The Human Truth Foundation

Australia (Commonwealth of Australia)

By Vexen Crabtree 2013

#australia

Australia
Commonwealth of Australia
StatusIndependent State
Social and Moral Index16th best
CapitalCanberra
Land Area7 682 300km21
LocationAustralasia
Population24.9m2
Life Expectancy82.54yrs (2017)3
GNI$42 822 (2017)4
ISO3166-1 CodesAU, AUS, 365
Internet Domain.au6
CurrencyDollar (AUD)7
Telephone+618

1. Overview

Prehistoric settlers arrived on the continent from Southeast Asia at least 40,000 years before the first Europeans began exploration in the 17th century. No formal territorial claims were made until 1770, when Capt. James COOK took possession of the east coast in the name of Great Britain (all of Australia was claimed as British territory in 1829 with the creation of the colony of Western Australia). Six colonies were created in the late 18th and 19th centuries; they federated and became the Commonwealth of Australia in 1901. The new country took advantage of its natural resources to rapidly develop agricultural and manufacturing industries and to make a major contribution to the Allied effort in World Wars I and II. In recent decades, Australia has become an internationally competitive, advanced market economy due in large part to economic reforms adopted in the 1980s and its location in one of the fastest growing regions of the world economy. Long-term concerns include ageing of the population, pressure on infrastructure, and environmental issues such as floods, droughts, and bushfires. Australia is the driest inhabited continent on earth, making it particularly vulnerable to the challenges of climate change. Australia is home to 10 per cent of the world's biodiversity, and a great number of its flora and fauna exist nowhere else in the world. In January 2013, Australia assumed a nonpermanent seat on the UN Security Council for the 2013-14 term.

CIA's The World Factbook (2013)9

Book CoverAustralia - the sixth-largest country on this lonely planet - is dazzlingly diverse: a sing-along medley of mountains, deserts, reefs, forests, beaches and multicultural melting-pot cities. Most Australians live along the coast, and most of these folks live in cities. In fact, Australia is the 18th-most urbanised country in the world. Sydney is a glamorous collusion of beaches, boutiques and bars. Melbourne is all arts, alleyways and Australian Rules football. Brisbane is a subtropical town on the way up; Adelaide has festive grace and pubby poise. Boomtown Perth breathes west-coast optimism; Canberra transcends political agendas. And the tropical northern frontier town of Darwin and chilly southern sandstone city of Hobart couldn´t be more different. [...] Australia's national parks and secluded corners are custommade for camping trips down the dirt road.

"The World" by Lonely Planet (2014)10

2. Australia National and Social Development

#economics #human_development

UN HDI (2016)11
Pos.Lower is better
Rank11
1Norway1
2Australia2
3Switzerland2
4Germany4
5Denmark5
6Singapore5
7Netherlands7
8Ireland8
9Iceland9
10Canada10
11USA10
12Hong Kong12
World Avg94.3
q=188.
Gross National Income Per-Capita (2011)12
Pos.Higher is better
PPP $12
1Qatar$129 916
2Singapore$78 162
3Kuwait$76 075
...
18Denmark$44 519
19Ireland$43 798
20Austria$43 609
21Australia$42 822
22Canada$42 582
23Belgium$41 243
24Finland$38 868
25France$38 085
World Avg$17 240
q=193.
Social & Moral
Development Index
13,14
Pos.Lower is better
Avg Rank13,14
1Taiwan30.2
2Denmark30.5
3Norway30.9
...
13Iceland39.6
14Japan39.8
15UK39.8
16Australia41.1
17Spain42.2
18Ireland42.9
19Belgium43.5
20France44.0
World Avg86.4
q=195.

The United Nations produces an annual Human Development Report which includes the Human Development Index. The factors taken into account include life expectancy, education and schooling and Gross National Income (GNI) amongst many others..

The Social and Moral Development Index concentrates on moral issues and human rights, violence, public health, equality, tolerance, freedom and effectiveness in climate change mitigation and environmentalism, and on some technological issues. A country scores higher for achieving well in those areas, and for sustaining that achievement in the long term. Those countries towards the top of this index can truly said to be setting good examples and leading humankind onwards into a bright, humane, and free future. See: Which are the Best Countries in the World? The Social and Moral Development Index.

