The Human Truth Foundation

Bahrain (Kingdom of Bahrain)

By Vexen Crabtree 2013

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#bahrain

Bahrain
Kingdom of Bahrain
StatusIndependent State
Social and Moral Index96th best
CapitalManama
Land Area 760km21
LocationAsia, Middle East
GroupingsSmall Islands
Population1.4m (2011)2
Life Expectancy76.72yrs (2017)3
GNI$37 236 (2017)4
ISO3166-1 CodesBH, BHR, 485
Internet Domain.bh6
CurrencyDinar (BHD)7
Telephone+9738

1. Overview

#islam #UK

In 1783, the Sunni Al-Khalifa family captured Bahrain from the Persians. In order to secure these holdings, it entered into a series of treaties with the UK during the 19th century that made Bahrain a British protectorate. The archipelago attained its independence in 1971. Facing declining oil reserves, Bahrain has turned to petroleum processing and refining and has transformed itself into an international banking center. Bahrain's small size and central location among Persian Gulf countries require it to play a delicate balancing act in foreign affairs among its larger neighbors. In addition, the Sunni-led government has struggled to manage relations with its large Shia-majority population. During the mid-to-late 1990s, Shia activists mounted a low-intensity uprising to demand that the Sunni-led government stop systemic economic, social, and political discrimination against Shia Bahrainis. King HAMAD bin Isa Al-Khalifa, after succeeding his late father in 1999, pushed economic and political reforms in part to improve relations with the Shia community. After boycotting the country's first round of national elections under the newly promulgated constitution in 2002, Shia political societies participated in the 2006 and 2010 legislative and municipal elections. Wifaq, the most prominent Shia political party, won the largest bloc of seats in the elected lower house of the legislature both times. Beginning in February 2011, Bahrain's opposition sought to ride out a rising tide of popular Arab protests to petition for the redress of popular grievances. In mid-March 2011, the Bahraini Government took action to halt the momentum of the growing protest movement by declaring a state of emergency that put an end to the mass public gatherings and increasingly disruptive civil disobedience. Manama also welcomed a contingent of Gulf Cooperation Council forces under the Peninsula Shield umbrella intended to protect critical infrastructure as Bahraini security forces deployed to the protest areas. The Bahrain Independent Commission of Inquiry (BICI), formed in June 2011 to investigate abuses during the unrest and state of emergency, released its final report in November 2011. The King fully endorsed the report, and since then Manama has begun to implement a number of the BICI's recommendations, including improving policing procedures, reinstating dismissed workers, rebuilding some religious sites, and establishing a compensation fund for those affected by the unrest and crackdown. The opposition continues to express concern about the recommendations that have not been implemented. The summer 2011 National Dialogue between the government and political societies did not ultimately address core opposition grievances, and protests continued. Street protests have grown increasingly violent. A new round of National Dialogue was launched in February 2013 with participation by the government, both opposition and more pro-government political societies, and legislators.

CIA's The World Factbook (2013)9

Book CoverThis tiny island state is the smallest of all Arab countries, and is one of the most easygoing of the Gulf states. Like an oyster, Bahrain´s rough exterior takes some prising open, but it is worth the effort. From the excellent National Museum in Manama to the extraordinary burial mounds at Sar, there are many fine sites to visit.... Bahrain maintains its gaze not on the island´s minimal land mass, but on the shallow waters that lap its shores. The sweet-water springs that bubble offshore helped bring about 4000 years of settlement [and] encouraged lustrous pearls – the trade that helped to build the island´s early fortunes.Much of Manama´s modern wealth, illustrated in high-profile building projects, rises proudly from land `reclaimed´ from the sea. With the projected effects of climate change, however, the sea may yet have the last laugh.

"The World" by Lonely Planet (2014)10

2. Bahrain National and Social Development

UN HDI (2016)
Lower is better

Rank11
1Norway1
2Australia2
3Switzerland2
...
44Latvia44
45Croatia45
46Argentina45
47Bahrain47
48Montenegro48
49Russia49
50Romania50
51Kuwait51
World Avg94.3
q=188.
Social & Moral
Development Index
Higher is better

Points12
1Iceland84.1
2Sweden80.8
3Norway80.0
...
93Azerbaijan54.0
94Ecuador53.9
95Libya53.8
96Bahrain53.6
97Guatemala53.5
98Korea, N.53.5
99Tonga53.4
100Oman53.1
World Avg54.5
q=198.

