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The Overpopulation of the Earth

By Vexen Crabtree 2013

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#demographics #education #life #population

Between 1970 and 2011, world population increased from 3.6 billion to 7 billion.

United Nations (2013)1

Since 1930 the world's population has risen from 2 billion to over 7 billion now. Food production and infrastructure is not keeping up, and the world's population explosion is still accelerating. We are not going to be saved by luck or by miracle - "demographic changes are much more certain than many other long-term predictions" writes one sociologist2. Rather than leaving the future to blind runaway population growth, things can be done - the United Nations reports that, in particular, improved education (especially, women's education) brings down uncontrolled growth3. This accelerating overpopulation of planet Earth is not progressing uniformly. Some developed countries even have contracting populations (and others are on the verge of doing so). What happens when an increasingly overpopulated poor world becomes increasingly contrasted against a rich, ageing, shrinking world? Migration and population control are required to keep the peace.


1. Overpopulation

#population

1.1. The Increasing Population of the Earth

#UK

Source: United Nations (2017)4

Our species' population rose to 1 billion around 1830, and one hundred years later, it had doubled. Since then, since 1930, the rate of increase has been phenomenal and we are now at over 7.1 billion. "Before the 20th century, no human had lived through a doubling of the human population, but there are people alive today who have seen it triple"5. Note the massive difference between industrialized countries and developing countries. The scales are very, very imbalanced.

Population Matters (formerly called the Optimum Population Trust) statistics on the UK population, and United Nations reports on the massive increase of world population, inform us that:

By 2031 [...] our population will have risen by 10 per cent to almost 66 million - nearly six million more - while calculations by the Optimum Population Trust suggest that at current rates there will be 10 million more Britons, equivalent to nearly one and a half Londons, by 2050. The UN, meanwhile, says global population will increase from 6.5 billion to 9.1 billion by mid-century.

The Independent (2005)6

From 1960 the total population of the Earth more than doubled, from 3024 million in 1960 to 6465 million in 20057. Every decade, the rate of increase has increased. The growth of the Human population on the Earth is still accelerating. Faster and faster growth, a population explosion, continues. In Global Trends, Michael J. Mazarr writes that "only after 2020 might annual additions to world population begin to decline"8. The population will continue to increase for hundreds of years, but, there are signs that in the future the rate of increase will start slowing down.

1.2. The Effects of Overpopulation9

Our ability to manage our rising population is not keeping pace with the rise in our numbers. There are many negative sides to population growth, already witnessed throughout the world in history. How many resources does it take to feed, water, shelter and educate 200,000 people? That's how much our population grows every day. As long as this rate continues, all of the following problems continue to get worse:

For a breakdown of these points, see: The Effects of Overpopulation.

1.3. Should People Be Sterilized After 3 Children?19

#UK

Given the current overpopulation of the Earth, anyone who has three children should be sterilized. The world is massively overpopulated, the UK is one of the worst places in Europe for that. Sterilisation aids population control, and it helps useless welfare families keep themselves a little less of a drain on the economy. When it comes to fertility, the "replacement rate" of children per woman is two point something, depending on generation and area of living, therefore, the limit to the number of children should be three. The only way to have more children, if parents wish, should be to adopt one from an even-more overpopulated country, therefore slightly balancing the demographic scales without adding yet more people to the mix.

There are those that complain about human-rights and free-will issues and state that how many children we have is a free choice that should be, in a democracy, guaranteed.

But there are limits on all freedoms. In any democracy, people are not free to endanger and undermine the future of other people. Or at least, that's the idea, and such moral obligations are present in many circumstances and are sometimes translated into legal obligations. Continued human population growth will continue to harm all people, the whole planet, in a gradually increasingly severe manner. The more people there are, the greater the problems due to overpopulation, including degradation of everyone's quality of life. It is a human-rights and free-will issue: we are not free to harm others, and, that means, we should not be free to have as many children as we like. This is the moral issue. But as most people have continued to have too many children, it must eventually become a legal issue. Sterilisation is one of the very few ways to effectively protect future generations from the poor choices of the current generation.