3. Australia's Demographics

#birth_control #demographics #health #immigration #life_expectancy #longevity #migration #overpopulation #population

Population:

Australia's population is predicted to rise to 27.77 million by 2030. This rise is despite a low fertility rate, meaning, that this country is helping to alleviate problems with growing population in neighbouring countries by accepting immigrants, very likely as a requirement of maintaining an active workforce. This country has a fertility rate of 1.96. The fertility rate is, in simple terms, the average amount of children that each woman has. The higher the figure, the quicker the population is growing, although, to calculate the rate you also need to take into account morbidity, i.e., the rate at which people die. If people live healthy and long lives and morbidity is low, then, 2.0 approximates to the replacement rate, which would keep the population stable. If all countries had such a fertility rate, population growth would end. The actual replacement rate in most developed countries is around 2.1.

Population (2018)2
Pos.
Population2
1China1.4b
2India1.4b
3USA327.1m
...
52N. Korea25.5m
53Cameroon25.2m
54Ivory Coast25.1m
55Australia24.9m
56Niger22.4m
57Sri Lanka21.2m
58Burkina Faso19.8m
59Romania19.5m
World Avg39.0m
q=195.
Life Expectancy (2015)12
Pos.Higher is better
Years12
1Hong Kong84.16
2Japan83.68
3Italy83.34
4Singapore83.21
5Switzerland83.13
6Spain82.77
7Iceland82.72
8Israel82.56
9Australia82.54
10France82.36
11Sweden82.35
12Canada82.22
World Avg71.27
q=190.
Fertility Rate (2013)15
Pos.2.0 is best15
1N. Korea2.00
2Brunei1.99
3St Vincent & Grenadines2.01
4France1.99
5Turkey2.04
6Australia1.96
7Uruguay2.05
8Norway1.95
9Myanmar (Burma)1.95
10Indonesia2.07
11Sweden1.93
12Tunisia1.93
World Avg2.81
q=180.
Old-Age Dependency Ratio (2016)16
Pos.Lower is better
Per 10016
1Uganda04.3
2Mali04.5
3Chad04.7
...
142Montenegro30.0
143Belarus30.3
144Ukraine30.8
145Australia31.3
146Slovakia31.6
147Albania31.8
148Norway32.2
149Iceland32.5
World Avg18.3
q=185.

Migration:

Immigrants (2017)17
Pos.
%17
1UAE88.4%
2Kuwait75.5%
3Qatar65.2%
...
14Nauru32.7%
15Lebanon31.9%
16Switzerland29.6%
17Australia28.8%
18Antigua & Barbuda28.1%
19Brunei25.3%
20Israel23.6%
21Palau23.0%
World Avg9.4%
q=195.
Emigrants (2010)18
Pos.
%18
1Dominica104.8%
2Palestine68.4%
3Samoa67.3%
...
152Uganda2.2%
153Sudan2.2%
154Chad2.1%
155Australia2.1%
156Serbia2.0%
157Venezuela1.8%
158S. Africa1.7%
159Iran1.7%
World Avg11.5%
q=192.

4. Human Rights, Equality & Tolerance

#Australia #equality #freedom #human_rights #politics #tolerance

When it comes to ensuring human rights and freedom, Australia leads the world, setting excellent examples. Australia comes in the best 20 in supporting personal, civil & economic freedoms19 (amongst the best in Australasia), its success in fighting anti-semitic prejudice20 (one of the best in Australasia) and in its nominal commitment to Human Rights21 (one of the best in Australasia). And finally, it does better than average in opposing gender inequality22 (the lowest in Australasia), LGBT equality23 (one of the best in Australasia), supporting press freedom24 (amongst the best in Australasia), commentary in Human Rights Watch reports25 (one of the best in Australasia) and in speed of uptake of HR treaties26 (the best in Australasia). In 2017 Australia granted equality under marriage law to LGBT folk27.

