisia0.5%6.3%
51Uganda3.9%2.2%
52Zambia0.9%1.4%
53Zimbabwe2.4%9.9%
54S. Sudan6.7%
Africa Avg3.6%6.2%
World Avg9.4%11.5%
q=54. No data: 728

12. Religion and Beliefs

#belief #buddhism #christianity #folk_religion #god #hinduism #human_development #islam #judaism #no_religion #religion

The vast majority of North Africa is Muslim, whilst sub-Saharan African is split between Islam in the North and Christianity in the south, but with considerable overlap. Christianity is likely to remain the majority religion on the continent out to 2045, but the proportion of the population who are Muslim will increase (mainly due to higher fertility rates). Indigenous beliefs are also practised in many parts of Africa, and in many cases have become entwined with Christianity and Islam

"Africa Out to 2045" by DCDC (2016)62

Wars Between Believers: Africa has sufferred from a long history of religious conflict, not only between Christians and Muslims, but between both of those new faiths and traditional culture, and internal battles between different denominations.

"Chad has experienced some tensions between fundamentalist and moderate Muslims, Guinea has strong social pressure discouraging conversion from Islam, Mali experienced violence in 2003 between traditional Sunni practitioners and Wahhabi Sunnis, and Niger similarly saw mainstream Sunni youths demonstrating against the Wahhabist Izalay sect.63 [...] The most lethal religion-related armed conflict in recent decades occurred during the Sudanese civil war, which resulted in more than six million people being killed or displaced between 1989 and 2005. Religion played a central role in splitting the country into warring sides, primarily pitting government forces from the Muslim-majority north against an array of opposition forces from the south, which is largely Christian"64. Although, because of the prevalence of Sufi Islam (a kinder branch of Islam), sub-Saharan Africa does better.

Africa is seeing the growth of less tolerant religion in the form of Salafism and evangelical Pentecostalism, both of which use their influence to encourage conflict between communities. The UK Ministry of Defence's strategic analysis is that religion-inspired conflicts will increase.65

Some in the West argue against non-believers, stating that religion is required for morals. Guy Harrison uses Africa as an example of how religion fosters war.

There are very few atheists in sub-Saharan Africa yet that region is plagued with numerous wars decade after decade. Who can be blamed but believers?

"50 Reasons People Give for Believing in a God" by Guy Harrison (2008)66

Pos.Religiosity (2009)
%34
Disbelief In God (2007)
Higher is better
%67
Jews (2010)
%68
Christians (2010)
%68
Muslims (2010)
%68
Hindus (2010)
%68
Buddhists (2010)
%68
Folk Religion (2010)
%68
Unaffiliated (2010)
%68
1Algeria9500.10.297.90.10.10.11.8
2Angola20.190.50.20.10.14.25.1
3Benin00.153.023.80.10.118.15.0
4Botswana00.172.10.40.30.16.020.6
5Burkina Faso00.122.561.60.10.115.40.4
6Burundi9800.191.52.80.10.15.70.1
7Cameroon9600.170.318.30.10.13.35.3
8Cape Verde0.189.10.10.10.11.59.1
9Central African Rep.20.189.58.50.10.11.01.0
10Chad9500.140.655.30.10.11.42.5
11Comoros970.10.598.30.10.11.00.1
12Congo, DR940.195.81.50.10.10.71.8
13Congo, (Brazzaville)30.185.91.20.10.12.89.0
14Ivory Coast8800.144.137.50.10.110.28.0
15Djibouti980.22.396.90.10.10.30.2
16Egypt9700.15.194.90.10.10.10.1
17Equatorial Guinea0.188.74.00.10.11.75.0
18Eritrea0.162.936.60.10.10.40.1
19Ethiopia00.162.834.60.10.12.60.1
20Gabon0.176.511.20.10.16.05.6
21Gambia00.14.595.10.10.10.10.1
22Ghana9500.174.915.80.10.14.94.2
23Guinea00.110.984.40.10.12.71.8
24Guinea-Bissau0.119.745.10.10.130.94.3
25Kenya9400.184.89.70.10.11.72.5
26Lesotho0.196.80.10.10.10.13.1
27Liberia00.185.912.00.10.10.51.4
28Libya00.12.796.60.10.30.10.2
29Madagascar00.185.33.00.10.14.56.9
30Malawi9900.182.713.00.10.11.72.5
31Mali9500.13.292.40.10.11.62.7
32Mauritania9800.10.399.00.10.10.50.1
33Mauritius0.125.316.756.40.10.70.6
34Morocco9700.10.199.00.10.10.10.1
35Mozambique50.156.718.00.10.17.417.9
36Namibia40.197.50.30.10.10.21.9
37Niger99.500.10.898.40.10.10.10.7
38Nigeria9600.149.348.80.10.11.40.4
39Rwanda9500.193.41.80.10.11.03.6
40Sao Tome & Principe0.182.20.10.10.12.912.6
41Senegal9600.13.696.40.10.10.10.1
42Seychelles0.194.01.12.10.10.12.1
43Sierra Leone00.120.978.00.10.10.80.1
44Somalia00.10.199.00.10.10.10.1
45S. Africa8510.181.21.71.10.20.414.9
46Sudan930.15.490.70.10.12.81.0
47Swaziland0.188.10.20.10.11.010.1
48Tanzania8900.161.435.20.10.11.81.4
49Togo00.143.714.00.10.135.66.2
50Tunisia9300.10.299.00.10.10.10.2
51Uganda9300.186.711.50.30.10.90.5
52Zambia9500.197.60.50.10.10.30.5
53Zimbabwe8840.187.00.90.10.13.87.9
54Somaliland98
55Mayotte0.10.798.60.10.10.50.2
56St Helena0.196.50.10.10.10.13.3
57Réunion0.187.64.24.50.20.42.0
58S. Sudan0.160.56.20.10.132.90.5
59Western Sahara0.10.299.00.10.10.10.4
Africa Avg94.70.50.152.039.21.20.13.93.4
World Avg75.19.90.560.622.42.03.52.77.9
q=59. No data: 269

