The Human Truth Foundation

Somalia

By Vexen Crabtree 2013


Comments:
FB, LJ

#economics #intelligence #somalia

Somalia
StatusIndependent State
CapitalMogadishu
Land Area 627 340km21
LocationAfrica
Population9.8m (2011)2
Life Expectancy55.71yrs (2017)3
GNI$0 294 (2017)4
ISO3166-1 CodesSO, SOM, 7065
Internet Domain.so6
CurrencyShilling (SOS)7
Telephone+2528

1. Overview

Britain withdrew from British Somaliland in 1960 to allow its protectorate to join with Italian Somaliland and form the new nation of Somalia. In 1969, a coup headed by Mohamed SIAD Barre ushered in an authoritarian socialist rule characterized by the persecution, jailing, and torture of political opponents and dissidents. After the regime's collapse early in 1991, Somalia descended into turmoil, factional fighting, and anarchy. In May 1991, northern clans declared an independent Republic of Somaliland that now includes the administrative regions of Awdal, Woqooyi Galbeed, Togdheer, Sanaag, and Sool. Although not recognized by any government, this entity has maintained a stable existence and continues efforts to establish a constitutional democracy, including holding municipal, parliamentary, and presidential elections. The regions of Bari, Nugaal, and northern Mudug comprise a neighboring semi-autonomous state of Puntland, which has been self-governing since 1998 but does not aim at independence; it has also made strides toward reconstructing a legitimate, representative government but has suffered some civil strife. Puntland disputes its border with Somaliland as it also claims portions of eastern Sool and Sanaag. Beginning in 1993, a two-year UN humanitarian effort (primarily in the south) was able to alleviate famine conditions, but when the UN withdrew in 1995, having suffered significant casualties, order still had not been restored. In 2000, the Somalia National Peace Conference (SNPC) held in Djibouti resulted in the formation of an interim government, known as the Transitional National Government (TNG). When the TNG failed to establish adequate security or governing institutions, the Government of Kenya, under the auspices of the Intergovernmental Authority on Development (IGAD), led a subsequent peace process that concluded in October 2004 with the election of Abdullahi YUSUF Ahmed as President of a second interim government, known as the Transitional Federal Government (TFG) of the Somali Republic. The TFG included a 275-member parliamentary body, known as the Transitional Federal Parliament (TFP). President YUSUF resigned late in 2008 while United Nations-sponsored talks between the TFG and the opposition Alliance for the Re-Liberation of Somalia (ARS) were underway in Djibouti. In January 2009, following the creation of a TFG-ARS unity government, Ethiopian military forces, which had entered Somalia in December 2006 to support the TFG in the face of advances by the opposition Islamic Courts Union (ICU), withdrew from the country. The TFP was doubled in size to 550 seats with the addition of 200 ARS and 75 civil society members of parliament. The expanded parliament elected Sheikh SHARIF Sheikh Ahmed, the former ICU and ARS chairman as president in January 2009. The creation of the TFG was based on the Transitional Federal Charter (TFC), which outlined a five-year mandate leading to the establishment of a new Somali constitution and a transition to a representative government following national elections. In 2009, the TFP amended the TFC to extend TFG's mandate until 2011 and in 2011 Somali principals agreed to institute political transition by August 2012. The transition process ended in September 2012 when clan elders appointed 275 members to a new parliament replacing the TFP and the subsequent election, by parliament, of a new president.

CIA's The World Factbook (2013)9

Book CoverA nation troubled and torn asunder, ... Somalia... may be set to emerge from decades of torment and trauma that brought it to international attention - most notably as a country beset by famine and militias - but like Puntland (a neighbouring, semi-autonomous state that has been self-governing since 1998), the haunt of pirates and smugglers, Mogadishu and parts thereabouts remain firm no-go zones for all Westerners. Yet the self-proclaimed Republic of Somaliland has risen from the ashes by restoring law and order within its boundaries.

"The World" by Lonely Planet (2014)10

2. Somalia National and Social Development

#human_development

Social & Moral
Development Index
11
Pos.Higher is better
Points11
1Denmark83.6
2Finland83.1
3Sweden82.6
...
191Syria35.5
192Congo, DR35.3
193Angola35.1
194Chad34.8
195Afghanistan34.4
196Somalia33.7
197Yemen32.2
198Iraq31.8
World Avg55.4
q=198.

The Social and Moral Development Index concentrates on moral issues and human rights, violence, public health, equality, tolerance, freedom and effectiveness in climate change mitigation and environmentalism, and on some technological issues. A country scores higher for achieving well in those areas, and for sustaining that achievement in the long term. Those countries towards the top of this index can truly said to be setting good examples and leading humankind onwards into a bright, humane, and free future. See: What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life.