For tables, charts and commentary, see:

5. Australia's Health

#alcohol #Australia #birth_control #demographics #health #life_expectancy #longevity #mental_health #obesity #overpopulation #parenting #population #smoking #suicide #vaccines

Health (2020)28,29
Pos.Lower is better
Avg Rank28,29
1Hong Kong18.0
2Singapore41.5
3Maldives43.3
...
64St Lucia84.4
65Solomon Islands84.7
66Turkmenistan85.1
67Australia85.3
68Estonia85.3
69Turkey85.6
70Tajikistan86.4
71Guyana86.5
72Nicaragua86.8
World Avg92.3
q=187.

The countries with the best overall approach to public health, in terms of both public policy and individual lifestyle choices, are Hong Kong, Singapore and The Maldives28. These countries are worth emulating. And, although often through no fault of the average citizen, the worst countries are S. Sudan, Nigeria and Equatorial Guinea28.

The data sets used to calculate points for each country are its average life expectancy, its alcohol consumption rate, its fertility rate, its smoking rate, its suicide rate, its food aid and health contributions and WHO compliance, the prevalence of overweight adults, its adolescent birth rate and its immunizations take-up. The regions with the best average results per country are Scandinavia, Asia and Europe28, whereas the worst are Africa, Micronesia and Polynesia28.

Health:

Australia does relatively well in encouraging good health, compared to many other countries. Australia comes in the best 20 in terms of its average life expectancy12 (the best in Australasia) and in its food aid and health contributions and WHO compliance30 (the lowest in Australasia). It does better than average in its suicide rate31 (the lowest in Australasia), its adolescent birth rate22 (the best in Australasia) and in its fertility rate15 (the best in Australasia). Australia does not succeed in everything, however. It does worse than average in terms of its immunizations take-up32, its smoking rate33 (the highest in Australasia) and in its alcohol consumption rate34 (one of the worst in Australasia). The prevalence of overweight adults has increased by 14% during the last 40 years.
Life Expectancy (2015)12
Pos.Higher is better
Years12
1Hong Kong84.16
2Japan83.68
3Italy83.34
4Singapore83.21
5Switzerland83.13
6Spain82.77
7Iceland82.72
8Israel82.56
9Australia82.54
10France82.36
11Sweden82.35
12Canada82.22
World Avg71.27
q=190.
Alcohol Consumption (2016)34
Pos.Lower is better
Per Capita34
1Bangladesh0.0
2Kuwait0.0
3Libya0.0
...
154Greece10.4
155Denmark10.4
156Cook Islands10.6
157Australia10.6
158New Zealand10.7
159Finland10.7
160Uruguay10.8
161Cyprus10.8
World Avg6.2
q=189.
Fertility Rate (2013)15
Pos.2.0 is best15
1N. Korea2.00
2Brunei1.99
3St Vincent & Grenadines2.01
4France1.99
5Turkey2.04
6Australia1.96
7Uruguay2.05
8Norway1.95
9Myanmar (Burma)1.95
10Indonesia2.07
11Sweden1.93
12Tunisia1.93
World Avg2.81
q=180.
Smoking Rates (2014)33
Pos.Higher is worse33
182Montenegro4 125
181Belarus3 831
180Lebanon3 023
...
121France 993
120Bahrain 969
119Mongolia 957
118Australia 956
117Ireland 954
116Chile 930
115Turkmenistan 92535
114Thailand 895
World Avg 819
q=182.
Suicide Rate (2013)31
Pos.
Per 100k31
1Haiti0
2Grenada0
3Egypt0.1
...
41Spain15.3
42Argentina15.6
43Thailand15.8
44Australia16.4
45El Salvador16.5
46Kyrgyzstan17.7
47Netherlands18.6
48Luxembourg19.3
World Avg20.93
q=91.
Food Aid, Health Contributions & WHO Compliance (2017)30
Pos.Lower is better
Rank30
1Sweden1
2Ireland2
3Denmark3
...
10USA10
11Luxembourg11
12Finland12
13Australia13
14UAE14
15Saudi Arabia15
16Belgium16
17New Zealand17
World Avg82.0
q=163.
Overweight Adults (2016)36
Pos.Lower is better
%36
1Vietnam18.3
2India19.7
3Bangladesh20.0
...
164Canada64.1
165Israel64.3
166Bahamas64.4
167Australia64.5
168Iraq64.6
169Mexico64.9
170New Zealand65.6
171Bahrain65.8
World Avg49.0
q=191.