The United Nations produces an annual Human Development Report which includes the Human Development Index. The factors taken into account include life expectancy, education and schooling and Gross National Income (GNI) amongst many others..

The Social and Moral Development Index concentrates on moral issues and human rights, violence, public health, equality, tolerance, freedom and effectiveness in climate change mitigation and environmentalism, and on some technological issues. A country scores higher for achieving well in those areas, and for sustaining that achievement in the long term. Those countries towards the top of this index can truly said to be setting good examples and leading humankind onwards into a bright, humane, and free future. See: What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life.

3. Population and Demographics

Old-Age Dependency Ratio (2016)
Lower is better

Per 10013
1Uganda04.3
2Mali04.5
3Chad04.7
...
56Belize08.3
57Gabon08.5
58Pakistan08.6
59Bahrain08.7
60Syria09.0
61Djibouti09.1
62Tajikistan09.1
63Equatorial Guinea09.4
World Avg18.3
q=185.
Emigrants (2010)
%14
1Dominica104.8
2Palestine68.4
3Samoa67.3
...
125Burundi4.2
126Panama4.0
127Norway3.8
128Bahrain3.7
129Gambia3.7
130Chile3.7
131Peru3.7
132Czech Rep.3.6
World Avg11.5
q=192.
Fertility Rate (2013)
2.0 is best
15
1Korea, N.2.00
2Brunei1.99
3St Vincent & Grenadines2.01
...
67Libya2.44
68Cambodia2.45
69Bulgaria1.54
70Bahrain2.46
71Thailand1.54
72Greece1.54
73Georgia1.53
74Switzerland1.53
World Avg2.81
q=180.

Immigrants (2010)
%14
1Qatar86.5
2Monaco71.6
3UAE70.0
...
7Palestine43.6
8Singapore40.7
9Israel40.4
10Bahrain39.1
11Hong Kong38.8
12San Marino37.0
13Brunei36.4
14Luxembourg35.2
World Avg9.2
q=192.
Life Expectancy (2015)
Higher is better

Years16
1Hong Kong84.16
2Japan83.68
3Italy83.34
...
48Mexico76.97
49Oman76.97
50Maldives76.96
51Bahrain76.72
52Bosnia & Herzegovina76.63
53Argentina76.46
54Slovakia76.41
55Montenegro76.40
World Avg71.27
q=190.
Population (2012)17
1China1.4b
2India1.3b
3USA315.8m
...
147Gambia1.8m
148Guinea-Bissau1.6m
149Gabon1.6m
150Bahrain1.4m
151Trinidad & Tobago1.4m
152Estonia1.3m
153Mauritius1.3m
154Swaziland1.2m
World Avg36.0m
q=195.

Bahrain's population is predicted to rise to 1.654 million by 2030. This country has a fertility rate of 2.46. The fertility rate is, in simple terms, the average amount of children that each woman has. The higher the figure, the quicker the population is growing, although, to calculate the rate you also need to take into account morbidity, i.e., the rate at which people die. If people live healthy and long lives and morbidity is low, then, 2.0 approximates to the replacement rate, which would keep the population stable. If all countries had such a fertility rate, population growth would end. The actual replacement rate in most developed countries is around 2.1.

4. Gender Equality

Gender Inequality (2015)
Lower is better18
1Switzerland0.04
2Denmark0.04
3Netherlands0.04
...
45Bulgaria0.22
46UAE0.23
47Moldova0.23
48Bahrain0.23
49Hungary0.25
50Saudi Arabia0.26
51Albania0.27
52Russia0.27
World Avg0.36
q=159.
Year Women Can Vote
Lower is better

Year19
1New Zealand1893
2Australia1902
3Finland1906
...
158Yemen1970
159Switzerland1971
160Bangladesh1972
161Bahrain1973
162San Marino1973
163Andorra1973
164Jordan1974
165Solomon Islands1974
World Avg1930
q=189.

Gender inequality is not a necessary part of early human development. Although a separation of roles is almost universal due to different strengths between the genders, this does not have to mean that women are subdued, and, such patriarchialism is not universal in ancient history. Those cultures and peoples who shed, or never developed, the idea that mankind ought to dominate womankind, are better cultures and peoples than those who, even today, cling violently to those mores.