3. Population and Demographics

#birth_control #demographics #health #immigration #life_expectancy #longevity #overpopulation #population #Somalia

Old-Age Dependency Ratio (2016)12
Pos.Lower is better
Per 10012
1Uganda04.3
2Mali04.5
3Chad04.7
...
11Zimbabwe05.0
12Nigeria05.1
13Qatar05.1
14Somalia05.4
15Togo05.4
16Ivory Coast05.6
17Malawi05.6
18Senegal05.6
World Avg18.3
q=185.
Emigrants (2010)13
Pos.
%13
1Dominica104.8%
2Palestine68.4%
3Samoa67.3%
...
73Slovakia9.6%
74Morocco9.3%
75Sri Lanka9.1%
76Somalia8.7%
77Kuwait8.5%
78Ecuador8.3%
79Poland8.3%
80Afghanistan8.1%
World Avg11.5%
q=192.

Fertility Rate (2013)14
Pos.2.0 is best14
1N. Korea2.00
2Brunei1.99
3St Vincent & Grenadines2.01
...
173Uganda5.95
174Malawi5.98
175Timor-Leste (E. Timor)5.99
176Afghanistan6.03
177Mali6.16
178Zambia6.30
179Somalia6.30
180Niger6.96
World Avg2.81
q=180.

The fertility rate is, in simple terms, the average amount of children that each woman has. The higher the figure, the quicker the population is growing, although, to calculate the rate you also need to take into account morbidity, i.e., the rate at which people die. If people live healthy and long lives and morbidity is low, then, 2.0 approximates to the replacement rate, which would keep the population stable. If all countries had such a fertility rate, population growth would end. The actual replacement rate in most developed countries is around 2.1.

Immigrants (2010)13
Pos.
%13
1Qatar86.5%
2Monaco71.6%
3UAE70.0%
...
179Laos0.3%
180Egypt0.3%
181Iraq0.3%
182Somalia0.2%
183Colombia0.2%
184Madagascar0.2%
185Myanmar (Burma)0.2%
186N. Korea0.2%
World Avg9.2%
q=192.
Life Expectancy (2015)15
Pos.Higher is better
Years15
1Hong Kong84.16
2Japan83.68
3Italy83.34
...
177Burundi57.12
178S. Sudan56.13
179Cameroon55.96
180Somalia55.71
181Guinea-Bissau55.49
182Mozambique55.48
183Nigeria53.06
184Angola52.70
World Avg71.27
q=190.
Population (2012)16
Pos.
Population16
1China1.4b
2India1.3b
3USA315.8m
...
84Dominican Rep.10.2m
85Hungary9.9m
86Serbia9.8m
87Somalia9.8m
88Belarus9.5m
89Sweden9.5m
90Azerbaijan9.4m
91Benin9.4m
World Avg36.0m
q=195.

Somalia's population is predicted to rise to 16.36 million by 2030. These millions of extra people will all need space to live, food to eat, energy to consume, and will increase the burden on the planet's resources. This country has a fertility rate of 6.30. The fertility rate is, in simple terms, the average amount of children that each woman has. The higher the figure, the quicker the population is growing, although, to calculate the rate you also need to take into account morbidity, i.e., the rate at which people die. If people live healthy and long lives and morbidity is low, then, 2.0 approximates to the replacement rate, which would keep the population stable. If all countries had such a fertility rate, population growth would end. The actual replacement rate in most developed countries is around 2.1.

4. Human Rights, Equality and Freedom

#equality #freedom #human_rights #politics #somalia #tolerance

Somalia is amongst the very worst places in the world at ensuring any human rights and freedoms, and it has severe cultural issues when it comes to tolerance and equality. Somalia does worse than average in the year from which women could participate in democracy17 (still good for Africa) and in its nominal commitment to Human Rights18 (one of the lowest in Africa). It sits amongst the bottom 20 when it comes to commentary in Human Rights Watch reports19, eliminating modern slavery20 and in supporting press freedom21 (one of the highest in Africa). It is second-from-the-bottom in LGBT equality22. And finally, it is the worst in its Global Peace Index rating23 and in fighting corruption24. "Somalia´s armed conflict, abuses by all warring parties, and a new humanitariancrisis [continues] to take a devastating toll on civilians25". The country has no moral anchor nor effective defenders of human rights; where protections exist, they are often part of the problem rather than a good solution; for example, sexual violence is classified as being against "honour" and "modesty" rather than being fundamentally wrong in its own right25 and Shariah courts are sometimes permitted to take place instead of ordinary judicial processes. Much needs to change, and it cannot all be blamed on historical issues: prejudice against LGBT folk is a result of poor moral thinking, not a result of poverty or conflict.