Children's Health:

Adolescent Birth Rate (2015)22
Pos.Lower is better
Per 100022
1N. Korea0.5
2S. Korea1.6
3Switzerland2.9
...
44Bahrain13.5
45Malaysia13.6
46Latvia13.6
47Australia14.1
48UK14.6
49Sri Lanka14.8
50Micronesia15.0
51Tonga15.2
World Avg47.9
q=185.
Infant Immunizations 2011-2015 (2015)32
Pos.Higher is better
Avg %32
1Hungary99.0
2China99.0
3Uzbekistan98.9
...
105Vietnam92.3
106Denmark92.3
107Azerbaijan92.2
108Australia92.1
109Barbados92.1
110Ghana91.7
111Lesotho91.7
112Malawi91.7
World Avg88.3
q=194.

6. Australia's Modernity and Learning

#education #english #intelligence #it_security #maths #modernity #politics #research #science #technology #the_internet

Modernity and Learning (2020)37
Pos.Lower is better
Avg Rank37
1Finland8.0
2Belgium9.1
3Denmark10.0
4Sweden13.3
5Australia14.8
6Switzerland14.9
7Estonia14.9
8Czechia15.5
9New Zealand15.6
10UK15.8
11Ireland16.4
12Norway16.6
13Germany17.1
World Avg69.0
q=180.

Modernity and Education:

Research and Development (2016)
Pos.Higher is better
% RDP PPP
1S. Korea4.2938
2Israel4.1138
3Japan3.5838
...
12Belgium2.4638
13Slovenia2.3938
14France2.2638
15Australia2.2539
16Singapore2.0040
17Czechia2.0038
18Netherlands1.9738
19Iceland1.8938
World Avg0.84
q=126.
Secondary Education (2018)41
Pos.Higher is better41
1Luxembourg100.0%
2Estonia100.0%
3Austria100.0%
...
36Belarus92.2%
37Marshall Islands92.1%
38Montenegro91.6%
39Australia90.4%
40Romania90.0%
41Botswana90.0%
42Serbia89.5%
43Denmark89.3%
World Avg63.0%
q=169.
Length of Schooling (2018)42
Pos.Higher is better
Years42
1Australia22.1
2Belgium19.7
3Finland19.3
4Iceland19.2
5Denmark19.1
6New Zealand18.8
7Sweden18.8
8Ireland18.8
9Norway18.1
10Netherlands18.0
11Spain17.9
12Argentina17.6
World Avg13.2
q=193.
Intellectual Endeavours (2017)30
Pos.Lower is better
Rank30
1Ukraine1
2Czechia2
3Hungary3
...
17Sweden17
18Lithuania18
19Macedonia19
20Australia20
21Germany21
22Grenada22
23Poland23
24France24
World Avg82.0
q=163.
Maths, Science & Reading (2015)43
Pos.Higher is better
Score43
1Singapore1655
2Hong Kong1598
3Japan1586
...
19Poland1511
20Belgium1508
21Vietnam1507
22Australia1507
23UK1499
24Portugal1491
25France1487
26Sweden1487
World Avg1389
q=70.
IQ (2006)44
Pos.Higher is better44
1Hong Kong108
2Singapore108
3S. Korea106
...
24Czechia98
25Spain98
26France98
27Australia98
28Denmark98
29USA98
30Latvia98
31Hungary98
World Avg85.6
q=138.

Technology and Information:

