The Human Truth Foundation

Somalia

By Vexen Crabtree 2013


Comments:
FB, LJ

#somalia

Somalia
StatusIndependent State
Social and Moral Index197th best
CapitalMogadishu
Land Area 627 340km21
LocationAfrica
Population9.8m (2011)2
Life Expectancy55.71yrs (2017)3
GNI$0 294 (2017)4
ISO3166-1 CodesSO, SOM, 7065
Internet Domain.so6
CurrencyShilling (SOS)7
Telephone+2528

1. Overview

Britain withdrew from British Somaliland in 1960 to allow its protectorate to join with Italian Somaliland and form the new nation of Somalia. In 1969, a coup headed by Mohamed SIAD Barre ushered in an authoritarian socialist rule characterized by the persecution, jailing, and torture of political opponents and dissidents. After the regime's collapse early in 1991, Somalia descended into turmoil, factional fighting, and anarchy. In May 1991, northern clans declared an independent Republic of Somaliland that now includes the administrative regions of Awdal, Woqooyi Galbeed, Togdheer, Sanaag, and Sool. Although not recognized by any government, this entity has maintained a stable existence and continues efforts to establish a constitutional democracy, including holding municipal, parliamentary, and presidential elections. The regions of Bari, Nugaal, and northern Mudug comprise a neighboring semi-autonomous state of Puntland, which has been self-governing since 1998 but does not aim at independence; it has also made strides toward reconstructing a legitimate, representative government but has suffered some civil strife. Puntland disputes its border with Somaliland as it also claims portions of eastern Sool and Sanaag. Beginning in 1993, a two-year UN humanitarian effort (primarily in the south) was able to alleviate famine conditions, but when the UN withdrew in 1995, having suffered significant casualties, order still had not been restored. In 2000, the Somalia National Peace Conference (SNPC) held in Djibouti resulted in the formation of an interim government, known as the Transitional National Government (TNG). When the TNG failed to establish adequate security or governing institutions, the Government of Kenya, under the auspices of the Intergovernmental Authority on Development (IGAD), led a subsequent peace process that concluded in October 2004 with the election of Abdullahi YUSUF Ahmed as President of a second interim government, known as the Transitional Federal Government (TFG) of the Somali Republic. The TFG included a 275-member parliamentary body, known as the Transitional Federal Parliament (TFP). President YUSUF resigned late in 2008 while United Nations-sponsored talks between the TFG and the opposition Alliance for the Re-Liberation of Somalia (ARS) were underway in Djibouti. In January 2009, following the creation of a TFG-ARS unity government, Ethiopian military forces, which had entered Somalia in December 2006 to support the TFG in the face of advances by the opposition Islamic Courts Union (ICU), withdrew from the country. The TFP was doubled in size to 550 seats with the addition of 200 ARS and 75 civil society members of parliament. The expanded parliament elected Sheikh SHARIF Sheikh Ahmed, the former ICU and ARS chairman as president in January 2009. The creation of the TFG was based on the Transitional Federal Charter (TFC), which outlined a five-year mandate leading to the establishment of a new Somali constitution and a transition to a representative government following national elections. In 2009, the TFP amended the TFC to extend TFG's mandate until 2011 and in 2011 Somali principals agreed to institute political transition by August 2012. The transition process ended in September 2012 when clan elders appointed 275 members to a new parliament replacing the TFP and the subsequent election, by parliament, of a new president.

CIA's The World Factbook (2013)9

Book CoverA nation troubled and torn asunder, ... Somalia... may be set to emerge from decades of torment and trauma that brought it to international attention - most notably as a country beset by famine and militias - but like Puntland (a neighbouring, semi-autonomous state that has been self-governing since 1998), the haunt of pirates and smugglers, Mogadishu and parts thereabouts remain firm no-go zones for all Westerners. Yet the self-proclaimed Republic of Somaliland has risen from the ashes by restoring law and order within its boundaries.

"The World" by Lonely Planet (2014)10

2. Somalia National and Social Development

#economics #human_development

Gross National Income Per-Capita (2011)11
Pos.Higher is better
PPP $11
1Qatar$129 916
2Singapore$78 162
3Kuwait$76 075
...
186Malawi$1 073
187Guinea$1 058
188Niger$0 889
189Burundi$0 691
190Liberia$0 683
191Congo, DR$0 680
192Central African Rep.$0 587
193Somalia$0 294
World Avg$17 240
q=193.
Social & Moral
Development Index
12,13
Pos.Lower is better
Avg Rank12,13
1Denmark28.3
2Norway29.1
3Finland29.7
...
188Afghanistan130.8
189Chad131.3
190Central African Rep.131.5
191Iraq131.8
192Tuvalu132.3
193Angola134.2
194Somalia141.5
195S. Sudan142.8
World Avg86.9
q=195.

