The Human Truth Foundation

Kazakhstan (Republic of Kazakhstan)

By Vexen Crabtree 2013


Comments:
FB, LJ

#charity #economics #happiness #intelligence #kazakhstan #morals #research #science #the_environment

Kazakhstan
Republic of Kazakhstan
StatusIndependent State
CapitalAstana
Land Area2 699 700km21
LocationAsia
Population16.4m (2011)2
Life Expectancy69.59yrs (2017)3
GNI$22 093 (2017)4
ISO3166-1 CodesKZ, KAZ, 3985
Internet Domain.kz6
CurrencyTenge (KZT)7
Telephone+78

1. Overview

#islam #kazakhstan #russia

Ethnic Kazakhs, a mix of Turkic and Mongol nomadic tribes who migrated into the region in the 13th century, were rarely united as a single nation. The area was conquered by Russia in the 18th century, and Kazakhstan became a Soviet Republic in 1936. During the 1950s and 1960s agricultural "Virgin Lands" program, Soviet citizens were encouraged to help cultivate Kazakhstan's northern pastures. This influx of immigrants (mostly Russians, but also some other deported nationalities) skewed the ethnic mixture and enabled non-ethnic Kazakhs to outnumber natives. Non-Muslim ethnic minorities departed Kazakhstan in large numbers from the mid-1990s through the mid-2000s and a national program has repatriated about a million ethnic Kazakhs thus far back to Kazakhstan. These trends have allowed Kazakhs to become the titular majority again. This dramatic demographic shift has also undermined the previous religious diversity and made the country more than 70 percent Muslim. Kazakhstan's economy is larger than those of all the other Central Asian states largely due to the country's vast natural resources. Current issues include: developing a cohesive national identity; managing Islamic revivalism; expanding the development of the country's vast energy resources and exporting them to world markets; diversifying the economy outside the oil, gas, and mining sectors; enhancing Kazakhstan's economic competitiveness; developing a multiparty parliament and advancing political and social reform; and strengthening relations with neighboring states and other foreign powers.

CIA's The World Factbook (2013)9

Book CoverToday Kazakhstan´s expanse of Eurasian steppe offers one of the last great undiscovered frontiers of travel with some home comforts and mod cons. The world´s ninth-biggest country is the most economically advanced of the `stans´, thanks to its abundant reserves of oil and most other valuable minerals. This means generally better standards of accommodation, restaurants and transport than elsewhere in Central Asia. The biggest city, Almaty, is almost reminiscent of Europe with its leafy avenues, chic cafes, glossy shopping centres and hedonistic nightlife. The capital Astana, on the windswept northern steppe, has been transformed into a 21st-century showpiece with a profusion of bold futuristic architecture. But it´s beyond the cities that you´ll find the greatest travel adventures, whether hiking in the high mountains and green valleys of the Tian Shan, searching for wildlife on the lake-dotted steppe, enjoying home-spun hospitality in village guesthouses, or jolting across the western deserts to remote underground mosques.

"The World" by Lonely Planet (2014)10

2. Kazakhstan National and Social Development

#human_development

UN HDI (2016)11
Pos.Lower is better
Rank11
1Norway1
2Australia2
3Switzerland2
...
53Oman52
54Barbados54
55Uruguay54
56Kazakhstan56
57Bulgaria56
58Bahamas58
59Malaysia59
60Palau60
World Avg94.3
q=188.
Social & Moral
Development Index
12
Pos.Higher is better
Points12
1Denmark84.0
2Sweden83.9
3Finland83.5
...
113Ghana49.6
114Grenada49.6
115Namibia49.5
116Kazakhstan49.5
117Vanuatu49.4
118Antigua & Barbuda49.4
119Kenya49.4
120Samoa49.4
World Avg53.8
q=198.

The United Nations produces an annual Human Development Report which includes the Human Development Index. The factors taken into account include life expectancy, education and schooling and Gross National Income (GNI) amongst many others..

The Social and Moral Development Index concentrates on moral issues and human rights, violence, public health, equality, tolerance, freedom and effectiveness in climate change mitigation and environmentalism, and on some technological issues. A country scores higher for achieving well in those areas, and for sustaining that achievement in the long term. Those countries towards the top of this index can truly said to be setting good examples and leading humankind onwards into a bright, humane, and free future. See: What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life.