Internet Users (2016)45
Pos.Higher is better45
1Iceland100%
2Faroe Islands99%
3Norway98%
...
26Switzerland87%
27France86%
28S. Korea86%
29Australia85%
30Bahamas85%
31Puerto Rico83%
32Singapore83%
33Slovakia83%
World Avg48.1%
q=201.
Freedom On The Internet (2012)46
Pos.Lower is better46
1Estonia10
2USA12
3Germany15
4Australia18
5Hungary19
6Philippines23
7Italy23
8UK25
9S. Africa26
10Argentina26
11Ukraine27
12Brazil27
World Avg46.7
q=47.
IT Security (2013)47
Pos.Lower is better47
1Ireland0.11
2Luxembourg0.11
3Belize0.11
...
21Poland0.55
22Switzerland0.55
23S. Korea0.56
24Australia0.63
25Libya0.63
26Qatar0.65
27Chile0.66
28Guinea-Bissau0.67
World Avg0.98
q=81.
IPv6 Uptake (2017)48
Pos.Higher is better
Ratio48
1Belgium55.4
2Germany41.8
3Switzerland35.1
...
16Estonia17.6
17Malaysia16.5
18Norway14.7
19Australia14.6
20Trinidad & Tobago14.5
21Finland14.1
22Brazil13.9
23Netherlands10.5
World Avg3.82
q=176.

7. National Culture

#charity #corruption #happiness #morals #politics

Personal Charitability
(World Position, 2013-2016)
49
Pos.Lower is better49
1Myanmar (Burma)1.25
2USA1.5
3New Zealand3.5
4Canada3.75
5Australia5.25
6UK6.75
7Ireland6.75
8Sri Lanka8
9Qatar9
10Trinidad & Tobago10
11Netherlands10
12UAE12
World Avg68.1185897435897
q=156.
Corruption (2012-2016)50
Pos.Higher is better
Avg Score50
1Denmark90.8
2New Zealand90.6
3Finland89.4
...
8Netherlands83.4
9Canada82.2
10Luxembourg81.6
11Australia80.8
12Germany79.6
13Iceland79.2
14UK78.0
15Belgium76.0
World Avg43.05
q=176.
Happiness (2018)51
Pos.Higher is better51
1Finland7.6
2Norway7.6
3Denmark7.6
...
7Canada7.3
8New Zealand7.3
9Sweden7.3
10Australia7.3
11Israel7.2
12Austria7.1
13Costa Rica7.1
14Ireland7.0
World Avg5.38
q=156.
Creativity and Culture (2017)30
Pos.Lower is better
Rank30
1Belgium1
2Netherlands2
3Estonia3
...
45Japan45
46Moldova46
47Greece47
48Australia48
49Seychelles49
50Grenada50
51Chile51
52Bahamas52
World Avg82.0
q=163.
Open Trading, Aid and Development (2017)30
Pos.Lower is better
Rank30
1Ireland1
2Denmark2
3Sweden3
...
99Israel99
100Argentina100
101Seychelles101
102Australia102
103Madagascar103
104Dominica104
105Iceland105
106Bolivia106
World Avg82.0
q=163.

8. Peace Versus Instability

#extremism #human_development #peace #politics #religious_violence #terrorism

Global Peace Index (2012)52
Pos.Lower is better52
1Iceland1.11
2New Zealand1.24
3Denmark1.24
...
19Bhutan1.48
20Malaysia1.49
21Mauritius1.49
22Australia1.49
23Singapore1.52
24Poland1.52
25Spain1.55
26Slovakia1.59
World Avg2.02
q=157.
Peacekeeping and Security (2017)30
Pos.Lower is better
Rank30
1Samoa1
2S. Africa2
3Tunisia3
...
51Norway51
52Finland52
53France53
54Australia54
55Italy55
56Mauritius56
57Zambia57
58Romania58
World Avg82.0
q=163.
Refugees and UN Treaties (2017)30
Pos.Lower is better
Rank30
1Austria1
2Germany2
3Netherlands3
4Sweden4
5Malta5
6Australia6
7Norway7
8Finland8
9Denmark9
10Switzerland10
11Canada11
12UK12
World Avg82.0
q=163.
Impact of Terrorism (2019)53
Pos.Lower is better
Score53
1Togo0.00
2Mongolia0.00
3Swaziland0.00
...
77Malaysia2.50
78Brazil2.53
79Ivory Coast2.60
80Australia2.65
81Congo, (Brazzaville)2.69
82Ireland2.69
83Zimbabwe2.83
84Peru2.84
World Avg2.78
q=150.