The Social and Moral Development Index concentrates on moral issues and human rights, violence, public health, equality, tolerance, freedom and effectiveness in climate change mitigation and environmentalism, and on some technological issues. A country scores higher for achieving well in those areas, and for sustaining that achievement in the long term. Those countries towards the top of this index can truly said to be setting good examples and leading humankind onwards into a bright, humane, and free future. See: Which are the Best Countries in the World? The Social and Moral Development Index.

3. Somalia's Demographics

#birth_control #demographics #health #immigration #life_expectancy #longevity #overpopulation #population

Population:

Somalia's population is predicted to rise to 16.36 million by 2030. These millions of extra people will all need space to live, food to eat, energy to consume, and will increase the burden on the planet's resources. This country has a fertility rate of 6.30. The fertility rate is, in simple terms, the average amount of children that each woman has. The higher the figure, the quicker the population is growing, although, to calculate the rate you also need to take into account morbidity, i.e., the rate at which people die. If people live healthy and long lives and morbidity is low, then, 2.0 approximates to the replacement rate, which would keep the population stable. If all countries had such a fertility rate, population growth would end. The actual replacement rate in most developed countries is around 2.1.

Population (2012)14
Pos.
Population14
1China1.4b
2India1.3b
3USA315.8m
...
84Dominican Rep.10.2m
85Hungary9.9m
86Serbia9.8m
87Somalia9.8m
88Belarus9.5m
89Sweden9.5m
90Azerbaijan9.4m
91Benin9.4m
World Avg36.0m
q=195.
Life Expectancy (2015)11
Pos.Higher is better
Years11
1Hong Kong84.16
2Japan83.68
3Italy83.34
...
177Burundi57.12
178S. Sudan56.13
179Cameroon55.96
180Somalia55.71
181Guinea-Bissau55.49
182Mozambique55.48
183Nigeria53.06
184Angola52.70
World Avg71.27
q=190.
Fertility Rate (2013)15
Pos.2.0 is best15
1N. Korea2.00
2Brunei1.99
3St Vincent & Grenadines2.01
...
173Uganda5.95
174Malawi5.98
175Timor-Leste (E. Timor)5.99
176Afghanistan6.03
177Mali6.16
178Zambia6.30
179Somalia6.30
180Niger6.96
World Avg2.81
q=180.
Old-Age Dependency Ratio (2016)16
Pos.Lower is better
Per 10016
1Uganda04.3
2Mali04.5
3Chad04.7
...
11Zimbabwe05.0
12Nigeria05.1
13Qatar05.1
14Somalia05.4
15Togo05.4
16Ivory Coast05.6
17Malawi05.6
18Senegal05.6
World Avg18.3
q=185.

Migration:

Immigrants (2010)17
Pos.
%17
1Qatar86.5%
2Monaco71.6%
3UAE70.0%
...
179Laos0.3%
180Egypt0.3%
181Iraq0.3%
182Somalia0.2%
183Colombia0.2%
184Madagascar0.2%
185Myanmar (Burma)0.2%
186N. Korea0.2%
World Avg9.2%
q=192.
Emigrants (2010)17
Pos.
%17
1Dominica104.8%
2Palestine68.4%
3Samoa67.3%
...
73Slovakia9.6%
74Morocco9.3%
75Sri Lanka9.1%
76Somalia8.7%
77Kuwait8.5%
78Ecuador8.3%
79Poland8.3%
80Afghanistan8.1%
World Avg11.5%
q=192.

4. Human Rights, Equality & Tolerance

#equality #freedom #human_rights #politics #somalia #tolerance

Somalia is amongst the very worst places in the world at ensuring any human rights and freedoms, and it has severe cultural issues when it comes to tolerance and equality. Somalia does worse than average in the year from which women could participate in democracy (still low for Africa) and in its nominal commitment to Human Rights18 (amongst the worst in Africa). And finally, it sits amongst the bottom 20 in commentary in Human Rights Watch reports19, eliminating modern slavery20 and in supporting press freedom21 (amongst the worst in Africa). "Somalia´s armed conflict, abuses by all warring parties, and a new humanitariancrisis [continues] to take a devastating toll on civilians22". The country has no moral anchor nor effective defenders of human rights; where protections exist, they are often part of the problem rather than a good solution; for example, sexual violence is classified as being against "honour" and "modesty" rather than being fundamentally wrong in its own right22 and Shariah courts are sometimes permitted to take place instead of ordinary judicial processes. Much needs to change, and it cannot all be blamed on historical issues: prejudice against LGBT folk is a result of poor moral thinking, not a result of poverty or conflict.