1.4. Misguided Fears and Counter-Arguments20

Given the number of warnings about population, spanning history now for 4,000 years, is it time that we forgot our fears, and learned to concentrate on symptoms one at a time? Are concerns about overpopulation misguided?

But one can also draw a different conclusion - that fixating on population numbers is not the best way to confront the future. People packed into slums need help, but the problem that needs solving is poverty and lack of infrastructure, not overpopulation. Giving every woman access to family planning services is a good idea - 'the one strategy that can make the biggest difference to women's lives' [says Shailaja Chandra].

Robert Kunzig (2011)21

Despite the fact that family planning services is population control, there are arguments that we will simply, somehow, manage to cope with our ever-increasing population. These are:

  1. We produce enough food, but the problem is with distribution. We will find ways of distributing food more evenly and fairly.

  2. We will find ways to increase food productivity.

  3. Poverty is the real issue, and economic boosts will overcome most problems to do with overpopulation.

  4. There is plenty of room left on the planet.

  5. God will provide a solution, as It told us to go forth and multiply in the first place.

  6. Waste disposal, burial grounds, water supplies, raw resources and other material supplies can all be stretched further and further due to continued gains in efficiency and as results from scientific breakthroughs.

But all of these ideas have shortcomings. In the same order:

  1. Campaigners for sustainable food production often point out that the globalisation of food is one of the biggest causes of increased resource usage (i.e., transport and fuel costs) and, health campaigners point out that adding salt and preservatives to food (to make it last during transport) is one of the biggest causes of pandemic health problems. Local food production means healthier food and less strain on the planet and becomes more and more important the more our populations grow.

  2. Overexploitation of soil and the mass conversion of forested land for agriculture has caused the degradation of ecosystems, resulting in massive drops in soil quality. As a result, soil erosion and increased flooding (both caused from lack of trees) has devastated crop production in many countries, especially in those places where overpopulation led to soil overexploitation. Our efforts to increase food production are often at the expense of long-term production viability. The most advanced countries and the biggest staple agricultural producers have not managed to increase overall crop production for decades, leading some to conclude that efficiency ceilings are already being reached. Not only that, but stocks of food in forests and the oceans have dwindled and many fish species are no so endangered that they cannot be fished. Food production has peaked in some areas, and is falling in others due to overexploitation, so it is hard to imagine that production gains can continually be made.

  3. Unfortunately, increasing poverty increases resource usage, and puts additional burdens on the planet. The best way to reduce poverty is to keep families small, and to prevent overpopulation. The poorest countries are already the most overpopulated ones. Maintaining a sensible population is the easiest way to equalize the distribution of wealth and prevent goods (and food) from becoming too expensive for the poor. The more people there are, the more expensive food is, and the more the poor suffer. Poverty reduction needs to go hand in hand with population control.

  4. All fertile land is being used for produce already, and, all sensible places to live have been taken. Expansion of housing on to flood plains and areas of natural disaster have led to increasingly serious damages to lives and livelihoods as a results of floods, volcanoes and earthquakes. All housing expansions are now at a cost to nature, and it is upon nature that we rely for food production and environmental health.

  5. Given the record of divine natural disasters and divinely endorsed cataclysms, this seems to be an unlikely appeal.

  6. In nearly all causes, these methods result in higher costs and worse quality of life. Cemeteries and burial grounds are filling up and all waste requires space and expense to process. Some gains will be made, but, increasingly expensive research is now needing to be spent on this. It is better to control population and allow research to go into matters that increase quality of life rather than going into dealing with the side-effects of overpopulation. Prevention is better than cure, especially when the improvements to efficiency are increasingly small and increasingly expensive.

1.5. Birth Control20

#philippines

Few people doubt the severity of the problem that overpopulation presents for this planet. Its consequences are poverty, famine, disease and death, sometimes on very large scales. Minor problems include overcrowding, strained infrastructure and social instability. By facilitating contraception and women's medical services we enable family planning. "Allowing women to plan their pregnancies also leads to healthier outcomes for children. A recent study showed that if all births were spaced at least two years apart, the number of deaths among children younger than five would decline by 13%. The number would decline by 25% if there were a three-year gap between births"22. Making birth control accessible to all is a moral requirement for anyone who has the power to help. It is inconsistent, for example, to say that contraception and abortion is "murder" whilst ignoring the fact that poverty and overpopulation are far bigger killers.