3. Population and Demographics

#demographics #health #immigration #Kazakhstan #life_expectancy #overpopulation #population

Old-Age Dependency Ratio (2016)13
Pos.Lower is better
Per 10013
1Uganda04.3
2Mali04.5
3Chad04.7
...
99Peru15.5
100Dominican Rep.15.6
101Venezuela15.6
102Kazakhstan15.6
103Ecuador16.0
104Morocco16.1
105Suriname16.2
106Grenada16.2
World Avg18.3
q=185.
Emigrants (2010)14
Pos.
%14
1Dominica104.8
2Palestine68.4
3Samoa67.3
...
19Trinidad & Tobago26.7
20Malta26.2
21Georgia25.1
22Kazakhstan23.6
23St Lucia23.3
24Macedonia21.9
25Sao Tome & Principe21.9
26Moldova21.5
World Avg11.5
q=192.
Fertility Rate (2013)15
Pos.2.0 is best15
1N. Korea2.00
2Brunei1.99
3St Vincent & Grenadines2.01
...
81Croatia1.49
82Dominican Rep.2.51
83Lithuania1.49
84Kazakhstan2.52
85Ukraine1.48
86Nicaragua2.52
87Belarus1.47
88Slovenia1.47
World Avg2.81
q=180.

Immigrants (2010)14
Pos.
%14
1Qatar86.5
2Monaco71.6
3UAE70.0
...
22New Zealand22.4
23Canada21.3
24Ireland19.6
25Kazakhstan19.5
26Gabon18.9
27Lebanon17.8
28Cyprus17.5
29Gambia16.6
World Avg9.2
q=192.
Life Expectancy (2015)16
Pos.Higher is better
Years16
1Hong Kong84.16
2Japan83.68
3Italy83.34
...
121Mongolia69.81
122Syria69.65
123Iraq69.63
124Kazakhstan69.59
125Tajikistan69.58
126Uzbekistan69.40
127Micronesia69.27
128Indonesia69.05
World Avg71.27
q=190.
Population (2012)17
Pos.The Overpopulation of the Earth17
1China1.4b
2India1.3b
3USA315.8m
...
60Chile17.4m
61Netherlands16.7m
62Niger16.6m
63Kazakhstan16.4m
64Mali16.3m
65Malawi15.9m
66Guatemala15.1m
67Ecuador14.9m
World Avg36.0m
q=195.

Kazakhstan's population is predicted to rise to 18.87 million by 2030. These millions of extra people will all need space to live, food to eat, energy to consume, and will increase the burden on the planet's resources. This country has a fertility rate of 2.52. The fertility rate is, in simple terms, the average amount of children that each woman has. The higher the figure, the quicker the population is growing, although, to calculate the rate you also need to take into account morbidity, i.e., the rate at which people die. If people live healthy and long lives and morbidity is low, then, 2.0 approximates to the replacement rate, which would keep the population stable. If all countries had such a fertility rate, population growth would end. The actual replacement rate in most developed countries is around 2.1.

4. Human Rights, Equality and Freedom

#equality #freedom #human_rights #kazakhstan #politics #tolerance

Kazakhstan is very poor at ensuring human rights and freedom compared to the rest of the world, and it has cultural issues when it comes to tolerance and equality. Kazakhstan does worse than average in eliminating modern slavery18, commentary from Human Rights Watch19, supporting personal, civil & economic freedoms20, its Global Peace Index rating21, LGBT equality22 and in fighting corruption23. And finally, it falls into the bottom 20 in supporting press freedom24. LGBT folk hide their sexual orientation out of fear of reprisals or discrimination, and they face hostility from authorities25. Kazakhstan seemed determined in 2017 to make its overall record even worse; suppressing independent trade union activity and persecuting critics and journalists, and threatening to further decrease citizen's religious freedoms25. Torture and ill-treatment in detention persist25.