Bahrain is on the way towards ending gender inequality but women are still in an unfavourable position much of the time.

See:

5. Religion and Beliefs

#buddhism #christianity #hinduism #islam #judaism

Religiosity (2009)
Lower is better
%20
1Estonia16
2Sweden17
3Denmark19
...
81Uganda93
82Palestine93
83Nepal93
84Bahrain94
85Congo, DR94
86Kenya94
87Qatar95
88Zambia95
World Avg75.1
q=114.

Data from the Pew Forum, a professional polling outfit, states that in 2010 the religious makeup of this country was as follows in the table below21:

Christian14.5%
Muslim70.3%
Hindu9.8%
Buddhist2.5%
Folk Religion0.1%
Jew0.6%
Unaffiliated1.9%

The CIA World Factbook has slightly different data, and states: Muslim (Shia and Sunni) 81.2%, Christian 9%, other 9.8% (2001 census)22.

The International Humanist and Ethical Union produced a report in 2012 entitled "Freedom of Thought" (2012), in which they document bias and prejudice at the national level that is based on religion, belief and/or lack of belief. Their entry for Bahrain states:

The constitution does not explicitly protect freedom of religion or belief, but it does make provision for the freedom of conscience, the inviolability of places of worship, and the freedom to perform religious rites and hold religious parades and meetings, in accordance with the customs observed in the country. The constitution stipulates that there shall be no discrimination in the rights and duties of citizens on grounds of religion. However, the constitution also states that Islam is the official religion and that Islamic law is a principal source for legislation.

By declaring Islam as the state religion and Islamic law as the source of legislation, the constitution implies that Muslims are forbidden to change their religion (since Sharia outlaws apostasy). The constitution imposes no restrictions on non-Muslims' right to choose, change, or practice their religion or belief, including the study, discussion, and promulgation of those beliefs. The constitution prohibits discrimination in the rights and duties of citizens on the basis of religion or belief; however, there are no further laws to prevent discrimination, nor procedures to file a grievance.

The civil and criminal legal systems consist of a complex mix of courts based on diverse legal sources, including both Shiite and Sunni schools of Islamic jurisprudence, tribal law, and other civil codes. Sharia governs personal status, and a person's rights can vary according to Shiite or Sunni interpretation, as determined by the individual's faith or by the courts. In May 2009, the government adopted the country's first personal status law, which regulates family matters such as inheritance, child custody, marriage, and divorce. The law is only applicable to the Sunni population as Shiite clerics and lawmakers opposed legislation that would have applied to Shiite courts.

The press and publications law prohibits anti-Islamic media, and mandates imprisonment for "exposing the state's official religion for offense and criticism." The law states that "any publication that prejudices the ruling system of the country and its official religion can be banned from publication by a ministerial order." The law allows the production and distribution of religious media and publications. Islamic studies are a part of the curriculum in government schools and mandatory for all public school students. In 2011, Bahrain experienced prolonged unrest as protestors, predominantly from the majority Shia community, demanded political reform and an end to the political hegemony of the Sunni minority. The sectarian dimension of the political uprising resulted in substantial intra-Muslim conflict, including government attacks on Shi'ite religious buildings and the violent oppression of Shi'ite protestors. Violence has diminished in 2012, but the simmering sectarian tensions remain alongside the demands for political reform.

Cases of Discrimination

In August, 2012, a Bahraini court sentenced a man to two years in prison for making insulting comments about one of the Prophet Mohammad's wives. The man reportedly insulted Aisha in comments online.

"Freedom of Thought" by IHEU (2012)23

Links:

6. The Internet

Freedom On The Internet (2012)
Lower is better
24
1Estonia10
2USA12
3Germany15
...
35Thailand61
36Pakistan63
37Belarus69
38Bahrain71
39Saudi Arabia71
40Vietnam73
41Ethiopia75
42Myanmar (Burma)75
World Avg46.7
q=47.
Internet Users (2016)
Higher is better
25
1Iceland100%
2Faroe Islands99%
3Norway98%
...
13Finland93%
14Qatar92%
15UAE92%
16Bahrain92%
17Estonia91%
18Japan91%
19New Zealand89%
20USA89%
World Avg48.1%
q=201.
IPv6 Uptake (2017)
Higher is better

Ratio26
1Belgium55.4
2Germany41.8
3Switzerland35.1
...
156Greenland0.0
157Brunei0.0
158Aruba0.0
159Bahrain0.0
160Palau0.0
161Equatorial Guinea0.0
162Belize0.0
163Suriname0.0
World Avg3.82
q=176.