For tables, charts and commentary, see:

5. Somalia's Health

#alcohol #birth_control #demographics #health #life_expectancy #longevity #obesity #overpopulation #parenting #population #smoking #Somalia #vaccines

Health (2020)23,24
Pos.Lower is better
Avg Rank23,24
1Hong Kong18.0
2Singapore41.5
3Maldives43.3
...
155Haiti110.8
156Yemen111.4
157Congo, DR111.5
158Somalia111.7
159Niger111.9
160Sierra Leone112.1
161Liberia112.3
162Togo113.3
163Philippines113.5
World Avg92.3
q=187.

The countries with the best overall approach to public health, in terms of both public policy and individual lifestyle choices, are Hong Kong, Singapore and The Maldives23. These countries are worth emulating. And, although often through no fault of the average citizen, the worst countries are S. Sudan, Nigeria and Equatorial Guinea23.

The data sets used to calculate points for each country are its average life expectancy, its alcohol consumption rate, its fertility rate, its smoking rate, its suicide rate, its food aid and health contributions and WHO compliance, the prevalence of overweight adults, its adolescent birth rate and its immunizations take-up. The regions with the best average results per country are Scandinavia, Asia and Europe, whereas the worst are Africa, Micronesia and Polynesia.

Health:

Somalia is a pretty unhealthy country. Somalia does the best in terms of its alcohol consumption rate25. It does better than average in its smoking rate26. However Somalia performs less well in most areas. It does worse than average in its adolescent birth rate27. It sits amongst the bottom 20 in its average life expectancy11 and in its immunizations take-up28 (one of the lowest in Africa). And finally, it is second-from-the-bottom in its fertility rate15. The number of overweight adults has increased by 14% during the past 40 years.
Life Expectancy (2015)11
Pos.Higher is better
Years11
1Hong Kong84.16
2Japan83.68
3Italy83.34
...
177Burundi57.12
178S. Sudan56.13
179Cameroon55.96
180Somalia55.71
181Guinea-Bissau55.49
182Mozambique55.48
183Nigeria53.06
184Angola52.70
World Avg71.27
q=190.
Alcohol Consumption (2016)25
Pos.Lower is better
Per Capita25
1Bangladesh0.0
2Kuwait0.0
3Libya0.0
4Mauritania0.0
5Somalia0.0
6Yemen0.1
7Afghanistan0.2
8Saudi Arabia0.2
9Syria0.3
10Pakistan0.3
11Kiribati0.4
12Iraq0.4
World Avg6.2
q=189.
Fertility Rate (2013)15
Pos.2.0 is best15
1N. Korea2.00
2Brunei1.99
3St Vincent & Grenadines2.01
...
173Uganda5.95
174Malawi5.98
175Timor-Leste (E. Timor)5.99
176Afghanistan6.03
177Mali6.16
178Zambia6.30
179Somalia6.30
180Niger6.96
World Avg2.81
q=180.
Smoking Rates (2014)26
Pos.Higher is worse26
182Montenegro4 125
181Belarus3 831
180Lebanon3 023
...
31Zimbabwe 134
30Benin 122
29Ghana 121
28Somalia 117
27Peru 116
26Haiti 114
25Eritrea 114
24India 111
World Avg 819
q=182.
Overweight Adults (2016)29
Pos.Lower is better
%29
1Vietnam18.3
2India19.7
3Bangladesh20.0
...
35Togo28.1
36Mali28.1
37Indonesia28.2
38Somalia28.4
39Senegal28.4
40Pakistan28.4
41Sudan28.9
42Nigeria28.9
World Avg49.0
q=191.

Children's Health:

Adolescent Birth Rate (2015)27
Pos.Lower is better
Per 100027
1N. Korea0.5
2S. Korea1.6
3Switzerland2.9
...
161Lesotho92.7
162Dominican Rep.97.9
163Gabon99.9
164Somalia103.9
165Cameroon104.6
166Burkina Faso108.5
167Equatorial Guinea108.7
168Liberia108.8
World Avg47.9
q=185.
Infant Immunizations 2011-2015 (2015)28
Pos.Higher is better
Avg %28
1Hungary99.0
2China99.0
3Uzbekistan98.9
...
187Syria62.4
188Ukraine55.2
189Chad52.5
190Nigeria50.0
191Central African Rep.49.4
192Somalia46.0
193S. Sudan45.7
194Equatorial Guinea36.8
World Avg88.3
q=194.