9. The Natural Environment

#biodiversity #climate_change #over-exploitation #the_environment

Forest Area Change 1990-2015 (2015)54
Pos.Higher is better
%54
1Iceland205.6
2Bahrain144.4
3Uruguay131.3
...
112Sierra Leone-02.4
113Trinidad & Tobago-02.6
114Jamaica-02.7
115Australia-02.9
116Kazakhstan-03.3
117S. Korea-03.9
118Sao Tome & Principe-04.3
119Bangladesh-04.4
World Avg02.8
q=184.
Environmental Performance (2018)55
Pos.Higher is better55
1Switzerland87.4
2France84.0
3Denmark81.6
...
18Netherlands75.5
19Israel75.0
20Japan74.7
21Australia74.1
22Greece73.6
23Taiwan72.8
24Cyprus72.6
25Canada72.2
World Avg56.4
q=180.
Energy to GDP Efficiency (2014)56
Pos.Higher is better56
1Hong Kong26.32
2Sri Lanka20.00
3Panama17.86
...
64Guatemala08.47
65India08.40
66Cameroon08.33
67Australia08.20
68UAE08.13
69Jamaica08.06
70Senegal08.06
71Malaysia08.00
World Avg09.29
q=119.
Convention on Biological Diversity
Pos.Earlier is better
Signed
1China1993 Dec 29
2Guinea1993 Dec 29
3Cook Islands1993 Dec 29
...
26Tunisia1993 Dec 29
27Norway1993 Dec 29
28Zambia1993 Dec 29
29Australia1993 Dec 29
30Peru1993 Dec 29
31Philippines1994 Jan 06
32Uruguay1994 Feb 03
33Nauru1994 Feb 08
World Avg1899 Dec 30
q=197.
Rational Beliefs on the Environment (2011)57
Pos.Higher is better
%57
1Argentina78.3%
2Greece77.6%
3Brazil77.1%
...
86Bulgaria32.5%
87Kyrgyzstan32.0%
88Georgia31.9%
89Australia31.8%
90Austria31.8%
91Azerbaijan31.7%
92Guinea31.2%
93Slovakia31.1%
World Avg39.9%
q=145.

10. Economic Inequality and Poverty

#capitalism #economics #health #inequality #life_expectancy #social_development

Inequality in Life Expectancy (2019)58
Pos.Higher is worse58
184Chad40.90
183Central African Rep.40.10
182Sierra Leone39.00
...
28Germany3.80
27France3.80
26Austria3.70
25Australia3.70
24Denmark3.60
23Cyprus3.60
22Montenegro3.60
21Estonia3.60
World Avg14.59
q=184.
Income Inequality (Gini Coefficient) (2017)59
Pos.Lower is better
%59
1Ukraine25.0
2Belarus25.4
3Slovenia25.4
...
62Portugal35.5
63Macedonia35.6
64India35.7
65Australia35.8
66Mauritius35.8
67Romania35.9
68Gambia35.9
69Greece36.0
World Avg38.1
q=152.

11. Religion and Beliefs

#afterlife #belief #buddhism #christianity #god #heaven #hell #hinduism #islam #judaism #religion #universalism

Disbelief In God (2007)60
Pos.Higher is better
%60
1Vietnam81
2Japan65
3Sweden64
...
17S. Korea30
18Finland28
19Russia27
20Australia25
21Taiwan24
22New Zealand22
23Canada22
24Latvia20
World Avg9.9
q=137.

Data from the Pew Forum, a professional polling outfit, states that in 2010 the religious makeup of this country was as follows in the table below61:

Christian67.3%
Muslim2.4%
Hindu1.4%
Buddhist2.7%
Folk Religion0.7%
Jew0.5%
Unaffiliated24.2%

The CIA World Factbook has slightly different data, and states: Protestant 27.4% (Anglican 18.7%, Uniting Church 5.7%, Presbyterian and Reformed 3%), Catholic 25.8%, Eastern Orthodox 2.7%, other Christian 7.9%, Buddhist 2.1%, Muslim 1.7%, other 2.4%, unspecified 11.3%, none 18.7% (2006 Census)62.

The Afterlife: Ipsos-NA in 2011 gathered some statistics on Australia63. Despite the large numbers of Christians, not many have traditional beliefs in the afterlife - just 13%. More people don't know what to believe (30%). Some believe that upon death, you simply cease to exist (24%). Also, 2% specifically believe in heaven but not in hell (which is nice - making them possible "universalists"). 9% believe in reincarnation.