For tables, charts and commentary, see:

5. Peace Versus Instability

#extremism #human_development #peace #politics #religious_violence #Somalia #terrorism

Global Peace Index (2012)23
Pos.Lower is better23
1Iceland1.11
2New Zealand1.24
3Denmark1.24
...
150Central African Rep.2.87
151N. Korea2.93
152Russia2.94
153Congo, DR3.07
154Iraq3.19
155Sudan3.19
156Afghanistan3.25
157Somalia3.39
World Avg2.02
q=157.

"The 2012 Global Peace Index is the sixth edition of the world's leading study on global levels of peacefulness. The GPI ranks 158 nations using 23 qualitative and quantitative indicators from highly respected sources, which gauge three broad themes: the level of safety and security in society; the extent of domestic or international conflict; and the degree of militarisation. By generating new information on the state of peace at the national and global level, the Institute for Economics and Peace hopes to make a valuable contribution to better understanding how civil society, researchers, policymakers, and government can create a more peaceful society"23. The most peaceable countries in the world are Iceland, New Zealand and Denmark23 and the worst are Somalia, Afghanistan and Sudan23.

Impact of Terrorism (2019)26
Pos.Lower is better
Score26
1Togo0.00
2Mongolia0.00
3Swaziland0.00
...
142Philippines7.14
143Yemen7.26
144India7.52
145Somalia7.80
146Pakistan7.89
147Syria8.01
148Nigeria8.60
149Iraq9.24
World Avg2.78
q=150.

6. Religion and Beliefs

#belief #buddhism #christianity #god #hinduism #islam #judaism #religion #somalia

Disbelief In God (2007)27
Pos.Higher is better
%27
1Vietnam81
2Japan65
3Sweden64
...
84Guatemala1
85El Salvador1
86Panama1
87Somalia0
88Sri Lanka0
89Burundi0
90Burkina Faso0
91Brunei0
World Avg9.9
q=137.

Data from the Pew Forum, a professional polling outfit, states that in 2010 the religious makeup of this country was as follows in the table below28:

Christian0.1%
Muslim99%
Hindu0.1%
Buddhist0.1%
Folk Religion0.1%
Jew0.1%
Unaffiliated0.1%

The CIA World Factbook has slightly different data, and states: Sunni Muslim (Islam) (official, according to the Transitional Federal Charter)29.

Freedom of Religion and Belief: When it comes to religious freedom and persecution, sociologists Grim & Finke place Somalia into the worst category, along with just 13 other countries. In this category, severe restrictions on religious freedom and freedom of belief stem simultaneously from top-down pressure from government and institutionalized religion, and from bottom-up grassroots movements that often go even further than the government in harassing those who do not believe the right things (2011)30.

Links:

7. The Internet

#internet #Somalia #the_internet

Internet Users (2016)31
Pos.Higher is better31
1Iceland100%
2Faroe Islands99%
3Norway98%
...
194Myanmar (Burma)3%
195Sierra Leone2%
196Niger2%
197Guinea2%
198Somalia2%
199Burundi2%
200Timor-Leste (E. Timor)1%
201Eritrea1%
World Avg48.1%
q=201.

Internet access has become an essential research tool. It facilitates an endless list of life improvements, from the ability to network and socialize without constraint, to access to a seemingly infinite repository of technical and procedural information on pretty much any task. The universal availability of data has sped up industrial development and personal learning at the national and personal level. Individuals can read any topic they wish regardless of the locality of expert teachers, and, entire nations can develop their technology and understanding of the world simply because they are now exposed to advanced societies and moral discourses online. Like every communications medium, the Internet has issues and causes a small range of problems, but these are insignificant compared to the advantages of having an online populace.

8. Public Health Issues

#alcohol #genetics #health #obesity #public_health #smoking #sociology #Somalia #UK

Somalia does relatively well in encouraging good health, compared to many other countries. Somalia does the best in its alcohol consumption rate32. It does better than average in its smoking rate33 and in the prevalence of overweight adults34. Somalia does not succeed in everything, however. It does worse than average when it comes to its adolescent birth rate35. And finally, it sits amongst the bottom 20 for its immunizations take-up36 (amongst the lowest in Africa). The prevalence of overweight adults has increased by 14% during the past 40 years.

Alcohol Consumption (2016)32
Pos.Lower is better
Per Capita32
1Bangladesh0.0
2Kuwait0.0
3Libya0.0
4Mauritania0.0
5Somalia0.0
6Yemen0.1
7Afghanistan0.2
8Saudi Arabia0.2
9Syria0.3
10Pakistan0.3
11Kiribati0.4
12Iraq0.4
World Avg6.2
q=189.