Aside from population control, "the health benefits of contraceptive use are substantial. Contraceptives prevent unintended pregnancies, reduce the number of abortions, and lower the incidence of death and disability related to complications of pregnancy and childbirth"22. The numbers of abortions that are prevented by contraception is staggering. A Guttmacher Institute report on the developing world predicts that "in 2012, use of modern contraceptives in the developing world will prevent 218 million unintended pregnancies, which, in turn, will avert 55 million unplanned births, 138 million abortions (40 million of them unsafe), 25 million miscarriages and 118,000 maternal deaths. It will also prevent an estimated 1.1 million neonatal deaths (those within 28 days of birth) and 700,000 postneonatal infant deaths (those from 28 days to one year of age)"22. Condoms help prevent the spread of disease - their effect is strong enough that long-term use by a community can gradually eradicate strains of sexually transmitted diseases from the community. Venereal disease causes unimaginable suffering and can affect the purely innocent. Babies are frequently infected with the diseases of the parents; in this way, the prevention of disease with contraception is vital because once women in a local area are infected with a disease, children will also be directly infected. In the case of incurable diseases, such an event can lead to unsurmountable suffering. Such a terrible state of affairs is prevented by the correct use of contraceptives such as condoms. The number of women with unmet needs for contraception in the developing world is still increasing - between 2008 and 2012 the figure rose from 153 million to 162 million22. Those 69 countries are the ones that are least able to support growing populations.

Some of the religious traditions have presented recurring obstacles to open discussion of certain kinds of birth control at UN population conferences. These religious groups are associated largely with Islam, Roman Catholicism, and evangelical Christianity.

"Religion and Ecology"
Mary Evelyn Tucker (2011)23

Religious opposition to abortion, birth control and contraception: Despite the practical necessity of birth control, the benefits of disease prevention, the moral responsibility we have towards the future of our children and the responsibility we have with regards to the stewardship of our planet, many religions have opposed birth control for various superstitious reasons. On the other side of the fence, it is worth knowing that all of the pioneers of contraception were freethinkers24,25 (that is, people who are opposed to the influence of organized religion on people´s opinions and beliefs). Why have religions determined to prevent family planning? The answer is in a kind of survival of the fittest amongst religions themselves. As most religious people simply abide by the religion of their parents26, religions that encourage parents to have more children will attain a stronger and longer-lasting base of adherents. Barber (2011) notes that religions promote fertility by encouraging marriage at a much earlier age than amongst the non-religious27.

Bearing this out is Catholicism, which has an infamously strict suite of dogmas that forbid all kinds of birth control. The Roman Catholic Church is the most notable, powerful and active organisation that lobbies against birth-control wherever it can, internationally. Thankfully Most Catholics routinely ignore the Church on this issue, especially in educated and developed countries, but there are still plenty of fast-growing countries where the Catholic Church is still prospering the old-fashioned way. It took the government of the Philippines 13 years to force through legislation to allow government-funded contraception and for sex education in schools because of the strength of the opposition of the Catholic Church there - in a country where 11 women die of pregnancy-related problems every day. The Catholic Church "ferociously" opposed it, warning of moral and social collapse, the destruction of family life, and divine wrath, if it was passed. The bill is considered "a major step toward reducing maternal deaths and promoting family planning in the impoverished country, which has one of Asia's fastest-growing populations. [...] The United Nations said early this year that the bill would help reduce an alarming number of pregnancy-related deaths, prevent life-threatening abortions and slow the spread of AIDS"28.