For tables, charts and commentary, see:

5. Religion and Beliefs

#belief #buddhism #christianity #god #hinduism #islam #judaism #religion

Religiosity (2009)26
Pos.Lower is better
%26
1Estonia16
2Sweden17
3Denmark19
...
18Lithuania42
19Canada42
20S. Korea43
21Kazakhstan43
22Ukraine46
23Slovenia47
24Spain49
25Azerbaijan50
World Avg75.1
q=114.
Disbelief In God (2007)27
Pos.Higher is better27
1Vietnam81
2Japan65
3Sweden64
...
35Armenia14
36Lithuania13
37Singapore13
38Kazakhstan12
39China12
40Uruguay12
41USA10
42Trinidad & Tobago9
World Avg9.9
q=137.

Data from the Pew Forum, a professional polling outfit, states that in 2010 the religious makeup of this country was as follows in the table below28:

Christian24.8%
Muslim70.4%
Hindu0.1%
Buddhist0.2%
Folk Religion0.3%
Jew0.1%
Unaffiliated4.2%

By adding up the Pew Forum data for the major monotheistic religions we can see that these make up 95.3% of the population. Yet there are simply too many who disbelieve in God for this to be true (12%). This is due to the so-called 'Census Effect', whereby many put down a religion for cultural reasons rather than because it reflects their beliefs. In highly Christian countries, as many as half of those who say they're a Christian lack any connection to a Church, and do not hold Christian beliefs (such as believing in God!).

It appears that when asked "What religion are you" many give pollsters the 'correct' answer despite how they actually feel, and despite what they actually believe. Although 95.9% of the populace say they belong to a religion, only 43% say that they are religious when the question is phrased as "Is religion an important part of your daily life?".

For more on this phenomenon, see:

The CIA World Factbook has slightly different data, and states: Muslim 47%, Russian Orthodox 44%, Protestant 2%, other 7%29.

Links:

6. The Internet

#internet #it_security #Kazakhstan #politics #the_internet

Freedom On The Internet (2012)30
Pos.Lower is better30
1Estonia10
2USA12
3Germany15
...
30Russia52
31Zimbabwe54
32Sri Lanka55
33Kazakhstan58
34Egypt59
35Thailand61
36Pakistan63
37Belarus69
World Avg46.7
q=47.
Internet Users (2016)31
Pos.Higher is better31
1Iceland100%
2Faroe Islands99%
3Norway98%
...
86Morocco58%
87Colombia57%
88Costa Rica56%
89Kazakhstan56%
90US Virgin Islands54%
91Serbia54%
92Maldives54%
93Georgia53%
World Avg48.1%
q=201.
IPv6 Uptake (2017)32
Pos.Higher is better
Ratio32
1Belgium55.4
2Germany41.8
3Switzerland35.1
...
112Bahamas0.0
113Antigua & Barbuda0.0
114Venezuela0.0
115Kazakhstan0.0
116New Caledonia0.0
117Maldives0.0
118Tunisia0.0
119Tuvalu0.0
World Avg3.82
q=176.

IT Security (2013)33
Pos.Lower is better33
1Ireland0.11
2Luxembourg0.11
3Belize0.11
...
56Armenia1.22
57Malawi1.23
58Turkmenistan1.23
59Kazakhstan1.23
60Djibouti1.29
61UK1.34
62Mongolia1.42
63Uganda1.44
World Avg0.98
q=81.

Internet access has become an essential research tool. It facilitates an endless list of life improvements, from the ability to network and socialize without constraint, to access to a seemingly infinite repository of technical and procedural information on pretty much any task. The universal availability of data has sped up industrial development and personal learning at the national and personal level. Individuals can read any topic they wish regardless of the locality of expert teachers, and, entire nations can develop their technology and understanding of the world simply because they are now exposed to advanced societies and moral discourses online. Like every communications medium, the Internet has issues and causes a small range of problems, but these are insignificant compared to the advantages of having an online populace.

7. Public Health Issues

#alcohol #health #Kazakhstan #mental_health #parenting #population #smoking #suicide #vaccines

Adolescent Birth Rate (2015)34
Pos.Lower is better
Per 100034
1N. Korea0.5
2S. Korea1.6
3Switzerland2.9
...
76Rwanda26.3
77Iran26.7
78Turkey27.6
79Kazakhstan27.9
80Burundi28.3
81Mauritius28.5
82Bahamas29.6
83UAE29.7
World Avg47.9
q=185.
Alcohol Consumption (2010)35
Pos.Lower is better
Per Capita35
1Libya0.1
2Pakistan0.1
3Kuwait0.1
...
151Nigeria10.1
152Canada10.2
153Estonia10.3
154Kazakhstan10.3
155Austria10.3
156Greece10.3
157St Lucia10.4
158Switzerland10.7
World Avg6.2
q=191.
Food Aid, Health Contributions & WHO Compliance (2017)36
Pos.Lower is better
Rank36
1Sweden1
2Ireland2
3Denmark3
...
69Paraguay69
70Latvia70
71Liberia71
72Kazakhstan72
73Egypt73
74Burundi74
75Cameroon74
76Malta76
World Avg82.0
q=163.