Internet access has become an essential research tool. It facilitates an endless list of life improvements, from the ability to network and socialize without constraint, to access to a seemingly infinite repository of technical and procedural information on pretty much any task. The universal availability of data has sped up industrial development and personal learning at the national and personal level. Individuals can read any topic they wish regardless of the locality of expert teachers, and, entire nations can develop their technology and understanding of the world simply because they are now exposed to advanced societies and moral discourses online. Like every communications medium, the Internet has issues and causes a small range of problems, but these are insignificant compared to the advantages of having an online populace.

7. Public Health Issues

Adolescent Birth Rate (2015)
Lower is better

Per 100018
1Korea, N.0.5
2Korea, S.1.6
3Switzerland2.9
...
41Lebanon12.4
42Estonia13.1
43Poland13.4
44Bahrain13.5
45Malaysia13.6
46Latvia13.6
47Australia14.1
48UK14.6
World Avg47.9
q=185.
Alcohol Consumption (2010)
Lower is better

Per Capita27
1Libya0.1
2Pakistan0.1
3Kuwait0.1
...
38Madagascar1.8
39Singapore2.0
40Turkey2.0
41Bahrain2.1
42Benin2.1
43Nepal2.2
44Azerbaijan2.3
45Mozambique2.3
World Avg6.2
q=191.
Infant Immunizations 2011-2015 (2015)
Higher is better

Avg %28
1Hungary99.0
2China99.0
3Uzbekistan98.9
...
8Korea, S.98.6
9Sri Lanka98.4
10St Lucia98.2
11Bahrain98.2
12Iran98.1
13Finland98.1
14Saudi Arabia98.0
15Luxembourg98.0
World Avg88.3
q=194.

Smoking Rates (2014)
Lower is better
29
1Guinea 15
2Solomon Islands 26
3Kiribati 28
...
117Ireland 954
118Australia 956
119Mongolia 957
120Bahrain 969
121France 993
122Brunei1 023
123Algeria1 024
124Latvia1 041
World Avg 819
q=182.
Suicide Rate (2013)
Lower is better

Per 100k30
1Haiti0
2Grenada0
3Egypt0.1
...
20Guatemala7.3
21Barbados7.3
22Belize7.3
23Bahrain7.5
24Albania8
25Mexico8.5
26Israel8.5
27Georgia8.8
World Avg20.93
q=91.

8. Politics and Freedom

Nominal Commitment to HR (2009)
Higher is better

Treaties31
1Argentina24
2Chile23
3Costa Rica23
...
138Haiti12
139Dominica12
140Central African Rep.12
141Bahrain12
142Israel12
143Angola12
144Suriname12
145Kuwait12
World Avg15.1
q=194.
Personal, Civil & Economic Freedom (2014)
Lower is better

Rank32
1Hong Kong1
2Switzerland2
3New Zealand3
...
87India87
88Burkina Faso88
89Kenya88
90Bahrain88
91Jordan91
92Cape Verde92
93Botswana93
94Liberia94
World Avg79.7
q=159.
Press Freedom (2013)
Lower is better
33
1Finland638
2Netherlands648
3Norway652
...
161Sri Lanka5659
162Saudi Arabia5688
163Uzbekistan6039
164Bahrain6275
165Equatorial Guinea6720
166Djibouti6740
167Laos6799
168Yemen6922
World Avg3249
q=178.

9. More Charts and Comparisons to Other Countries

Anti-Semite Opinions
Lower is better

%34
1Laos0
2Philippines3
3Sweden4
...
92Qatar80
93UAE80
94Jordan81
95Bahrain81
96Kuwait82
97Tunisia86
98Algeria87
99Libya87
q=101.
Personal Charitability
(World Position, 2013-2016)
Lower is better
35
1Myanmar (Burma)1.25
2USA1.5
3New Zealand3.5
...
10Trinidad & Tobago10
11Netherlands10
12UAE12
13Bahrain13
14Norway13.33
15Malta14
16Indonesia14.75
q=156.
Global Peace Index (2012)
Lower is better
36
1Iceland1.11
2New Zealand1.24
3Denmark1.24
...
114Armenia2.24
115Niger2.24
116Turkmenistan2.24
117Bahrain2.25
118Rwanda2.25
119Kenya2.25
120Algeria2.26
121Eritrea2.26
q=157.
Research and Development
Higher is better

% RDP PPP
1Korea, S.4.29
2Israel4.11
3Japan3.58
...
118Macau0.05
119Honduras0.04
120Guatemala0.04
121Bahrain0.04
122Colombia0.04
123Iraq0.03
124El Salvador0.03
125China0.03
q=126.
Life Satisfaction (2011)
Higher is better
37
1Denmark7.8
2Norway7.6
3Netherlands7.6
...
108India4.6
109Serbia4.5
110Congo, (Brazzaville)4.5
111Bahrain4.5
112Sudan4.4
113Cameroon4.4
114Ethiopia4.4
115Madagascar4.4
q=150.
Gross National Income Per-Capita (2011)
Higher is better
PPP $16
1Qatar$129 916
2Singapore$78 162
3Kuwait$76 075
...
25France$38 085
26UK$37 931
27Japan$37 268
28Bahrain$37 236
29Iceland$37 065
30Korea, S.$34 541
31Oman$34 402
32Italy$33 573
q=193.
Environmental Performance (2010)
Higher is better
38
1Iceland93.5
2Switzerland89.1
3Costa Rica86.4
...
141Mongolia42.8
142Uzbekistan42.3
143Senegal42.3
144Bahrain42.0
145Equatorial Guinea41.9
146Korea, N.41.8
147Cambodia41.7
148Botswana41.3
q=162.
LGBT Equality (2013)
Higher is better

Score39
1Netherlands405
2Belgium350
3Canada280
...
140Bhutan-10
141Guinea-Bissau-15
142Singapore-20
143Bahrain-20
144Korea, N.-20
145Maldives-20
146Burundi-20
147Djibouti-20
q=211.

Current edition: 2013 May 01
Last Modified: 2017 Jun 16
http://www.humantruth.info/bahrain.html
Parent page: Compare International Statistics by Region and Continent

All #tags used on this page - click for more:

#bahrain #buddhism #christianity #hinduism #islam #judaism #UK

Social Media

References: (What's this?)

Anti-Defamation League. (ADL)
(2014) ADL Global 100, Executive Summary. Accessed on global100.adl.org on 2017 Jan 02. The numbers given are of those who state that racist stereotyped statements about Jews are true; they have to agree to 6 or more of the 11 statements to be counted. An example statements is "Jews are hated because of the way they behave". The data was collected from 53,100 interviews across 101 countries plus the West Bank and Gaza. The global average is 26%.

Charities Aid Foundation
World Giving Index. On www.cafonline.org.

CIA
(2013) World Factbook. The USA Government's Central Intelligence Agency (USA CIA) publishes The World Factbook, and the online version is frequently updated.

Crabtree, Vexen
(2017) "What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life" (2017). Accessed 2017 Aug 01.

Gallup
(2009) Religiosity. gallup.com/poll/142727/.... The survey question was "Is religion an important part of your daily life?" and results are charted for those who said "yes". 1000 adults were polled in each of 114 countries.

IHEU. International Humanist and Ethical Union.
(2012) Freedom of Thought. A copy can be found on iheu.org/...Freedom of Thought 2012.pdf, accessed 2013 Oct 28.

Lonely Planet
(2014) The World. Subtitled: "A Traveller's Guide to the Planet". Published by Lonely Planet, London, UK. Each chapter is devoted to a specific country and includes a list of the most interesting places to visit and a few other cultural notes..

The Fraser Institute
(2016) The Human Freedom Index. Published by The Cato Institute, The Fraser Institute and the Friedrich Naumann Foundation for Freedom. Covers data up to 2014. On www.fraserinstitute.org/.../human-freedom-index-2016..

United Nations
(2011) Human Development Report. This edition had the theme of Sustainability and Equity: A Better Future for All. Published on the United Nation's website at hdr.undp.org/.../HDR_2011_EN_Complete.pdf (accessed throughout 2013, Jan-Mar). UN Development Program: About the Human Development Index.
(2013) Human Development Report. This edition had the theme of The Rise of the South: Human Progress in a Diverse World. Published on the United Nation's HDR website at hdr.undp.org/.../hdr2013/ (accessed throughout 2013). UN Development Program: About the Human Development Index.
(2017) Human Development Report. Published by the UN Development Programme. Data for 2015. Analysis conducted by the UN Development Report Office. Available on hdr.undp.org/..