There is nothing wrong with drinking modest and sensible amounts of alcohol but fitness, physical health, mental health and long-term health all suffer as a result of medium- or heavy- drinking37 and the health risks to the baby when pregnant mothers drink38 are well-known. Aside from the effects on the individual, alcohol misuse impacts on entire economies39 via increased health service costs, policing costs and lost days' work. Worldwide, alcohol misuse is "among the top five risk factors for disease, disability and death" and is a "cause of more than 200 disease and injury conditions in individuals, most notably alcohol dependence, liver cirrhosis, cancers and injuries"40. "In 2012... 5.9% of all global deaths, were attributable to alcohol consumption"41. Deaths from chronic alcohol misuse have been rising for decades, and so has violence, abuse, vandalism and crime all associated with alcohol over-use. The aggression and crime associated with alcohol in some Western countries infringes on the human rights of those who want nothing to do with such behaviour. Many of the social effects of alcohol are psychological and cultural; i.e., people don't have to behave criminally or destructively whilst drunk - it is a culturally learned behaviour. Experiments have shown that behaviour can be controlled: Those who do not wish to behave badly whilst drunk, will not do so.

Overweight Adults (2016)34
Pos.Lower is better
%34
1Vietnam18.3
2India19.7
3Bangladesh20.0
...
35Togo28.1
36Mali28.1
37Indonesia28.2
38Somalia28.4
39Senegal28.4
40Pakistan28.4
41Sudan28.9
42Nigeria28.9
World Avg49.0
q=191.

About one third of the global population is overweight or obese42. Most Western countries are facing an obesity epidemic. Our cultures are having to change to compensate for widespread ill-health. It is costing our health systems a massive amount of money, and is having negative effects on national economies. The situation has persisted for a suitable length of time for our very perceptions to change; opinions on "normal weights" for people and "average sizes" for clothes has shot up43. Over 2 in 3 adults in the UK are overweight43 and this costs the NHS £5.1 billion per year44 and "costs Britain's economy £47bn a year; more than war, terrorism or armed violence"45. We are forgetting how to be healthy.

The causes are not genetic. Most people who say obesity "runs in their family" are wrong. The rate of increase in obesity is many, many times too fast to be accounted for by a change in inherited genes46. Our culture and lifestyle choices are to blame. The causes of the modern obesity epidemic are processed foods, low levels of physical exercise, over-indulgence, poor choices in food products, poor knowledge of nutrition. Most of this is made much worse by well-funded advertising campaigns by food manufacturers selling cheaper mass-produced food. Even some so-called "health foods" contain well over recommended limits of fat, salt and sugar47.

Smoking Rates (2014)33
Pos.Lower is better33
1Guinea 15
2Solomon Islands 26
3Kiribati 28
...
25Eritrea 114
26Haiti 114
27Peru 116
28Somalia 117
29Ghana 121
30Benin 122
31Zimbabwe 134
32Mauritania 135
World Avg 819
q=182.

9. Children's Health

#health #parenting #population #Somalia #vaccines

Adolescent Birth Rate (2015)35
Pos.Lower is better
Per 100035
1N. Korea0.5
2S. Korea1.6
3Switzerland2.9
...
161Lesotho92.7
162Dominican Rep.97.9
163Gabon99.9
164Somalia103.9
165Cameroon104.6
166Burkina Faso108.5
167Equatorial Guinea108.7
168Liberia108.8
World Avg47.9
q=185.
Infant Immunizations 2011-2015 (2015)36
Pos.Higher is better
Avg %36
1Hungary99.0
2China99.0
3Uzbekistan98.9
...
187Syria62.4
188Ukraine55.2
189Chad52.5
190Nigeria50.0
191Central African Rep.49.4
192Somalia46.0
193S. Sudan45.7
194Equatorial Guinea36.8
World Avg88.3
q=194.

10. More Charts and Comparisons to Other Countries

Gross National Income Per-Capita (2011)15
Pos.Higher is better
PPP $15
1Qatar$129 916
2Singapore$78 162
3Kuwait$76 075
...
186Malawi$1 073
187Guinea$1 058
188Niger$0 889
189Burundi$0 691
190Liberia$0 683
191Congo, DR$0 680
192Central African Rep.$0 587
193Somalia$0 294
q=193.
IQ (2006)48
Pos.Higher is better48
1Hong Kong108
2Singapore108
3S. Korea106
...
122Nigeria69
123Chad68
124Burkina Faso68
125Somalia68
126Angola68
127Guinea67
128Liberia67
129Haiti67
q=138.

There isn't much information in the database for Somalia, most likely because it is either a part of another country (i.e., a territory or posession) and therefore most international statistics are counted for the country as a whole, or, this is such an exotic place that little data exists about it.