Infant Immunizations 2011-2015 (2015)37
Pos.Higher is better
Avg %37
1Hungary99.0
2China99.0
3Uzbekistan98.9
...
28Turkmenistan97.2
29St Vincent & Grenadines97.2
30Dominica97.1
31Kazakhstan97.1
32Albania97.1
33Andorra97.1
34Russia97.0
35Guyana97.0
World Avg88.3
q=194.
Smoking Rates (2014)38
Pos.Lower is better38
1Guinea 15
2Solomon Islands 26
3Kiribati 28
...
168S. Korea2 073
169Greece2 086
170Azerbaijan2 114
171Kazakhstan2 157
172Czechia2 194
173Bosnia & Herzegovina2 233
174China2 250
175Luxembourg2 284
World Avg 819
q=182.
Suicide Rate (2013)39
Pos.Lower is better
Per 100k39
1Haiti0
2Grenada0
3Egypt0.1
...
83Latvia48.2
84Japan49.4
85Hungary50.6
86Kazakhstan52.4
87Guyana52.4
88Belarus57.5
89S. Korea62
90Russia63.4
World Avg20.93
q=91.

8. More Charts and Comparisons to Other Countries

Personal Charitability
(World Position, 2013-2016)
40
Pos.Lower is better40
1Myanmar (Burma)1.25
2USA1.5
3New Zealand3.5
...
88Kosovo76
89Lebanon77.25
90Senegal79
91Kazakhstan79.75
92Portugal80.25
93France80.5
94Peru83.75
q=156.
Intellectual Endeavours (2017)36
Pos.Lower is better
Rank36
1Ukraine1
2Czechia2
3Hungary3
...
113Algeria113
114Bahamas114
115Bahrain115
116Kazakhstan116
117Sri Lanka117
118Rwanda118
119Guatemala119
q=163.
Creativity and Culture (2017)36
Pos.Lower is better
Rank36
1Belgium1
2Netherlands2
3Estonia3
...
128Niger128
129Sierra Leone129
130Bangladesh130
131Kazakhstan131
132Guinea132
133Timor-Leste (E. Timor)133
134Mali134
q=163.
Peacekeeping and Security (2017)36
Pos.Lower is better
Rank36
1Samoa1
2S. Africa2
3Tunisia3
...
17Hungary17
18Japan18
19Chile19
20Kazakhstan20
21Thailand21
22Algeria22
23Guatemala23
q=163.
Refugees and UN Treaties (2017)36
Pos.Lower is better
Rank36
1Austria1
2Germany2
3Netherlands3
...
107Tunisia107
108Cape Verde108
109China109
110Kazakhstan110
111Jordan111
112Libya112
113Belize113
q=163.
Open Trading, Aid and Development (2017)36
Pos.Lower is better
Rank36
1Ireland1
2Denmark2
3Sweden3
...
128Liberia128
129Sierra Leone129
130Kenya130
131Kazakhstan131
132Bangladesh132
133Indonesia133
134Egypt134
q=163.
Research and Development (2016)
Pos.Higher is better
% RDP PPP
1S. Korea4.29
2Israel4.11
3Japan3.58
...
94Panama0.18
95Mauritius0.18
96Oman0.17
97Kazakhstan0.17
98Bolivia0.16
99Kyrgyzstan0.16
100Sri Lanka0.16
101Albania0.15
q=126.
Life Satisfaction (2011)41
Pos.Higher is better41
1Denmark7.8
2Norway7.6
3Netherlands7.6
...
63Croatia5.6
64Montenegro5.5
65Hong Kong5.5
66Kazakhstan5.5
67Estonia5.5
68Mauritius5.5
69Russia5.4
70Greece5.4
q=150.
Gross National Income Per-Capita (2011)16
Pos.Higher is better
PPP $16
1Qatar$129 916
2Singapore$78 162
3Kuwait$76 075
...
50Russia$23 286
51Latvia$22 589
52St Kitts & Nevis$22 436
53Kazakhstan$22 093
54Chile$21 665
55Bahamas$21 565
56Equatorial Guinea$21 517
57Argentina$20 945
q=193.
Environmental Performance (2018)42
Pos.Higher is better42
1Switzerland87.4
2France84.0
3Denmark81.6
...
98Bahamas55.0
99Kyrgyzstan54.9
100Nigeria54.8
101Kazakhstan54.6
102Samoa54.5
103Suriname54.2
104Sao Tome & Principe54.0
105Paraguay53.9
q=180.
IQ (2006)43
Pos.Higher is better43
1Hong Kong108
2Singapore108
3S. Korea106
...
38Slovakia96
39Portugal95
40Israel95
41Kazakhstan94
42Vietnam94
43Armenia94
44Romania94
45Georgia94
q=138.