Links:

12. Christian Child Abuse in Australia64

#australia

There has been a lot of historical abuse of children by individual Christian clergy over previous decades, but also, systematic abuse of children by Christian institutions in Australia. Well after the revelations of the Catholic Church's horrendous activities in Australia in the 1930s to 1960s, continued cases have come to light. So many that in 2008 July, Pope Benedict XVI has himself gone to Australia to apologize for the behaviour of his priesthood there. The Christian Brothers institute saw multiple complaints between 1919 and the 1960s, and a report finds that one of the boys who reported the abuse was physically beaten for it - "the physical abuse at the institutions contributed to a culture where boys were reluctant to report abuse for fear of consequences" and the institution moved 'Brothers' from one place to another when accusations surfaced, but did not attempt to deal with the abuse and then when it all went to concern, they were mostly concerned with avoiding financial costs65.

More cases have emerged amongst Priests from various denominations. Australian Catholic Priest Brian Joseph Spillane finds himself accused of seemingly endless abuses of teens and pre-teens in various circumstances (i.e., in the confessional box and at a Catholic boarding school), between 1971 and 1990. The Salvation Army in Australia is another Christian organisation that has fostered sexual abusers - "boys who attempted to report abuse were punished or accused of lying" according to the Royal Commission66. In another case, a Pastor from a (non-Catholic) Protestant church was caught out in the 1990s. The RCC in Australia, in order to limit further damage, has drawn up guidelines to prevent further abuse. "Roman Catholic bishops have sought to ban their priests from having any private contact with children. Guidelines drawn up with the approval of the Vatican mean that confessionals have to be fitted with glass viewing panels. Priests are also banned from seeing any child alone with the door closed"67.

[ + More on Cases in Australia + ]

Some news excerpts:

Australia's Roman Catholic Church publicly apologised on Thursday to British and Maltese child migrants who suffered abuse including rape, whippings and slave labour in religious institutions. [...] Some children were told that were going on a holiday. [...] Two church bodies said the programme, in which more than 1,000 British and 310 Maltese children were sent to Australian Catholic schools between the late 1930s and 1960s, resulted in "suffering and dislocation". Many children were raped, whipped, stripped of their names and forced to scramble for food thrown on the floor. Some children were also made to do hard labour, including construction work, at some schools.

The inquiry found that migrant children were subjected to systematic abuse in religious schools in Australia, New Zealand and other countries.

"Australian Church apologises to child migrants" (BBC News, 2001)

MOLESTING girls in the confessional box and raping hypnotised boys was part of a pattern of "rampant pedophilia" by a former priest accused of sexually assaulting youngsters, a Sydney court has been told. Brian Joseph Spillane, a former chaplain at St Stanislaus College in Bathurst, [...] has been charged with an additional 29 counts of indecently assaulting 11 males and females, bringing the total number of charges against the former priest to 146. [...] Ms Walker said Mr Spillane sexually assaulted both boys and girls between 1971 and 1990 during his time at both St Stanislaus boys' school in NSW's central west and St Anthony's parish at Marsfield, in Sydney's north. [...] Mr Spillane is accused of serious offences including anal intercourse and group rape at the Bathurst boarding school, Ms Walker said. Teachers at St Stanislaus "hypnotised boys for the purpose of having sexual intercourse with them'', she told the court.

The Australian (2009 Sep 01)

A pastor from a South Australian fundamentalist church has been jailed for eight-and-a-half years after admitting he had sex with two of his teenage daughters [...and] pleaded guilty to seven counts each of incest and unlawful sexual intercourse. The court heard that the man had sex with his daughters for nearly a decade in the 1990s at the family property. The man later told the court he had sex with the girls to "educate" them on how to be good wives - not for his own gratification.

"Fundamentalist Christian pastor jailed for child abuse & incest" (2007 Aug 30)

After further evidence of abuse and cover-ups in Australia was revealed in 2018, criticism of the Pope for failing to provide meaningful leadership in his organisation on this issue resurfaced, so he finally summoned over 100 of the most senior Bishops to the Vatican to discuss it68.