The page contents of "Abortion, Birth Control and Contraception: How Religion is Making Overpopulation Worse" by Vexen Crabtree (2013) is:

2. Which Countries are Most Populated, and Which Have the Highest Fertility Rates?29

Highest Fertility Rates (2013)30
Pos.2.0 is best30
180Niger6.96
179Somalia6.30
178Zambia6.30
177Mali6.16
176Afghanistan6.03
175Timor-Leste (E. Timor)5.99
174Malawi5.98
173Uganda5.95
172Chad5.79
171Burkina Faso5.77
170Congo, DR5.54
169Tanzania5.51
168Nigeria5.45
167Rwanda5.30
166Angola5.19
165Benin5.12
164Liberia5.08
163Guinea5.08
162Equatorial Guinea5.02
161Yemen4.98
q=180.
Population (2012)31
Pos.The Overpopulation of the Earth31
1China1.4b
2India1.3b
3USA315.8m
4Indonesia244.8m
5Brazil198.4m
6Pakistan180.0m
7Nigeria166.6m
8Bangladesh152.4m
9Russia142.7m
10Japan126.4m
11Mexico116.1m
12Philippines96.5m
13Vietnam89.7m
14Ethiopia86.5m
15Egypt84.0m
16Germany82.0m
17Iran75.6m
18Turkey74.5m
19Thailand69.9m
20Congo, DR69.6m
q=195.

The fertility rate is, in simple terms, the average amount of children that each woman has. The higher the figure, the quicker the population is growing, although, to calculate the rate you also need to take into account morbidity, i.e., the rate at which people die. If people live healthy and long lives and morbidity is low, then, 2.0 approximates to the replacement rate, which would keep the population stable. If all countries had such a fertility rate, population growth would end. The actual replacement rate in most developed countries is around 2.1.

3. Longevity

#longevity #population

3.1. The Demographics Crises (The Increase in Life Expectancy is Raising the Old Age Dependency Ratio)

#economics #germany #hong_kong #italy #japan #longevity #pensions #population #portugal

Throughout Human history, grandparents have been vastly outnumbered by the young. Now, some countries are entering a new era of wisened human demographics where the balance in reversed: A mixture of increasing longevity and better medical care means that the numbers of those in old-age (65+) are increasing32. Japan had been ahead of the trend for a great while; it is followed by Italy, Germany, Portugal and Hong Kong33. The old-age dependency ratio is the division of old-age numbers by those of working age (15-64); 12 countries have a ratio of over 4 to 10. Over the last few decades it has been having a major impact on several social services: Pensions, housing, health services and social structures are struggling to cope. In the case of pensions, the whole system is threatening to fail as it becomes impossibly expensive. In coming generations, our ideas of work, retirement, socialisation and education will have to change.

There are two answers: Prevent runaway population growth as is still the case in most countries (such growth delays the problem, but makes it worse in the end), and, spread out the young through open labour markets - immigration increases tax revenues to pay for services for the old, and, also provides the answer to the labour shortage that threatens aging countries - Japan's impressive automation robots are slow to develop and expensive. No doubt, the true economic solutions to such complicated problems have not yet been found.

"The Demographics Crises (The Increase in Life Expectancy is Raising the Old Age Dependency Ratio)" by Vexen Crabtree (2017)

3.2. The Genetic Part of Longevity

Book CoverThat genes play an important role in longevity has been demonstrated on many fronts. Family studies, for example, show that the male siblings of centenarians are seventeen times more likely than other men born around the same time to live to one hundred. Female siblings are eight times as likely to do so. One theory holds that the reason is that people who reach extreme old age have genetic variations throughout their genome that slow the basic mechanisms of aging and result in a decreased susceptibility to age-associated diseases. This theory is supported by the finding that throughout life the children of centenarians are significantly healthier than the children of people who die at an average age.

"Babies by Design: The Ethics of Genetic Choice" by Ronald M. Green (2007)34

3.3. Why Do We Age?

[Dr Sweeney] points out that attempts to understand aging in terms of evolution may fail because natural selection doesn't operate during the postreproductive years. The diseases and morbidity of aging may be accidental results of other biological processes - what Sweeney calls nature's "neglect" or "lack of forethought" for a time of life no longer under selective pressure.

"Babies by Design: The Ethics of Genetic Choice" by Ronald M. Green (2007)34

Not all of the effects of ageing are a simple case of biological senescence. Some is cultural; it seems that we learn how to decline during old age. Take the cultures of the far East where age is given a higher amount of authority; the effects of old age in those countries is different.