Current edition: 2013 May 01
Last Modified: 2018 Dec 30
http://www.humantruth.info/kazakhstan.html
Parent page: Compare International Statistics by Region and Continent

All #tags used on this page - click for more:

#alcohol #belief #buddhism #charity #christianity #demographics #economics #equality #freedom #god #happiness #health #hinduism #human_development #human_rights #immigration #intelligence #internet #islam #it_security #judaism #Kazakhstan #life_expectancy #mental_health #morals #overpopulation #parenting #politics #population #religion #research #russia #science #smoking #suicide #the_environment #the_internet #tolerance #vaccines

Social Media

References: (What's this?)

Book Cover

The Good Country Index. Published by The Good Country Inc., New York, USA. Website: goodcountry.org. The Good Country Index gauges how well countries are doing in helping international development. Edition 1.2 (2017) has 35 criteria.

Charities Aid Foundation
World Giving Index. On www.cafonline.org.

CIA
(2013) World Factbook. The USA Government's Central Intelligence Agency (USA CIA) publishes The World Factbook, and the online version is frequently updated.

Crabtree, Vexen
(2019) "What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life" (2019). Accessed 2019 Jan 13.

The Fraser Institute
(2016) The Human Freedom Index. Published by The Cato Institute, The Fraser Institute and the Friedrich Naumann Foundation for Freedom. Covers data up to 2014. On www.fraserinstitute.org/.../human-freedom-index-2016.

Gallup
(2009) Religiosity. gallup.com/poll/142727/.... The survey question was "Is religion an important part of your daily life?" and results are charted for those who said "yes". 1000 adults were polled in each of 114 countries.

Human Rights Watch
(2018) World Report 2018. Covering the events of 2017.

Lonely Planet
(2014) The World. Subtitled: "A Traveller's Guide to the Planet". Published by Lonely Planet, London, UK. Each chapter is devoted to a specific country and includes a list of the most interesting places to visit and a few other cultural notes.

Lynn, Harvey & Nyborg
(2009) Average intelligence predicts atheism rates across 137 nations. Richard Lynn, John Harvey and Helmuth Nyborg. Published in Intelligence (2009 Jan/Feb) vol. 37 issue 1 pages 11-15. Online at www.sciencedirect.com, accessed 2009 Sep 15.

United Nations
(2011) Human Development Report. Published by the UN Development Programme. This edition had the theme of Sustainability and Equity: A Better Future for All. Available on hdr.undp.org/... UN Development Program: About the Human Development Index.
(2013) Human Development Report. Published by the UN Development Programme. This edition had the theme of The Rise of the South: Human Progress in a Diverse World. Available on hdr.undp.org/... UN Development Program: About the Human Development Index.
(2017) Human Development Report. Published by the UN Development Programme. Data for 2015. Available on hdr.undp.org/.

Walk Free Foundation
(2018) Global Slavery Index. Published on www.walkfreefoundation.org/.

World Health Organisation. (WHO)
(2014) Global Status Report on Alcohol and Health. A copy can be found on the WHO website. Accessed 2015 Jan 04. It "presents a comprehensive perspective on the global, regional and country consumption of alcohol, patterns of drinking, health consequences and policy responses in Member States" and was published in Geneva on 2014 May 12.