Links:

Some notes from John R. Hinnells:

There are as many African religions as peoples or 'tribes', that is, many hundreds. [...] African religions belonged to pre-literate societies. This has affected ... our knowledge. [...] Non-literate religions change at least as much as literate ones, but changes go unrecorded, hence the mistaken view that African religions are unchanging. Their historical developments may be partially plotted through analysis of layers within current ritual an myth [and] historical documentation. [...] There has been some sharp reaction against [Christian texts on African religion that make a monotheistic God central to African beliefs]. There are certainly some peoples with either no conception of a supreme God or one so limited as to be effectively otiose (Achloli, Lango, Lovedu, Nyakyusa, Swazi, Zande; Jok). These are significant exceptions. [...] More characteristic is a pattern of intermediaries - ancestors or nature gods - to which most ritual and prayer are immediately directed.

"The Penguin Dictionary of Religions" by John R. Hinnells (1997)70

Ancestor Worship:.

In most although not all African religions (among exceptions are the Masai, Nuer, and Tiv) ancestors play a major role. [... They] are seen as elders, named and approached in much the same way as the most senior of living elders; yet they have additional mystical powers. [...] In more God-conscious societies ancestors may be approached simply as intermediaries to God, but where ritual, petition and sacrifice are regularly directed to ancestral spirits with little or no reference to God, it seems linguistically perverse to deny that this is worship - a word itself admitting a range of meaning. [...] In some west African societies (for example, Benin and the Ibo) ancestor veneration is combined with belief in their reincarnation in descendants.

"The Penguin Dictionary of Religions" by John R. Hinnells (1997)71

12.1. The Rise of Christianity in Africa72

#christianity #islam #kenya #malawi #nigeria #zambia

According to religion demographers David Barett and Todd Johnson, Christians numbered 10 million in 1900 and 30 million in 1945, but then jumped to 144 million by 1970 and further to 411 million by 2005. Africa's most dramatic Christian growth, in other words, occurred after decolonization. [...] The most important driver and beneficiary of Protestantism's demographic expansion across the global South has clearly been evangelicalism - particularly, in recent years, in its Pentecostal expressions.

Timothy Samuel Shah (2008)73 p. x.

Much of this rise has not been in the spirit of a healthy competition of ideas, wherein the religion that best makes sense grows in numbers. Organized and wealthy Christian evangelists have used their power and resources to systematically undermine and diminish African religion. Anthropologist Terence O. Ranger writes that "evangelicals of all kinds 'demonize' African religion and seek to expel it both from the private and the public sphere"74, and quotes Mutna (1999):

The modern African state, right from its inception, has relentlessly engaged in a campaign of the marginalization, at best, or eradication, at worst, of African religion... The destruction and delegitimation of African religion have been actively effected at the urging or with the collusion and for the benefit of, either or both Islam and Christianity... [T]he conscious, willful and planned displacement of African religion goes beyond and legitimate bounds of religious advocacy and violates the human rights of Africans:... it is in fact a repudiation... of the humanity of African culture.

Mutna (1999), 170.

With wealth comes power and influence, over both religion and government. In several countries "freedom of religion" has been enshrined into law, not to protect African religion, but to ensure the easy spread of evangelical churches - and Muslim outreach churches do exactly the same in countries where they have a foothold. "Mutua, an academic lawyer, shows that the constitutions of independent African states - Kenya, Malawi, Nigeria, Zambia, Congo, etc. - guarantee 'liberal generic protection of religious freedoms.' But these are defined in such a way that they refer exclusively to Islam and Christianity"74.

As such, Timothy S. Shah, senior research scholar at the Institute on Culture, Religion and World Affairs at Boston University, warns about "numerous instances" of Christian communities supporting any party, no matter how vile if it happens to further the interests of their own community.

It is also true that the contributors document numerous instances in which evangelical leaders and their constituencies have been all too willing to offer their fervent prayers and praise for dictators they deem 'godly' - a designation dictators usually earn by their adoption of biblical rhetoric and sponsorship of religious functions, particularly the ubiquitous evangelical crusade. In so doing, some evangelicals reproduce and indeed reinforce the corrupt clientelist politics rife in the region.

Timothy Samuel Shah (2008)73 p. xii-xiii.

13. The Economy and Inequality75

High birth rates are contributing heavily to Africa's problems; the population of some of the poorest countries is set to triple by 204576.

Whilst the African economy is expected to grow out to 2045, wealth will continue to be unevenly distributed and millions are likely to remain in extreme poverty; in some countries the proportion could even increase. Although the proportion of the population living in absolute poverty has declined from around 57% in 1990 to 43% in 2012, rapid population growth means that the number of people still living in absolute poverty has increased.

"Africa Out to 2045" by DCDC (2016)77