Older adults in China, where positive images of aging prevail and the memory decline commonly observed in Western countries [...]

"Social Psychology" by David Myers (1999)35

3.4. Progress in Longevity

Book CoverAlthough both preventive medicine and direct intervention can be effective in thwarting disease, prevention is generally less aversive and less expensive. It can also be more effective. Many people are surprised to learn that relatively little of the improvement in health and longevity during the last two hundred years is due to drug and surgical treatment of sick individuals. Most of the gain is attributable to various preventive measures such as improved sewage disposal, water purification, the pasteurization of milk, and improved diets. In fact, our greater longevity is mainly due to our increased chances of surviving childhood, chances increased by these very preventive measures and by the introduction of vaccines for the infectious diseases of youth. The life expectancy of those who make it to adulthood has not changed much during the last hundred years. The life expectancy of a 45-year-old man in the nineteenth century was roughly 70 years, a figure not much different from that of today.

"How We Know What Isn't So: The Fallibility of Human Reason in Everyday Life" by Thomas Gilovich (1991)36

3.5. Setbacks to Long Life

#USA

3.6. Sociological Data on Life Expectancy Versus Religion38

#china #christianity #islam #japan #USA

Christians are not the only ones who once claimed that longevity amongst believers was a sign that their religion was true - although we have seen that Muslim proponents have not made that claim. The author of "Zen - The Religion of the Samurai" (1913), Kaiten Nukariya, states quite confidently that "history proves that most Zen masters enjoyed a long life in spite of their extremely simple mode of living"39, and also explains the long-lasting influence of Zen in China and Japan and elsewhere. Although it is hard to examine claims that are made for history so long ago, we can look at the world now and see if people's religions affects their long-term health. Unfortunately, the results do not come out favourably for the religious.

Scattergraph of longevity and religiosity by country

Source: Gallup (2009) and UNHDR (2011)40

Only countries that are still very religious have low life expectancy of below 65, and, all countries that have lost religion, or are losing it, have great life expectancy (over 65). There are only two countries that have a religiosity rate over 60% who have life expectancy of over 80yrs. The USA typically skews statistics like this, as it is the only highly developed country with high numbers of people who consider religion to be important in their lives (65%), and, also suffers from relatively seriously health problems compared to other rich countries. But it isn't enough of an outlayer to buck the trend. On average those who are born in countries that are not very religious enjoy 10 years longer life. Of all the countries that have life expectancy of over 80 years at birth, their average religiosity rate is merely 41.7%. Some statistics in some countries (USA show that religious people in those countries have better health than their neighbours, however, it seems if the religious increase in numbers too much, national life expectancy will tend to be found to be much lower. In other words, mass-religiosity is bad news for longevity. As general medical science and advanced technology is tied in with good health as well as lack of poverty, there are a multitude of reasons as to why religion might be negatively correlated with long life. The only sure thing is that when the author of Proverbs 9:10-11 and 10:27 said that God-fearing folk live longer, he hadn't anticipated the rise of mass secularisation!

4. Conclusions

#japan #russia

The fantastic population explosion that the Earth is experiencing is uneven. The developed world is gradually experiencing a reduction in growth, leading to an actual decline in population. The result is that even as the West grows old, much of the world becomes more and more overpopulated. As a result the increase in the amount of retired people, and the decrease in workers paying into pensions schemes, all pensions schemes are already starting to collapse. Also, most industries rely on young adult immigrants as the local workforces are becoming increasingly scarce. Our economy and future depends on pulling increasingly greater numbers of workers from countries that are not yet entering the post-explosion era.

Developed countries must maintain strong armies to protect themselves from the rumblings of unrest in the overpopulated countries, and to protect such unstable countries from each other, and we must also keep a continual watch over the developing nations in order to aid them past the population-explosion stages in their history. To think that there is no problem or to ignore it is to invite the demise of civilised Western society under a tide of economic collapses brought on by overpopulation and civil chaos. At the end of the day, if there is no solution to wars and overpopulation, may the most advanced countries survive!