Footnotes

  1. World Bank data on data.worldbank.org accessed 2013 Nov 04.^
  2. UN (2011) .^
  3. UN (2017). Table 1.^
  4. UN (2017). Gross National Income, per person. Table 1.^
  5. International Standards Organisation (ISO) standard ISO3166-1, on www.iso.org, accessed 2013 May 01.^
  6. Top level domains (TLDs) are managed by the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) on www.iana.org.^
  7. According to ISO4217.^
  8. According to ITU-T.^
  9. CIA (2013). Https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/kz.html accessed 2014 Apr 27.^
  10. Lonely Planet (2014). Chapter "Kazakhstan".^
  11. UN (2017). Table 1. Lower is better.^
  12. "What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life" by Vexen Crabtree (2019)^
  13. UN (2017). Dashboard 2. Higher is worse. Old-age is counted as 65+, and ratio is of these to people ages 15-64. Projections are for 2030 based on medium-fertility variant of growth.^
  14. UN (2013). Table 11.^
  15. UN (2013). Table 14. Births per woman (2012), expressed as deviance (positive or negative) from the value of 2.0.^
  16. UN (2017). Table 1. Higher is better.^^
  17. UN (2013). Table 14.^
  18. Walk Free Foundation (2018) .^
  19. Human Rights Watch (2018). Negative and positive comments have been added to create a score for each country covered in the report.^
  20. Fraser Institute, the (2016). Covers data for 2014.^
  21. ^
  22. Sources:^
  23. Transparency International Corruption Perceptions Index (2017). Accessed 2017 Dec 30. The scores given are the TI average for the years 2012-2016.^
  24. Reporters Without Borders Report "2013 World Press Freedom Index: Dashed hopes after spring" at fr.rsf.org/.../classement_2013_gb-bd.pdf accessed 2013 Feb.^
  25. Human Rights Watch (2018). p311-316.^
  26. Gallup (2009) .^
  27. Zuckerman, P. (2007). Atheism: contemporary numbers and patterns. In M.Martin (Ed.), The Cambridge Companion to Atheism. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. In "Average intelligence predicts atheism rates across 137 nations" by Lynn et al. (2009)43.^
  28. Pew Forum (2012) publication "The Global Religious Landscape: A Report on the Size and Distribution of the World´s Major Religious Groups as of 2010" (2012 Dec 18) accessed 2013 May 01.^
  29. CIA (2013). Https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/ar.html accessed 2014 Apr 27.^
  30. Freedom House publication "Freedom on the Net 2012" at www.freedomhouse.org/.../FOTN%202012%20-%20Tables%20and%20Charts%20FINAL.pdf accessed 2013 Feb 05.^
  31. internetlivestats.com/internet-users-by-country accessed 2017 Mar 10.^
  32. % of internet access via native IPv6 compared to IPv4. As of 2017 Jun 20, from http://www.cidr-report.org. Accessed 2017 Jun 20.^
  33. "What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life: 3.4. Malware and Email Spam" by Vexen Crabtree (2019)^
  34. UN (2017). Table 5. Lower is better.^
  35. WHO (2014). Appendix 1. Alcohol Per Capita Consumption in liters of pure alcohol, 15+ years age population, consumed in 2010. Lower is better.^
  36. The Good Country Index (2017) .^^
  37. World Health Organisation data for 2011-2015 from 7 data series accessed 2017 May 21. Details in "Immunizations: International Statistics on Vaccines and the Autism Scare: 3. World Health Organisation Statistics" by Vexen Crabtree (2017).^
  38. Annual Cigarette Consumption Per Adult (age 15 and above) - compustible cigarettes. Euromonitor International (2014), via tobaccoatlas.org/topic/cigarette-use-globally/ . Accessed 2017 Jun 20.^
  39. UN (2013). World Health Organisation statistics. Suicide Rates Per 100k.^
  40. Charities Aid Foundation. Average ranking across years 2013-2016. Lower is better.^
  41. UN (2013). Table 9. Higher is better. Table 9. The UN's data is the latest available from a range of data from 2007-2011.^
  42. Yale University Center for Environmental Law & Policy 2018 EPI.^
  43. Lynn, Harvey & Nyborg (2009) .^

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