World Health Organisation. (WHO)
(2014) Global Status Report on Alcohol and Health. A copy can be found on the WHO website. Accessed 2015 Jan 04. It "presents a comprehensive perspective on the global, regional and country consumption of alcohol, patterns of drinking, health consequences and policy responses in Member States" and was published in Geneva on 2014 May 12.

Footnotes

  1. World Bank data on data.worldbank.org accessed 2013 Nov 04.^
  2. UN (2011) .^
  3. UN (2017) Table 1.^
  4. UN (2017) Gross National Income, per person. Table 1.^
  5. International Standards Organisation (ISO) standard ISO3166-1, on www.iso.org, accessed 2013 May 01.^
  6. Top level domains (TLDs) are managed by the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) on www.iana.org.^
  7. According to ISO4217.^
  8. According to ITU-T.^
  9. CIA (2013) https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/ba.html accessed 2014 Apr 27.^
  10. Lonely Planet (2014) chapter "Bahrain" .^
  11. UN (2017) Table 1. Lower is better.^
  12. "What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life" by Vexen Crabtree (2017)^
  13. UN (2017) Dashboard 2. Higher is worse. Old-age is counted as 65+, and ratio is of these to people ages 15-64. Projections are for 2030 based on medium-fertility variant of growth.^
  14. UN (2013) Table 11.^
  15. UN (2013) Table 14. Births per woman (2012), expressed as deviance (positive or negative) from the value of 2.0.^
  16. UN (2017) Table 1. Higher is better.^^
  17. UN (2013) Table 14.^
  18. UN (2017) Table 5. Lower is better.^^
  19. "What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life: 3.6. Women Stand for Election & Vote (1893+) New Zealand, Australia, Finland" by Vexen Crabtree (2017)^
  20. Gallup (2009) .^
  21. Pew Forum (2012) publication "The Global Religious Landscape: A Report on the Size and Distribution of the World´s Major Religious Groups as of 2010" (2012 Dec 18) accessed 2013 May 01.^
  22. CIA (2013) https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/ar.html accessed 2014 Apr 27.^
  23. IHEU (2012) . Added to this page on 2013 Oct 28.^
  24. Freedom House publication "Freedom on the Net 2012" at www.freedomhouse.org/.../FOTN%202012%20-%20Tables%20and%20Charts%20FINAL.pdf accessed 2013 Feb 05.^
  25. internetlivestats.com/internet-users-by-country accessed 2017 Mar 10.^
  26. % of internet access via native IPv6 compared to IPv4. As of 2017 Jun 20, from http://www.cidr-report.org. Accessed 2017 Jun 20.^
  27. WHO (2014) Appendix 1. Alcohol Per Capita Consumption in liters of pure alcohol, 15+ years age population, consumed in 2010. Lower is better.^
  28. World Health Organisation data for 2011-2015 from 7 data series accessed 2017 May 21. Details in "Immunizations: International Statistics on Vaccines and the Autism Scare: 3. World Health Organisation Statistics" by Vexen Crabtree (2017).^
  29. Annual Cigarette Consumption Per Adult (age 15 and above) - compustible cigarettes. Euromonitor International (2014), via tobaccoatlas.org/topic/cigarette-use-globally/ . Accessed 2017 Jun 20.^
  30. UN (2013) World Health Organisation statistics. Suicide Rates Per 100k.^
  31. Max possible=24. Total amount of treaties ratified. Nominal Commitment to Human Rights report published by UCL School of Public Policy, London, UK, at ucl.ac.uk/spp/research/research-projects/nchr accessed 2011 Apr 30.^
  32. Fraser Institute, the (2016) . Covers data for 2014.^
  33. Reporters Without Borders Report "2013 World Press Freedom Index: Dashed hopes after spring" at fr.rsf.org/.../classement_2013_gb-bd.pdf accessed 2013 Feb.^
  34. ADL (2014) . Lower is better.^
  35. Charities Aid Foundation . Average ranking across years 2013-2016. Lower is better.^
  36. ^
  37. UN (2013) Table 9. Higher is better. Table 9. The UN's data is the latest available from a range of data from 2007-2011.^
  38. UN (2011) Table 6. Higher is better.^
  39. Higher is better. Sources:^

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