Thankfully, there are signs that things can be encouraged to turn out ok. Although poorer countries are rising in populations at an increasing rate whilst developed ones are beginning to verge on shrinking, people are escaping from poverty at a hopeful rate.

In the world as a whole, a stunning 135m people escaped dire poverty between 1999 and 2004. This is more than the population of Japan or Russia - and more people, more quickly than at any other time in history. [...] In 2007 UNICEF, the United Nations child-welfare body, said that for the first time in modern history fewer than 10m children were dying each year before the age of five [-] a fall of a quarter since 1990. [...] Perhaps the biggest change affecting people's lives has little to do, at least directly, with development policy or public spending. People in poor countries are now able to exert more control over their own fertility, and hence over the size of their families.

The Economist (2008)41

Despite the practical necessity of birth control and disease prevention, the moral responsibility we have towards (a) the future of our children and (b) our stewardship of the planet, many religions have opposed birth control for various superstitious reasons.

"Abortion, Birth Control and Contraception: How Religion is Making Overpopulation Worse" by Vexen Crabtree (2013)

Contraceptives and sex education are two key tools in the eradication of grassroots poverty. Another is the way in which developing countries sometimes leapfrog decades of technological development. For example in Africa, the adoption of mobile phones means that Africa has not needed to build a telecoms infrastructure, and wireless technologies may mean it doesn't have to build one in the future, either. But gadgets derived from science will not result in an easy cure for massive overpopulation; it must always go hand in hand with sex education and contraceptives to control fertility rates. Unfortunately for Africa, growing Christian fundamentalism and Islamisation of the continent has meant that religious forces are now threatening the basics of sex education42; both competing groups argue against many of the findings of modern science. It seems that the developing world is plagued by two of Humanities' worst enemies: ignorance of sex education, and superstition. If these forces overwhelm the educators, then the cultural war I warned about above between the haves and have-nots of the world, is again on the agenda despite the fact that at the moment fertility controls are reducing poverty.

Current edition: 2013 Sep 12
Last Modified: 2017 May 04
Originally published 2006 Aug 07
http://www.humantruth.info/population.html
Parent page: The Human Truth Foundation

All #tags used on this page - click for more:

#china #christianity #demographics #economics #education #germany #hong_kong #islam #italy #japan #life #longevity #pensions #philippines #population #portugal #russia #UK #USA

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References: (What's this?)

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The Bible (NIV). The NIV is the best translation for accuracy whilst maintaining readability. Multiple authors, a compendium of multiple previously published books. I prefer to take quotes from the NIV but where I quote the Bible en masse I must quote from the KJV because it is not copyrighted, whilst the NIV is. Book Review.

The Economist. Published by The Economist Group, Ltd. A weekly newspaper in magazine format, famed for its accuracy, wide scope and intelligent content. See vexen.co.uk/references.html#Economist for some commentary on this source..

National Geographic. Magazine. Published by National Geographic Society, Washington, DC, USA.

New Scientist. Magazine. Published by Reed Business Information Ltd, London, UK. UK based weekly science news paper (not subject to scientific peer-review though).

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(2009) Environmental Changes: Global Challenges. Published by The Open University, Milton Keynes, UK. Set book for Open University course U316 The Environmental Web.

Clarke, Peter B.. Peter B. Clarke: Professor Emeritus of the History and Sociology of Religion, King's College, University of London, and currently Professor in the Faculty of Theology, University of Oxford, UK.
(2011) The Oxford Handbook of The Sociology of Religion. Paperback book. Originally published 2009. Current version published by Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK.

Crabtree, Vexen
(2013) "Abortion, Birth Control and Contraception: How Religion is Making Overpopulation Worse" (2013). Accessed 2017 Dec 30.

Donnelly, Jack
(2013) Universal Human Rights in Theory and Practice. 3rd edition. Published by Cornell University Press.

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Green, Ronald M.
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Footnotes

  1. UN (2013) p6. Added to this page on 2015 Mar 21.^
  2. Jones (2010) p5.^
  3. UN (2013) p6-7. Added to this page on 2015 Mar 23.^
  4. UN (2017) chapter 1 "Human development - achievements, challenges and hopes" .^
  5. National Geographic (2011 Jan) article "Seven Billion" by Robert Kunzig.^^
  6. The Independent (2005 Jun 20) article by David Nicholson Lord, Research Associate with the Optimum Population Trust.^
  7. Eurostat (2007).^
  8. Mazarr p30-31.^
  9. Added to this page on 2013 Sep 05.^
  10. Brandon, Clark & Widdowson (2009) chapter 1 .^
  11. Silverton, Wood, Dodd & Ridge (2008) chapter 3 "Threats to Ecosystems and Biodiversity" p51.^
  12. Silverton, Wood, Dodd & Ridge (2008) chapter 3 "Threats to Ecosystems and Biodiversity" p52.^
  13. New Scientist (2009 May 16) p28-29 article by David Attenborough . David Attenborough is a veteran TV naturalist and academic.^
  14. Prof. Chris Rapley in The Observer, 2007 Jul 22 article "Science chief: cut birthrate to save Earth", at URL observer.guardian.co.uk/[...]2132089,00.html accessed 2007 Jul 24.^
  15. Donnelly (2013) chapter 4 "Equal Concern and Respect" p64 . Violating article 12 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights.^
  16. Eurostat (2007) .^
  17. Mazarr p31-32.^
  18. Ministry of Defence (UK) (2010) p12.^
  19. Added to this page on 2013 Sep 03.^
  20. Added to this page on 2013 Sep 12.^^
  21. National Geographic (2011 Jan) article "Seven Billion" p63 by Robert Kunzig.^
  22. Singh S and Darroch JE, Adding It Up: Costs and Benefits of Contraceptive Services - Estimates for 2012, New York, USA, published by the Guttmacher Institute and United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) (2012). Summarized on the guttmacher.org article "Costs and Benefits of Investing in Contraceptive Services in the Developing World". Accessed and added to this page on 2015 Feb 22.^
  23. Tucker (2011) p830.^
  24. Russell (1957) p57-58 (plus editor's comment).^
  25. Mottier (2008) digital location 943-47: "The prominent American birth control campaigner (and eugenicist) Margaret Sanger, founder of the American Birth Control League in 1921, had long called for the development of a pharmaceutical birth control product, meeting up with scientists in 1950 to explore possibilities. Sanger joined forces with the philanthropist Katherine McCormick, who funded the majority of the scientific research and development of the Pill, and from 1960 the modern contraceptive pill, invented by Karl Djerassi, became available to the wider public in the Western world.".^
  26. "What Causes Religion and Superstitions?" by Vexen Crabtree (2013)^
  27. Barber, Nigel Ph.D. (2011) article in Psychology Today (2011 Jul 14).^
  28. National Secular Society news article "Catholic Church fails to stop Philippines contraception bill" (2012 Dec 18). Accessed 2013 Oct 19. Added to this page 2013 Oct 23.^
  29. Added to this page on 2013 Sep 02.^
  30. UN (2013) Table 14. Births per woman (2012), expressed as deviance (positive or negative) from the value of 2.0.^
  31. UN (2013) Table 14.^
  32. Hughes, Gordon & Fergusson, Ross (2004) p122.^
  33. UN (2017) Dashboard 2.^
  34. Green (2007) p113.^^
  35. Myers (1999) p51.^
  36. Gilovich (1991) p138.^
  37. The Economist (2008 Oct 11) article "Africa: There is hope" .^
  38. The scattergraph has been updated from 2002 to 2009/2011 data and the associated text rewritten.^
  39. Nukariya (1913) digital location 110-111 Introduction pages. Kindle edition.^
  40. Gallup (2009) on gallup.com/poll/142727/.... The survey question was "Is religion an important part of your daily life?" and results are charted for those who said "yes". 1000 adults was polled in 114 countries. Life Expectancy statistics come from the United Nations' Human Development Report (2011).^
  41. The Economist (2008 Jan 26) article "The world's silver lining". Added to this page on 2008 Apr 03.^
  42. "Abortion, Birth Control and Contraception: How Religion is Making Overpopulation Worse" by Vexen Crabtree (2013)^

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