6. Somalia's Modernity and Learning

#intelligence #the_internet

Modernity and Education:

IQ (2006)30
Pos.Higher is better30
1Hong Kong108
2Singapore108
3S. Korea106
...
122Nigeria69
123Chad68
124Burkina Faso68
125Somalia68
126Angola68
127Guinea67
128Liberia67
129Haiti67
World Avg85.6
q=138.

Technology and Information:

Internet Users (2016)31
Pos.Higher is better31
1Iceland100%
2Faroe Islands99%
3Norway98%
...
194Myanmar (Burma)3%
195Sierra Leone2%
196Niger2%
197Guinea2%
198Somalia2%
199Burundi2%
200Timor-Leste (E. Timor)1%
201Eritrea1%
World Avg48.1%
q=201.

7. National Culture

#corruption #happiness #politics

Corruption (2012-2016)32
Pos.Higher is better
Avg Score32
1Denmark90.8
2New Zealand90.6
3Finland89.4
...
169Turkmenistan18.2
170Libya16.8
171Iraq16.6
172S. Sudan13.8
173Sudan12.2
174Afghanistan10.8
175N. Korea08.8
176Somalia08.4
World Avg43.05
q=176.
Happiness (2018)33
Pos.Higher is better33
1Finland7.6
2Norway7.6
3Denmark7.6
...
95Vietnam5.1
96Indonesia5.1
97Bhutan5.1
98Somalia5.0
99Cameroon5.0
100Bulgaria4.9
101Nepal4.9
102Venezuela4.8
World Avg5.38
q=156.

8. Peace Versus Instability

#extremism #human_development #peace #politics #religious_violence #terrorism

Global Peace Index (2012)34
Pos.Lower is better34
1Iceland1.11
2New Zealand1.24
3Denmark1.24
...
150Central African Rep.2.87
151N. Korea2.93
152Russia2.94
153Congo, DR3.07
154Iraq3.19
155Sudan3.19
156Afghanistan3.25
157Somalia3.39
World Avg2.02
q=157.
Impact of Terrorism (2019)35
Pos.Lower is better
Score35
1Togo0.00
2Mongolia0.00
3Swaziland0.00
...
142Philippines7.14
143Yemen7.26
144India7.52
145Somalia7.80
146Pakistan7.89
147Syria8.01
148Nigeria8.60
149Iraq9.24
World Avg2.78
q=150.

9. The Natural Environment

#biodiversity #over-exploitation #the_environment

Forest Area Change 1990-2015 (2015)36
Pos.Higher is better
%36
1Iceland205.6
2Bahrain144.4
3Uruguay131.3
...
157Burkina Faso-21.9
158Argentina-22.1
159Cameroon-22.6
160Somalia-23.2
161Indonesia-23.2
162Kyrgyzstan-23.8
163Comoros-24.5
164Nepal-24.7
World Avg02.8
q=184.
Convention on Biological Diversity
Pos.Earlier is better
Signed
1China1993 Dec 29
2Guinea1993 Dec 29
3Cook Islands1993 Dec 29
...
190Timor-Leste (E. Timor)2007 Jan 08
191Brunei2008 Jul 27
192Iraq2009 Oct 26
193Somalia2009 Dec 10
194Palestine2015 Apr 02
195Andorra2015 May 05
196USA
197Vatican City
World Avg1899 Dec 30
q=197.

10. Religion and Beliefs

#belief #buddhism #christianity #god #hinduism #islam #judaism #religion #somalia

Disbelief In God (2007)37
Pos.Higher is better
%37
1Vietnam81
2Japan65
3Sweden64
...
84Guatemala1
85El Salvador1
86Panama1
87Somalia0
88Sri Lanka0
89Burundi0
90Burkina Faso0
91Brunei0
World Avg9.9
q=137.

Data from the Pew Forum, a professional polling outfit, states that in 2010 the religious makeup of this country was as follows in the table below38:

Christian0.1%
Muslim99%
Hindu0.1%
Buddhist0.1%
Folk Religion0.1%
Jew0.1%
Unaffiliated0.1%

The CIA World Factbook has slightly different data, and states: Sunni Muslim (Islam) (official, according to the Transitional Federal Charter)39.

Freedom of Religion and Belief: When it comes to religious freedom and persecution, sociologists Grim & Finke place Somalia into the worst category, along with just 13 other countries. In this category, severe restrictions on religious freedom and freedom of belief stem simultaneously from top-down pressure from government and institutionalized religion, and from bottom-up grassroots movements that often go even further than the government in harassing those who do not believe the right things (2011)40.

Links: